INTRO LIFE SPAN DEV
INTRO LIFE SPAN DEV CHFD 2200
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Mr. Camilla Green
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Mr. Camilla Green
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Child and Family Studies
This 96 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mr. Camilla Green on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CHFD 2200 at University of Georgia taught by Landers-Pott in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 91 views. For similar materials see /class/202592/chfd-2200-university-of-georgia in Child and Family Studies at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
1122009 111700 AM Exploring Lifespan Development a pattern of change involving growth and decline o Human development is interdisciplinary 0 Ex Biology History Psychology Sociology Anthropology and Neuroscience o The Field of Human Development 0 Scientificresearch based 0 Applied Developmental changes are a result of biological cognitive and socioemotional processes o Biological 9 physical o Cognitive 9 patterns of thinking how complexly we think o Socioemotional 9 interactions with others in society o All are interlinked and interrelated Many forces influence development c Sociocultural amp environmental contexts 0 Culture ethnicity socioeconomic status gender familyparenting health and wellbeing education 0 Ex Raising children in Africa compared to United States o Historical circumstances 0 Historical contexts amp life events affect human development 0 Ex Women s rights sexual revolution 911 o Life events or unusual circumstances impacting on the specific individual Characteristics of the Lifespan Perspective o Development is o 1 Multidimensional 9 affected by different blend of biological psychological and social forces 0 2 Lifelong 9 physical cognitive and emotionalsocial o 3 Multidirectiona 9 growth stability and decline in all stages of life Ex Developing one skill 9 giving up refining of other skills 0 4 Highly plastic 0 5 In uenced by multiple interacting forces Agegraded influences 9 events strongly related to age and therefore fairly predictable in when they occur and how long they last a Ex Walking after first birthday Historygraded influences 9 why people born around same time cohorts tend to be alike Nonnormative influences 9 irregular events that happen to one or few people and do not follow predictable timetable Period of Development o Prenatal 9 conception to birth o Infancy ampToddlerhood 9 birth to 2 years c Early Childhood 9 2 to 6 years c Middle Childhood 9 6 to 11 years c Adolescence o Early Adulthood o Middle Adulthood o Late Adulthood Is Chronological Age Becoming Less Important o Chronological age 9 number of years since birth o Biological age 9 age in terms of physical health o Psychological age 9 adaptive capacity compared with others of the same chronological age o Social age 9 social roles and expectations relative to chronological age Theory an orderly integrated set of statements that describes explains and predicts behavior o Theories Differ in Understanding Human Development as o 1 Continuous or Discontinuous Continuous 9 quantitative change no qualitative change no stages n Ex child s perception much like adult s perception child doesn t have as much information or precision Discontinuous 9 qualitative change stages or steps into different stages n Children have unique ways of thinking feeling and behaving from adults o Ex Piaget n Contexts 9 unique combinations of personal and environmental circumstances that can result in different paths of change o Ex Shy vs outgoing people 0 2 Stable or Plastic Stability 9 change unlikely importance of nature a Ex IQ tests Plasticity 9 change is possible or likely importance of nurture o 3 More Influence from Nature to Nurture Nature 9 inborn biological givens based on genes Nurture 9 physical amp social environment Current thinking 9 nature amp nurture are interactive n Nature can influence nurture a Nurture can influence nature 1122009 111700 AM Resilience o The ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to development c Factors in resilience o 1 Personal characteristics 0 2 Warm parental relationship 0 3 Social support outside of family 9 teacher neighbor o 4 Community resources and opportunities 9 mentor YMCA Theories of Child amp Human Development o Hall amp Gesell The Normative Period 0 Normative approach 9 measures of behavior are taken on large numbers of individuals and agerelated averages are computed to represent typical development c Binet amp Simon Mental Testing Movement 0 Intelligence test at Stanford University o Psychosexual Theory Freud s Three Parts of the Personality o Emphasizes how parents manage their child s sexual and aggressive drives 0 Id 9 largest portion biological desires o Ego 9 conscious rational part mediates Id and Superego o Superego 9 conscience societal norms o Freud s Psychosexual Stages 0 Oral Age Birth1 9 thumb sucking bottle 0 Anal Age 13 9 toilet training 0 Phallic Age 36 9 interest in genitals superego develops o Latency Age 6puberty 9 no conflict same sex friendships o Genital Puberty 9 interest in interacting with others o Erikson s Psychosocial Stages 9 ego acquires attitude and skills that make individual an active contributing member of society 0 Basic trust v mistrust Birth to 1 year Autonomy v shame and doubt 13 years Initiative v guilt 36 years Industry v inferiority 611 years Identity v role confusion Adolescence Intimacy v isolation Early adulthood Generativity v stagnation Middle adulthood Ego integrity v despair Late adulthood O O O O O O O Behaviorism amp Social Learning 0 Behaviorism 9 directly observable events stimuli and responses Classical Conditioning John Watson 9 stimulus response scaring baby with rat and loud sound a Pavlov 9 dog and bell n Tabula rasa 9 blank slate Operant Conditioning BF Skinner 9 reinforcers and punishments n Pigeons operating missiles 0 Social Learning Bandura 9 modeling imitation or observational learning Warmth of hot coffee triggers comfort and good mood 0 Behavior modification 9 combines conditioning and modeling to eliminate undesirable behaviors and increase desirable responses Piaget s Four Stages of Cognitive Development 9 children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world 0 Sensorimotor Stage Birth to 2 years 9 exploring physically o Preoperational Stage 2 to 7 years 9 representing world through speech Cannot understand depth or volume 0 Concrete Operational Stage 7 to 11 years 9 predict outcomes throughout world no able to think in abstractions Describe themselves with concrete adjectives like tall or pretty 0 Formal Operational Stage 1115 years through adulthood 9 understand abstract qualities Describe themselves with abstract adjectives like nice or funny 1122009 111700 AM Theories of Child and Human Development cont o InformationProcessing Theory 9 human mind as symbol manipulating system through which information flows 0 1 Sensory Register Input We take info in from our senses o 2 Shortterm Memory