Sociology Exam 2 Study Guide
Sociology Exam 2 Study Guide Soc 100-001
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by AlliSlaten on Saturday March 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Soc 100-001 at Colorado State University taught by John R Brouillette in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see General Sociology in Sociology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 03/05/16
SOC100 Study Guide #2 Chapters 4-6 NOTE: The following is not meant to be a comprehensive review, but rather it highlights several topics/ concepts you should be familiar with. Read the vignette at the beginning of each chapter. Also review the clicker questions; especially those that I spent some time discussing. Ch. 4 Social Interaction in Everyday Life Social status and role Social Status- a social position that a person occupies Role- a behavior expected of someone who holds a particular status Role conflict/role strain Role strains- occurs when incompatible role demands are expected of a single person, with in one status Role conflict- occurs when incompatible role demands are placed one person by two or more statuses held at the same time— conflict between the two statuses Achieved and ascribed statuses Achieved- the part of the status that you achieve (job, religion) Ascribed- part of your status that you cannot change (race, gender) Status set/role set Status set- an array of social position Role set- a set of roles associated with a single status Master status Master status- the statuses that stick out or mean more than others Construction of reality—ethnomethodology—breaking the rules Ethnomethodology- the study of the way people make sense of their everyday surroundings Breaking the rules- a study that one can do by breaking noms and seeing how people react Dramaturgical analysis—front state/backstage Dramaturgical analysis- the study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performances Front/ Back stage- we have stages in which certain people are not invited in to. There fore there are parts of us that we hide from certain people Other concepts/issues—personal space, the social stare, impression management, civil inattention, function of humor, touching,. Personal space- example during class with the male/ male, male/female, female/female walking towards each other. We tend to feel more comfortable with the same sex. Impression management- how do I want to show myself to the public? Civil inattention- seeing something and pretending you did not Humor- often is a sign of real conflict and is a way to express opinions without being serious and relieves tension Ch. 5 Groups and Organizations Primary and secondary groups/relationships—characteristics of each? Primary- usually is long lasting with no goal or an end is wanted. Generally you participate in many activities with this person and there is something meaningful about the relationship. Secondary- goal oriented and is usually short term. Generally are using this person as a mean to an end or a goal. The trend away from primary to secondary relationships—consequences We are losing the value of primary relationships and tend to use others as a mean to an end instead of valuing them Max Weber’s characteristics of bureaucracies Specialization of duties, hierarchy of offices, rules and regulations, technical competence, impersonality, formal/ written communications Potential problems with bureaucracy (Hint: Refer to power point slide on this topic) Bureaucratic alienation, inefficiency, ritualism, inertia, time orientation The consequences of moving to the efficient society with its time pressures/stress We are not taking the time to value what we should. Video: Carl Honore, In Praise of Slowness In the TED talk, he talked about how he didn’t realize the value of reading books to his child. We are creating a society that is faster and not taking the time to value certain things. He stressed the idea of taking the time to realize what is important and slow down to take those moments in. Concepts: Parkinson’s Law, Peter Principle Parkinson’s Law- works to expand to fill up time available for its completion. ex. if you have a month to do something, most wait until the last minute. Peter Principle- Individuals tend to rise to their levels of incompetence. Everyone should be demoted 1 level and things would run more smoothly. ex. a second grade teacher being promoted to principle. The McDonaldization of society Non fast food organizations mimicking the organization and principles of McDonalds. 4 traits- efficiency(get as much done as quickly as possible), predictability(know what you’re getting), Uniformity(standardized products) ,Automation(machines are more efficient than humans, so the more you can do with machines the better) Major difference between a typical U.S. and a Japanese organization The major difference was they went from putting out bad products to good products. They did this by using a more holistic involvement. Ensuring that primary relationships are more significant. collective decision making is used and there are broad based training in all phases of operation. They tend to have lifetime employment instead of moving around. Ch. 6 Sexuality and Society Why is sexuality on interest to sociologists? Because sexuality is learned not a biological thing. They wanna know how society is influencing sexuality. Purposes of sexual activity; consequences of each purpose? Having children- made women a tool Satisfying your husband- double standard toward females Pleasure- sex outside of marriage wasn’t acceptable Recreational activity- lost its value Major issues surrounding sexuality today Premarital sex- having sex before marriage Extramarital sex- having sexual relations outside of your marriage partner Teen pregnancy- highest rate among high income countries, Sex education- when should it be taught in schools, or if it should be taught in schools at all Abortion- The deliberate termination of a pregnancy and it is a women’t right to choose Sexual violence andAbuse- a culture of rape Possible constraints on the sexual revolution of the 60’s Started the feminist movement and lead to women being used and abused. The outbreak of HIV-Aids Sociological perspectives on sexuality Functionalist- looks at how sexual activity can be used to maintain a stable society. What function does sexual activity serve? Interactionist Conflict Feminist- inequalities between men and women Queer- inequalities between those who are straight and those who aren’t ICLICKER QUESTIONS - Question- Large mega- churches often have several thousand members. This illustrates which principle of McDonaldization? - Answer- Efﬁciency - Question- When do you think sex education should be taught? Answer- 70% said middle school • - Question- Do you believer there is too much emphasis on sex in tv and movies? • Answer- 66% said yes - Question- How do you feel about a man and women having sexual relations before marriage? - Answer- 55% said not wrong at all - Question- How do you feel about extramarital sex? • Answer- 59% said always wrong, 13% said not wrong at all or wrong only sometimes SUMMARIES OF THE VIGNETTES Chapter 4- Harold and Sybil are driving around looking for a certain street. They have been lost and seem to be going in a circle. Sybil suggests asking for directions and that makes Harold angrier. Neither of them understand the others’ decision. Sybil would have asked someone for directions and Harold thinks he is better off ﬁnding the street himself. This is because men want to assert their independence and asking for directions is the same as saying you know something I don’t. Women want connectedness and don’t mind the social bonds that are created while asking for help. This creates conﬂict because neither one of them understands the others’ decision. Chapter 5- This vignette is about the McDonald brothers. The invented “fast food” which was delivering food as quickly as possible for cheap and to a lot of people. They soon opened up many stores world wide with the help of a salesman named Ray Kroc. They are so successful because of their efﬁcient system and have become one of the greatest success stories. Chapter 6- Three girls are walking in the hallway at school talking about one of them hanging out with a boy after school. They are hinting at sexual activity. Sociologist Peter Bearman and 2 others conducted a study that shows the connection between the sexually active students in a town and the spread of STDs. They found that there is a connection between the young adults that are sexually active and the rapid spread of STDs.
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