Working Memory Mental processing unit where information stored temporarily o 3 Longterm Memory Memory Storage Encyclopedic memory in which information is stored and from which it can be retrieved o 4 Behavioral Responses Output Ethology 0 Study of adaptive value of behavior and its evolutionary history builds on Darwin as adaptive behaviors within us that help ensure survival Imprinting 9 young birds stay close to mother Critical Period 9 after a certain stage of life it is impossible to develop a particular trait n Ex binocular vision exposure to first person at birth is believed to be primary caregiver Sensitive Period 9 after certain stage of life it is much harder to develop a particular trait n Ex learning second language o Vygotsky s Sociocultural Theory 0 Transmission of culture to a new generation Values beliefs customs skills We acquire what we need through social interaction especially through primary caregiver 0 Language Development 9 selftalk children talking to themselves 0 Zone of Proximal Development 9 building onto different levels in expansion of education o Bronfenbrenner s BioEcological Theory 0 Individual develops in many different contexts 0 Levels The Individual a Sex age health Microsystem 9 place where we experience our daily lives or immediate surroundings a Family health services school peers church group neighborhood play area Mesosystem 9 interconnection between Microsystems Exosystem 9societal institutions that affect us a Neighbors friends of family mass media social welfare services legal services Macrosystem 9 broad system of cultural beliefs and values Chronosystem 9 changes that occur over time Biological and Environmental Foundations Chapter 2 o Genotypes and Phenotypes o Genotype genetic makeup of an individual 0 Phenotype observable physical amp behavioral characteristics of an individual 0 Phenotype is determined by genotype o Cells Chromosomes and DNA 0 10100 trillion cells in human body 0 Nucleus 9 control center of cell 0 DNA 9 protein pairs inside nucleus o Genetic Foundations 0 Chromosomes store and transmit genetic information 0 Genes segments of DNA located along the chromosomes Human Genome Project 3000040000 genes in human genome 0 DNA substance of which genes and chromosomes are made 1122009 111700 AM Biological and Environmental Foundations Chapter 2 cont o DNA Replication 0 DNA contains genes 0 DNA organizes itself into chromosomes before division occurs 0 When cell division occurs called mitosis or meiosis the cell duplicates the genetic code o Difference between Mitosis amp Meiosis o Mitosis Process by which most cells somatic line or body cells divide DNA replication amp division creates 2 diploid cells 0 Meiosis Process by which cells that become gametes germline or reproductive cells divide Process restricted to gonads testicals amp ovaries DNA replication amp division creates 4 haploid cells Chromosomes Cells and Sex Terminology Zygote sperm and ova united Gametes sex cells sperm or ova Autosomes 22 pairs of chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes Sex chromosomes 23rd pair of chromosomes determines sex XX female XY male Twins FraternalDizygotic a Two zygotes or fertilized ova IdenticalMonozygotic n One zygote that divides into two individuals Alleles Different forms of the same gene a Appear at the same place on both chromosomes in a pair a One inherited from each parent o Homozygous the two alleles are alike 2 alleles for blue eyes 0 O O o Heterozygous the alleles differ 1 for blue eyes 1 for brown eyes Incomplete dominance n Both alleles are expressed resulting in combined or intermediate trait n Ex sickle cell trait Monogenic Inheritance B Your phenotype is determined by a single gene a Ex eye color ability to curl tongue Polygenic Inheritance B Your phenotype is determined by multiple genes which are additive or interactive a Most genes are polygenic n Ex height skin color 0 Chromosomal Abnormalities 1 Down Syndrome n Problems with the 21St chromosome extra chromosome made during meiosis creating three chromosomes n Chances increase by maternal age a Characteristics mental retardation slower motor development thyroid problems 2 Sex Chromosome Abnormalities n Problems with the X or Y chromosomes n Ex Klinefelter s syndrome Turner s syndrome X with no chromosome from father 0 DominantRecessive Inheritance Finding chances of having normal or defective genes as well as determining carriers 25 homozygous dominant 50 heterozygous 25 homozygous recessive 1122009 111700 AM Biological and Environmental Foundations Chapter 2 cont o Reproductive Choices 0 Genetic counseling Recommended when a Couple has had difficulties n Aware of genetic problems a Woman is over 35 Helps couples assess chances of hereditary disorders n Choose best course of action 0 Prenatal diagnosis and fetal medicine Fetoscopy insert scope with camera to view baby Ultrasound view baby through soundwaves Maternal blood analysis AFP test test for protein Preimpantation genetic screening in vitro extract cell from embryo for analysis Amniocentesis extract amniotic fluid through stomach Chorionic villus sampling extract placenta through stomach and vagina 0 Adoption 0 Reproductive technologies Gamete donor insemination amp egg donation In vitro fertilization Surrogate mother Reproductive outsourcing couples in US use women in India for surrogacy 1122009 111700 AM Biological and Environmental Foundations Chapter 2 cont o The Epigenetic Framework 9 development of resulting from ongoing bidirectional exchanges between heredity and all levels of the environment 0 Levels environment behavior and gene expression 0 Bidirectional exchanges o GeneticEnvironment Correlation 9 our genes influence environments to which we are exposed 0 Passive correlation parents pass on genes and determine environment 0 Evocative correlation evokes certain responses from environment 0 Active correlation choosing environments Nichepicking 9 tendency to actively choose environments that complement our heredity o Environmental Contexts for Development 0 Family 0 Socioeconomic status 0 Neighborhoods towns and cities 0 Cultural context o Socioeconomic Status SES 9 years of education prestige of and skill required by one s job and income 0 Access to resources in society 9 affects all aspects of our development Statistics 13 of Americans are poor Groups more likely to be poor Children 1718 Women Parents under age 25 with young children Elderly living alone especially women Ethnic minorities 0 Family functioning Timing and duration of family life cycle Values and expectations Parents involvement Communication and discipline styles 0 O Children s cognitive development 0 Extended families Three or more generations living together More common in many minority cultures Benefits assistance help provide support o Individualist vs Collectivist Societies o Individualist View self as separate from other people Focus on personal needs and goals ME team 0 Collectivist View self as part of a group Stress group goals over individual goals me TEAM Ch3 o Conception and Implantation o Ovulation releasing egg Woman is born with 400000 eggs but releases 400 eggs in lifetime 0 Fertilization sperm meeting egg Egg has 12 hours to live after being released 0 First weeks after conception Embryonic development a First three weeks are most hazardous for zygote n 13 to 12 of all fertilized zygotes die Risk factors a Inheritance of defective chromosomes o Down syndrome a Errors in mitosis after fertilization n Implantation errors Prenatal Development and Birth 1122009 111700 AM Pregnancy o By the time most women realize they are pregnant and schedule an appointment with healthcare provider 1012 wks o Organogenesis is nearly complete Fetal heart is formed Spinal canal has closed Eyes are formed Limbs are actively moving 0 Genitalia are recognizable o Morning sickness is just starting to taper off Preconception Care and Counseling o Psychological readiness both parents 0 Rationale for childbearing 0 Stability of relationship nances o Expectations for childbearing and parenting o Timing of childbearing educationcareer o Stopping contraceptive methods o Nutrition 0 Achieve ideal body weight 0 Balanced dietprenatal vitamins o Folic acid supplement 04 mgday o Limiteliminate caffeine o Genetic screening down syndrome fragile x syndrome o Dental care poor dental hygiene increased risk for preterm labor and birth o Medications cut back on or change certain medications o Chronic health conditions diabetes heart disease hypertension seizure disorder advanced maternal age 35 yrs old o Environmental and Workplace Issues 0 Teratogens o Cigarette smoke o Illicit drugs o Don t forget the male contribution 0 Limited data 0 Genetics 0 Alcohol drugs smoking 0 O O O o Choice of birth place and provider 0 Birth center vs hospital vs home 0 Obstetrician vs midwife o Desired labor support 0 Pain management options natural birth epidural sedatives What are teratogens o An agent or factor that causes malformation of an embryo o Potential teratogens 0 Alcohol fetal alcohol syndrome 0 Medications antiseizure antidepressants thyroid drugs thalidomide accutane isotretinoin o Illicit drugs withdrawal syndrome behavioral effects 0 Radiation DNA damage 0 Occupational chemical exposures o Toxoplasmosis cat litter o Rubella o Cytomegalovirus o Syphilis Maternal Anatomical and Physiological Changes o Pregnancy affects o Posture o Digestion 0 Blood volume 0 Breathing rate o Woman should expect 0 Increased urinary frequency 0 Stretch marks 0 Emotional lability o Nesting instincts o lst Trimester initial conception to 12 weeks 0 Period of adjustment o 2nd Trimester 1224 weeks 0 Period of radiant health o 3rd Trimester 24 weeks to birth 0 Period of watchful waiting Fetal Development 67 weeks Placenta begins to form Fetus weighs 0001 oz Uterus small orange Head is the largest portion Internal organs formed Heart is beating since end of 4th wk Baby is oating amniotic sac Armleg buds w ngertoe buds Fetus at 7 wks Fetal Development 12 weeks Placenta fully developed and supporting the pregnancy Uterus grapefruit Baby has ngernailstoenails Can ex ngerstoes Eyelids are fused Legs grow slower than arms Fetus is 3 inches long weighs 1 ounce Fetal Development 20 weeks Abdominal crowding maternal Fetus fully formed Eyelids still fused Vernix mixture of sebum and skin cells covering the body Fetus is 65 inches and 1lb 500 9 Time of anatomical ultrasound scan Sex easily determined Fetal movement felt by mother Noticeability of the pregnancy depends on abdominal muscle tone Fetal Development 28 weeks All organ systems are fully developed but not ready to function outside of the uterine environment Hair is present fetus covered with lanugo lightdowned hair Suckling motions becoming more coordinated Eyes can open and shut Fetus is 9 inches and 225 lbs 1000 g Fetus could survive if born at this point but would need intensive care o Fat storage begins o Breasts are developing ability to produce milk plolactin begins to circulate Fetal Development 36 weeks o Birth can occur at any time o More fat has been deposited fetus is less wrinkled o Fetus can control breathing motions and body temperature o Baby is fully developed about 125 inches and 55 lbs 2500 9 Fetal Development Fullterm 3740 weeks o Fetus is hopefully in vertex head down position o Childbirth is imminent o Finishing touches Prenatal Development and Birth 1122009 111700 AM Onset of labor lst stage o Start of Labor 0 Not clear what initiates labor probably a combination of maternal and fetal hormonal interactions 0 Lightening baby descends down to pelvic region 0 Pelvic pressure 0 Slowing of fetal movement 0 Bloody show loss of mucus plug 0 Low back pain low abdominal cramping o Cervix is effacing but little dilation past 23 cm o Early labor 0 Talking laughing joking 0 Does not take full focus to deal with contractions o Cervix is effacing dilation to 45 cm o Active Labor 0 Labor becomes more serious Contractions require full focus Pain medication may be requested Good evidence that labor support during this stage results in a feeling of satisfaction with the birth experience Cervix dilates from 510 cm 810 cm is point of transition requires coping skills of steel 0 Now fully dilated and descent of baby begins o Latent Phase of Labor 0 Often ignored in many obstetrical settings 0 No need to start pushing as soon as complete dilation is achieved 0 Unmedicated births mother often rests as contractions space out o Medicated epidural births Cervical Effacement amp Dilation o Cervix opening to the uterus o Effacement gradual thinning shortening and drawing up of the cervix measured in percentages from 0 to 100 O O O O 462009 113200 AM Ch14 Emotional and Social Development in Early Adulthood o Erikson s Theory Intimacy versus Isolation o Intimacy 9 making permanent commitment to an intimate partner 0 Isolation 9 loneliness selfabsorption o Levinson s Early Adult Season Stages 0 Early adult transition age 1722 Make preliminary choices for adult life Most construct dreams men good career women career amp marriagefamily and have mentors o Entering adult world 2228 Focus more on intimacy Make initial choices about love occupation friendship values and lifestyle 0 Age 30 transition 2833 Starting to commit in intimate relationships 0 Settling down 3340 Focus away from self setting aside relationships and focusing on family and career Unsettling for women because of disproportionate childrearing obligations o Midlife transition 4045 0 Entering middle adulthood 4550 o Vailant s Adaptation to Life 0 Twenties intimacy concerns 0 Thirties career consolidation 0 Forties generativity Pulled back from individual achievement and focused more on giving to and guiding others 0 Fiftiessixties keepers of meaning Guardians of their culture 0 Seventies spirituality and reflection Wisdom o Problems with Work of Levinson amp Vaillant o Cohort effects Subjects studied vs adults today 0 Sample effects Upper middle class liberal arts students Men and women who were collegeeducated or solid in careers Social Clock 9 age graded expectations for major life events such as first job getting married first child buying home and retiring 0 Less rigid than before 0 Following lends confidence associated with social stability 0 Distress if not following or falling behind Family Life Cycle 9 sequence of phases characterizing development of most families 0 Major task 9 creating own family 0 62 of women in 2002 do not expect to procreate up from 49 in 1982 0 Stages Early adulthood n Leaving home a Joining families in marriage a Parenthood Middle adulthood n Launching children 9 50 of 1825 year olds live with parents a Accepting new members Late adulthood n Retirement a Death of spouse Emerging Adults Launching Average age decreasing 9 college becoming normative Boomerang generation 9 launched but come back bad job market divorce births outside of marriage Family relationships often improve when launched Selecting a Mate 0 Most select partners who are similar Endogamy 9 social pressure Homogomy 9 is similar 0 O 0 Gender differences Women 9 intelligence ambition financials morals Men 9 attractiveness domestic skills 0 Research on online dating Women are picky men have big range Attractiveness can be compensated for financially 462009 113200 AM Ch14 Emotional and Social Development in Early Adulthood o Friendships in Early Adulthood 0 Friends usually similar Commit to marriage a Men age 27 women age 26 Positive effects Friendship basis Centrality in life changes Friendships early on o Siblings o Trends in Marriage 0 Marrying later Average age 9 26 for women 27 for men 0 More cohabitating before marriage More than 50 of couples 9 started in the 90 s Increased 1000 since 1960 0 Fewer marriages Staying single cohabitating not remarrying n 13 of males 14 of females are single a 810 single for life Single population is increasing married population decreasing n Women more likely to stay single n More high SES women and low SES men single after 30 Less than half of American households are married couples 9 marked in 2005 o Legalization of samesex marriagecivil unions in a few states o Gender and Housework o In the United States Men 9 1516 hours of housework Women 9 2627 hours of housework o Factors Related to Marital Satisfaction 0 Family backgrounds 9 similar SES education religion and age 0 Age at marriage 9 after age of 23 O O O Length of courtship 9 at least 6 months Timing of first pregnancy 9 need for time together before first child after first year of marriage Relationship to extended family 9 warm and positive Financial and employment status 9 stable Family responsibilities 9 shared perception of fairness Personality characteristics 9 emotionally positive good conflict resolution skills o Divorce Rates 0 Stabilized since 1980s 0 4500 US About 7 higher for remarriages 0 First 7 years midlife most common times of divorce Ch15 Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood ages 40 65 O O O O O o Vision Changes in Middle Adulthood o Presbyopia old eyes Changes in eye 9 lens enlarges and becomes less flexible lens loses capacity to adjust to objects at varying distances Occurs around age 60 o Difficulties in dim light 0 Reduced color discrimination o Glaucoma risk Poor fluid drainage leads to buildup of pressure within eye damaging optic nerve o Hearing Changes in Middle Adulthood o Presbycusis old hearing Earliest most loss in high frequencies Gender cultural differences 462009 113200 AM Ch15 Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood o Skin Changes in Middle Adulthood o Wrinkles Forehead starting in 305 Crow s feet 405 o Sagging Face arms legs 0 Age spots After age 50 o Faster with sun exposure for women Loss of 10 of collagenyear UVB rays most damaging to skin a Peak in intensity 9 11am4pm a Can damage DNA Sunburn 9 affects white blood cells common to develop cold sores n Take 2 weeks to regain immunities o MuscleFat Makeup in Middle Adulthood o Middleage spread 9 common fat gain in torso Men upper abdomen back Women waist upper arms 0 Very gradual muscle declines 0 Can be avoided Lowfat diet with fruits vegetables grains Exercise resistance training o Climacteric transitional period in women in which function of ovaries declines and Menopause end of menstruation and reproductive capacity 0 Gradual end of fertility Climacteric begins at 41 9 lasts around 15 years Symptoms 9 less predictable periods ovaries shrink in size Menopause follows 10year climacteric Age range extends from late 305 to late 505 0 Drop in estrogen amp progesterone Estrogen 9 strengthens lining of uterus impacts bone density in absorbing and retaining calcium in bones affects skin electrolyte balance Progesterone 9 vital for life of egg building block for other hormones role in blood pressure electrolyte balance Shorter monthly cycles eventually stop a Marked decrease at 35 years old Can cause problems a Sexual functioning n Cholesterol Menopausal Symptoms 0 Research shows menopause link Hot flashesnight sweats Africa 82 North America amp Middle East 72 Europe 60 Japan 14 No word in Japanese for hot flashes AfricanAmerican women report more hot flashes than Caucasian women though Caucasian women perceive them more negatively Sexual problems 0 Not linked to menopause other causes should be investigated Irritability Sleep difficulties Depression Hormone Replacement Therapy low daily dosages of estrogen for Menopause 0 Benefits Reduces hot flashes vaginal dryness May help mood Bone benefits 0 Risks Stroke blood clots heart attack Cancer Cognitive declines Alzheimer s 0 Alternatives n n n Gabapentin for hot flashes Antidepressants Black cohosh o Male Reproductive Changes in Middle Adulthood 0 Reduced sperm and semen after age 40 o Gradual testosterone reduction Sexual activity stimulates production 0 Erection problems By age 60 4050 of men will experience erectile dysfunction Frequent problems may be linked to anxiety diseases injury loss of interest substance use poor sexual techniques lack of knowledge unsatisfying relationships Viagra amp other drugs 9 increase blood flow to penis o Other problems decreases in bone density and muscle mass lower sex drive depression sleep problems o Leading Causes of Death in Middle Adulthood 0 Men 1 cardiovascular disease 2 cancer 3 unintentional injury 0 Women 1 cancer 2 cardiovascular disease 3 unintentional injury o Cancer in Middle Adulthood 0 13 of US midlife deaths More in lower SES Percentage of population who have ever had cancer increases throughout age Breast cancer increases for women 9 age 3040 1 out of 257 women will have breast cancer age 4050 1 out of 67 women will have breast cancer 0 Results from mutations Germline genetic Somatic occurring in a single cell 0 Often curable Treatment and survival emotionally challenging 462009 113200 AM Ch15 Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood o Cardiovascular Disease 0 Symptoms Heart attack a Angina pectoris chest pain a Arrhythmia 9 heart not beating at steady pace Risk conditions a High blood cholesterol a High blood pressure 9 14090 high 12080 o Systolic higher and diastolic lower o Systolic pressure more important for those in middle adulthood 40 of hypertension seen in diastolic under 40 years of age 9 33 of hypertension seen in diastolic in 4050 years of age 9 hypertension indicated in systolic over 50 years of age a Atherosclerosis 9 hardening of the arteries o Damaged intima 9 lining becomes damaged o Cholesterol filled cells o Plaque builds up o Skeletal System in Older Years 0 Changes Bones broadening 9 new cells accumulate on outer layers Lose bone density 9 bones getting weaker and more porous 0 Risk of sever bone loss fragile bones Osteoporosis 9 body fails to form new bone bone loss a Affects more than 25 million Americans 0 Factors affecting likelihood Gender 9 women are more likely fairskinned with smaller frame a 3 occur in women Heavy alcohol and smoking 0 Prevention amp treatment of osteoporosis Weightbearing exercise Having adequate vitamin D o Midlife Exercise 0 Starting in middle adulthood fewer are meeting exercise standards and more are becoming inactive Males are more likely to meet exercise standard Women are more likely to be inactive 0 Walk or die People in midlife in 50605 who exercised were 35 less likely to die in next 8 years Specifically looking at highrisk people in midlife who exercise were 45 less likely to die in next 8 years 0 Weightbearing exercise Weightlifting 9 reduced intraabdominal fat 0 Psychological benefits People had more energy and were less depressed Selfefficacy 9 felt more effective Cognitive benefits Improvements in fluid intelligence o Crystallized v Fluid Intelligence 0 Definitions and examples Crystallized intelligence ability to remember and use info acquired over a lifetime recall information a Ex verbal ability inductive reasoning verbal memory Fluid intelligence ability to solve novel problems that require little or no previous knowledge solving new problems a Ex spatial orientation numeric ability perceptual speed 0 When at maximumpeak levels 9 in middle adulthood o AgeRelated Slowing of Information Processing 0 Neural network View Brain neurons die and other connections are built 0 Vs informationloss View 0 System becomes less efficient loss of information through each step 462009 113200 AM Ch15 Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood o Attention in Middle Adulthood o More difficulties 0 Linked to slower processing 0 Experience practice training help adults compensate Memory is affected 9 use less memory strategies Ch16 Emotional and Social Development in Middle Adulthood o Erikson s Theory Generativity versus Stagnation o Generativity 9 maintenance of the world Reaching out to others in ways that give to and guide the next generation Little difference between women with and without children men with children are usually more generative than men without children 0 Stagnation 9 selffocus o Changes in Generativity and Identity Certainty o Generativity Feeling needed by people Effort to ensure that young people get their chance to develop Increases from 20 in 305 to 25 in 505 0 Identity certainty Sense of being one s own person Increases from 22 in 305 to 25 in 505 o Concern about Physical Age 0 Noncollegeeducated men are more concerned about aging in 605 than collegeeducated men 0 Noncollegeeducated women are less concerned about aging in 605 than collegeeducated women o Levinson s Middle Adult Season 0 Midlife transition 4045 0 Entry life structure 4550 9 underlying pattern of one s life 0 Age 50 transition 5055 0 Culminating life structure 5560 9 women begin to focus on career men being to focus away from career o Levinson s Four Tasks of Middle Adulthood O O O O O O O O O O Youngold Find new ways of being both young and old Destructioncreation Acknowledge past destructiveness try to create products of value Masculinityfemininity Balance masculine and feminine parts of self Engagementseparateness Balance involvement with external world and separateness from it Gender Identity in Middle Adulthood Women increase in masculine traits Men increase in feminine traits Theories Parental imperative theory 9 men more expected to be caregivers women expected to be assertive and independent Decline in sex hormones 9 drops in testosterone and estrogen Demands of midlife 9 men have luxury to relax from job and focus on children women have break from care giving and have more selffocus Midlife Crisis 9 great amounts of selfdoubt and stress in 405 Research wide individual differences 14 experience midlife crisis Gender differences 9 occurs for men in early 405 occurs for women in late 405 and early 505 Sharp disruption uncommon Regrets SelfPerceptions in Midlife More complex integrated selfdescriptions Increases in feelings of Selfacceptance 9 acceptance of good and bad qualities Autonomy 9 less concern with others expectations and more concern with selfchosen standards Environmental mastery 9 managing wide array of tasks O Midlife 9 increased wellbeing happiness o Factors in Midlife Psychological WellBeing O O O O O 0 Good health Exercise Sense of control Social support Good marriage Mastery of multiple roles 462009 113200 AM Ch16 Emotional and Social Development in Middle Adulthood o Family Life Cycle 0 Early adulthood Leaving home Joining families in marriage Parenthood 0 Middle adulthood Launching children Accepting new members 0 Late adulthood Retirement Death of spouse o Relationships at Midlife 0 Many people have more close relationships then any other period of life Children New family members Parents often living 9 average life span 77 years old Friends Report having more relationships than any other point o Marriage in Middle Adulthood 0 Time as a couple 0 Marital satisfaction curve ushaped Upward swing Really high in beginning 9 declines and reaches low after 18 years 9 increases again Passion 9 increases dramatically then decreases Intimacy and decisioncommitment 9 increases with time in relationship o Divorce in Midlife 0 Increasing prevalence 9 Peak at 18 years of relationship Explanations n 1 Staying together for sake of children n 2 Didn t believe in divorce men amp not financially stable women Gender and divorce n Majority 66 were initiated by women a Most had new relationships after 2 years 0 Divorce amp health Feminization of poverty 9 women more likely to be poor than men n Hayword amp Zang 2006 9 increase 60 more likely in cardiovascular disease in divorced women n Divorced women have lowest household income 0 Adjustment Easier than in early adulthood n Less concern about children o Parenting in Middle Adulthood o Launching 9 letting go Stressful if delayed 0 Empty nest syndrome 9 children have left home More common in women o Grandparenthood 0 Become grandparent average late 405 o Grandparenting styles vary Detached 9 don t see grandchildren often less interaction Passive 9 see grandchildren but have less interaction Supportive 9 run errand care for children give money Authoritative 9 does parenting gives advice does reprimanding act like parents Influential 9 really active assist family have parenting role Factors influencing style 0 Trends in grandparenting Skipped generation families Living with grandchildren 462009 113200 AM Ch 16 Emotional and Social Development in Middle Adulthood o Caring for Aging Parents in Middle Adulthood 0 Sandwich Generation 9 middleaged adults must care for multiple generations above and below them at same time Tend to be sandwiched in between offering care for your children and then caring for the older generation Never stop worrying about kids 0 Factors affecting likelihood The later in middle adulthood the older parents are that will need help Finances 9 nursing home insurance inhome care living closeby Culture 9 minorities n Asians more likely than Caucasians to care for elders o Stressful Happens suddenly Hard to watch decline Uncertain duration Time off of work or quitting school Resentment o is Caring for Aging Parents 0 Women 27 are more likely than men to care for elderly 0 Some men 1 in 5 care for aging parents 0 Most common age 9 4554 years of age Ch17 Physical and Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood o Increased Life Expectancy Over Time 0 In 1900 9 average lifespan was 47 years old 0 In 2005 9 average lifespan was 778 years old 0 From 19001950 9 increase of two decades 21 years in 50 years Why a Penicillin o Discovered in 1928 o Marketed in large quantities in 1940 D Other medical breakthroughs E r n Indoor plumbing in first decades of 1900s Race Ethnicity and Lifespan Immigrant Status 0 Longest living racial and ethnic group Asian immigrants in US 9 females mid80s males 79 years Many immigrant groups have longer lifespan Hispanic immigrants and blacks live longer than US born Hispanics blacks Other differences 9 gender Women tend to live longer than men People with higher SES have longer lifespans More resources In past few years 9 large difference a Low SES women s lifespan is getting shorter in some areas a People from lower SES groups do riskier things like smoking and drinking Americans take in more than 30 calories from fat Meat refined sugars Other countries 9 beans antioxidants 462009 113200 AM Ch17 Physical and Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood Active lifespan number of years of vigorous healthy life an individual born on a particular year can expect 0 Typical lifespan 9 77 to 78 0 Highest 9 Japan with average active lifespan of 745 Lower 9 US with average active lifespan of 70 Categories of Age 0 Youngold 6574 0 Olderold 7584 0 Oldold 85 and older Centenarians 100 years old Supercentenarians 110 Oldest woman 9 Jeanne Calment age 122 Is Chronological Age Becoming Less Important 0 Chronological age Number of years since birth 0 Biological age Age in terms of physical health 0 Psychological age Adaptive capacity compared with others of the same chronological age 0 Social age Social roles and expectations relative to chronological age 0 Functional age actual competence amp performance o Aging and the Nervous System 0 Loss of brain weight accelerates after 60 Decreases 510 0 Neurons lost in frontal lobes corpus callosum links two sides hippocampus memory cerebellum balance 0 Glial cells fat that insulates brain cells decrease o Autonomic nervous system less efficient 0 Brain can compensate New fibers neurons New connections Use more parts of brain o Visual Impairments and Aging 0 O O 0 Lower visual acuity Poor dark adaptation sensitivity to glare Decreased color depth perception Cataracts 9 clouding of the lens 25 of people over age 70 50 of people over age 80 Macular degeneration 9 lightsensitive cells in macula break down central vision blurs and is gradually lost Macula 9 located on retina Protection Foods containing vitamin A C amp E Elimination of free radicals o Sensory Systems and Late Adulthood 0 Aging and visual amp hearing impairments Difficulty with hearing increases dramatically at age 75 84 0 Taste amp smell reduced sensitivity 0 Decline in lung function Vital lung capacity cut by 50 Less oxygen to tissue Exercise helps o Sleep and Aging 0 O 0 Need less sleep Less deep sleep and more REM sleep with more frequent awake periods Earlier bedtime amp wakeup More difficulties Insomnia Nighttime waking 50 of people over age 60 report problems with sleep o Physical Appearance and Mobility O 0 Skin thinner rougher wrinkled spotted Ears nose hair and teeth change Ears and nose grow larger Balding in men 9 66 of men Androgenic alopecia 9 male pattern balding n Caused by testosterone changing to dihydrotestosterone Graying hair in women 9 melanocytes decrease 0 Lose height and weight after 60 Muscle strength declines a Loss of muscle leads to loss of weight Bone strength declines n Average woman loses 2 inches n Average man loses 1 amp 14 inches n Vertebrae becomes more compact 0 Less flexibility 462009 113200 AM Ch17 Physical and Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood o Falls 0 National safety council Prevalence for young old amp oldold a People over 65 are more likely to die from injuries related to falling o Falls account for 50 of death from injuries n Youngold around 65 o For women 9 30 experience fall o For men 9 13 experience fall a Oldold around 85 o For women 9 50 experience fall o For men 9 31 experience fall Sociodemographics Causes n Dim lighting loss of vision a When older 9 dizziness passing out Complications a After falling become less adventurous o Changes in Body Composisiton of Bone Muscle amp Fat 0 Age 25 Muscle 30 Fat 20 Bone 10 Other 40 0 Age 75 Muscle 15 Fat 40 Bone 8 Other 37 o Nutrition amp Exercise in Late Adulthood 0 Nutrition Need extra nutrients n Protect bones immune system a Fight free radicals Problems eating n Appetite taste changes o Taste buds are less sensitive n Chewing digestion a Shopping cooking Supplements diet changes may help Exercise benefits a Physical capacities a Brain function u Selfesteem Leading Causes of Death in Late Adulthood 65 WNquot O O O O 05 Cardiovascular disease Cancer Respiratory diseases 4 Stroke Unintentional injuries Relation of Age to Reaction Time 0 Age 20 9 1 second to react 0 Age 70 9 15 seconds to react Most Prevalent Chronic Conditions in Late Adulthood 0 From highest to lowest prevalence Arthritis nearly 50 hypertension hearing impairments heart conditions chronic sinus problems visual impairments orthopedic impairments arteriosclerosis diabetes varicose veins hemorrhoids disease of urinary system hernia of abdominal cavity Influences on Cognitive Functioning Use it or lose it 0 Cognitive reserve 9 creating new connections with neurons Educational attainment n Nola Ochs age 95 9 world s oldest college graduate a Little nerve cell loss 9 receptors reduced Novelty 0 Social interactions 0 Physical activity Exercising increases molecules in brain 462009 113200 AM Ch17 Physical and Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood o Memory Changes in Late Adulthood o Declines Episodic memory 9 memories that stand out in lifetime n Ex first date first day of school Working memory 9 linked to shortterm memory workbench for memory a Ex remembering words spelling words backward 0 Fewer changes Semantic memory 9 areas of expertise Implicit memory 9 memory without conscious awareness things that you never forget to do n Ex ride a bike drive a car playing instrument 0 Declines in perceptual speed linked to memory decline How quickly you can spit something back 0 Successful aging reducing or adapting to changes in memory Gains are maximized and losses are minimized 462009 113200 AM Ch17 Physical and Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood o Alzheimer s Disease 0 Incidence higher with age Around 5 over 65 years of age Nearly 50 over 80 years of age 0 Symptoms forgetting disorientation personality change depression motor problems delusions speech problems infections 0 Brain changes in cerebral cortex Neurofibrillary tangles 9 collapsed neurons or brain matter or neural structures twisted threads Amyloid plaques 9 plaques attach to neurons and brain s immune system attacks plaques harms brain tissue instead 0 Risk factors Genetic predisposition High fat diet 9 Mediterranean diet may help Education 9 active lifestyle may help Ch18 Emotional and Social Development in Late Adulthood o Erikson s Theory Ego Integrity vs Despair o Ego integrity 9 notion of finding meaning in life feeling whole or complete and satisfied with what your life has been 0 Despair 9 feeling sadness or resentment regarding regret about what life has been o Peck Three Tasks of Ego Integrity 0 Body transcendence vs body preoccupation Body cannot function in late adulthood as in earlier years n Learn to be happy despite this Body transcendence 9 ability to not focus on declining body function and to still be happy 0 Ego differentiation vs workrole preoccupation Thinking about life NOT in terms of roles played Focusing more one oneself as person satisfaction with self and not with roles Finding selfworth outside of career after retirement o Ego transcendence vs ego preoccupation Being satisfied with past life rather than being focused on short number of years left 0 Gerotranscendence cosmic and transcendent perspective directed forward and outward beyond self focus on spirituality and joy in existence Idea of Erikson s widow 9 peaceful with being alone o Religiosity amp WellBeing among Older Americans 0 Strong religiosity increases with age 9 28 of 1829 year olds to 56 of 80 year olds 0 Little and no religiosity decreases with age o Coping in Later Years 0 Coping strategies two types Problemfocused coping 9 focus on getting out and trying to solve problems and change world more physical and external Emotionfocused coping 9 may not be able to solve problems but will accept it emotionally just letting 90quot o Coping in late adulthood Centenarians o Affect Optimization 0 Ability to maximize positive emotion and minimize negative emotion 9 LebouvieVief Positive emotion increases with age Negative emotion decreases with age o Big Five Personality Traits o Neuroticism Anxiety angry hostility vulnerability depression impulsiveness selfconsciousness o Extroversion Excitementseeking assertiveness activity warmth positive emotions gregariousness o Openness to experience Fantasy aesthetics feelings actions ideas values 0 Agreeableness O Altruism compliance tendermindedness straightforwardness trust modesty Conscientiousness Achievement striving deliberation competence self discipline order dutifulness o Factors in Psychological WellBeing O O O O O 0 Control vs dependency Health Negative life changes Social support Social interaction Religionspirituality 25 reduction in mortality for those who attend weekly services 462009 113200 AM Ch18 Emotional and Social Development in Late Adulthood o AgeRelated Changes in Number of Social Partners 0 All relationships decrease o Marriage in Late Adulthood 0 Statistics Age 6574 a 78 men married a 56 women married Age 7584 a 73 men married a 36 women married Age 85 n 59 men married a 14 women married Often at top of ushaped curve a Women outlive men n Men more likely to remarry n Older couples have less negative conflict resolution a 20 of marriages last for gt50 years c Divorce Remarriage Cohabitation in Older Years 0 Divorce Prevalence n Less than 1 of total divorces n Percentage is growing a Younger couples are more likely to get divorced Gender amp coping n Women have harder time experiencing divorce o Tend to be worse off financially o Men more likely to remarry o Remarriage Likelihood in older years n Less likely to remarry in older years compared to other age groups n Widowers 9 less likely to get remarried compared to divorcees Stability n More stable than remarriages at other point in lifetime n Remarriages in older years have highest success rate 9 higher than first marriages o Cohabitation Increasing n Has increased in overall society a Financial concerns 0 Widowhood Women are 3x more likely to be widowed Few remarry 9 most live alone Men are more likely to remarry than women o Marital Status at 65 0 Higher percentage of married men than women 0 Higher percentage of female widowers 0 Never married and divorce rates are similar between sexes o Living Arrangements of Noninstitutionalized Population 0 More women than men live alone 0 More men than women live with spouse 0 More women than men live with relatives o 65 Population in Nursing Homes 0 Age 6574 1 in nursing homes 99 outside nursing homes 0 Age 7484 5 in nursing homes 95 outside nursing homes 0 Age 85 15 in nursing homes 85 outside nursing homes o Intimacy amp Sex in Nursing Homes 0 Negativity regarding seniors amp sex 0 Lack of staff training 0 Barriers to being sexualintimate 0 Problems with sexual activity among nursing home residents Consensual sex with Alzheimer s STIs in older generations a Not tested for a No chance of pregnancy 9 less chance for protection o Size of Social Network Decreases 0 From 16 at age 5059 to 10 at age 8589 o Social Theories of Aging 0 Disengagement theory Mutual withdrawal of elders amp society 9 disengagement Becoming more reflective and inward Criticism 9 instrumental barriers prevent them from interacting socially loss of license medical condition 0 Activity theory Social barriers discrimination against older people harder to getjobs 9 declining interaction 0 Continuity theory Strive to maintain consistency More likely to be close friends and family 0 Socioemotional selective theory Social networks become more selective as we age Selfpreservation 9 sparing self from conflict in relationships o SelfEsteem Across Lifespan o Decreases during childhood 0 Increases in adolescence o Remains stable through early adulthood o Increases during middle adulthood o Decreases dramatically in late adulthood Ch19 Death Dying and Bereavement o How We Die 0 1 Agonal phase 9 struggle gasps and muscle spasms leading to first moments where body cannot sustain life 0 2 Clinical death 9 heartbeat circulation breathing and brain functioning stop but resuscitation is still possible 0 3 Mortality 9 permanent death 2252009 111600 AM Ch9 Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood o Body Growth in Middle Childhood Age 611 0 Slow regular pattern Average growth 9 23 inchesyear Gain 57 lbyear Body fat decreases then increases in later middle childhood to prepare for puberty 0 Girls vs boys Age 68 girls slightly shorter and lighter than boys Age 9 trend reverses Lower portion of body growing fastest Bones lengthenossify Muscle mass amp strength Bodies become stronger 0 Permanent teeth arrive Age 612 all 20 primary teeth are lost and replaced o Sex amp Height 0 Girls grow at same rate as boys until later middle childhood o Health Issues in Middle Childhood 0 Nutrition Regular eating schedule Variety of foods with significant calcium zinc and iron n Children get less and less calcium and dairy products a In 1980 s 40 of children get recommended amount of calcium n In 1990 s 30 of children get recommended amount of calcium a 23 servings of dairy recommended Growth spurts n Bulk up and then stretch out Percentage body fats n Storing for pubertal growth spurt o Obesity amp Overweight Children in United States Obesity 9 greater than 20 increase over average body weight 0 O O Quadrupled since 1960 s Related heath issues a n n n n n n Impaired glucose tolerance 9 type 2 diabetes Shortness of breath 9 asthma Obstructive sleep apnea Cancer 9 breast lung respiratory mouth Earlier sexual maturation Risk factors for heart disease Early death Predictive of adult obesity 9 more than 80 of affected children become overweight adults Explanations for increasing a n n a TV amp video games 9 low physical activity Less physical education 9 dropped from 80 to 20 from 1969 to 1999 Busy schedules Low SES Marketingavailability of unhealthy food choices for children Parents feeding practices Services amp technology Psychological and social consequences n n n n n n 1 Feeling unattractive Stereotyping Teasing social isolation Depression emotional problems School problems Problem behaviors Reduced life chances 0 Common illnesses Top 5 reasons children miss school a n n n 1 Colds 2 Stomach virus 3 Ear infection 4 Pink eye 5 Sore throat Leading causes of death a 1 Motor vehicle accidents n 2 Cancer 9 most common is leukemia followed by brain cancer Other health issues a Head lice 9 612 infestationsyear n Pinworms 9 14 have had infestation n Asthma Bronchial tubes very sensitive to stimuli Increasingly common 9 rose from 3 to 6 from 1980 to 1990 Heredity environment increase risk 2252009 111600 AM Ch9 Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood cont o Motor Development in Middle Childhood 0 Gross motor skills improvements Flexibility 9 physically more plastic and elastic Balance 9 increased skills in rapid change in direction Agility 9 quicker and more accurate movements Force 9 throw and kick harder n President s physical fitness test 0 Fine motor skills gains Writing 9 by age 6 Drawing 9 by end of preschool can draw 2D shapes by age 910 can draw 3D shapes Music a Link to Sungha Jung o Sex Differences 0 Motor development Girls excel at fine motor skills 9 handwriting and drawing a Also excel in balance and agility Boys excel at gross motor skills 9 force sports 0 Social environment Marketing Media a Sports Illustrated Kids a Boys Life Magazine a Girls Life Magazine Parental expectations 0 All effect selfperceptions o Physical Play in Middle Childhood 0 Games with rules amp multiple players Sports 9 early childhood don t understand concepts run around with no goal no teamwork v middle childhood understood goals coordination teamwork Invented games o Roughandtumble play friendly chasing and playfighting 9 wrestling tackling o Adultorganized sports 9 more nutritionconscious cope better with competition improved selfworth 0 Physical education 50 of elementary schools offer PE 25 of middle schools less than 10 of high schools Average 20 minutes per week Only 40 of girls and 50 of boys in good health participate in 30 minutes of exercise every day 0 Video games Prevalence 9 boys play more often than girls 73 of 810 year old boys play 15 hoursday Negative correlates n Obesity n Violence a Addiction 9 1 out of 8 exhibit addiction issues Positive correlates n Handeye coordination n Skills for business world 2252009 111600 AM Ch9 Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood cont o Changes in Brain during Middle Childhood o Frontal lobes 9 growth spurt from ages 57 0 Myelination covering of long portion of neuron in fat occurs in frontal lobes amp corpus callosum connecting portion of brain that allows communication of both hemispheres Prefrontal cortex 9 located on frontal lobe AKA dendritic spreading or exuberance o Piaget s Theory Achievements of the Concrete Operational Stage 0 Thought is more logical flexible and organized age 711 0 Conservation 9 understanding that though object changes form it still represents the same amount determining mass and surface area Decentration 9 focusing on several aspects of problem and relating them Reversibility 9 capacity to think through series of steps and then mentally reverse direction 0 Classification 9 classifying by both color and shape 0 Seriation 9 ability to order items along quantitative dimension such as length or weight Transitive inference 9 seriate mentally ex ifA is bigger than B and B is bigger than C then A is bigger than C 0 Spatial reasoning Directions Maps 9 mental representation of familiar largescale spaces such as neighborhood or school o Development of Mapping Skills 0 Preschool early school age Landmarks 0 Ages 810 Landmarks along organized route of travel 0 End of middle childhood Overall view of largescale space Can turn map in head o Other CognitiveAcademic Milestones 0 Learn to read 0 Learn basic arithmetic adding amp subtracting 0 Build on these skills amp commit to memory o Language Development 0 Vocabulary Increases fourfold during school years 9 exceeding 40000 words 20 new words a day 0 Grammar Mastery of complex constructions 9 understanding metaphors and sarcasm Example losing tooth o Pragmatics Adjust to people and situations Phrase requests to get what they want o Key Information Processing Improvements 0 Increase in informationprocessing speed and capacity Stimulus information 9 sensory memory 9 attention 9 shorttermworking memory 9 response Stimulus information 9 sensory memory 9 longterm memory 9 shorttermworking memory 9 response 0 Gains in inhibition Both may be related to brain development c Development of Memory Strategies 0 Rehearsal early grade school Repeating information to oneself 0 Organization early grade school Grouping related items together 0 Elaboration end of middle childhood Creating a relationship between pieces of information not in same category 2252009 111600 AM Ch11 Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adolescence o Sungha Jung Age 11 0 Play guitar and began at age 9 o Definition of Puberty o The period of rapid physical maturation involving hormonal and bodily changes that take place primarily in early adolescence o Involves 1 Overall body growth 2 Maturation of sexual characteristics 9 organs mature o Physical Growth during Adolescence 0 Girls enter growth spurt at age 10 Grow average of 210 inchesyear Put on average of 39 lb Girls are generally taller and heavier Growth is complete by age 16 0 Boys enter growth spurt at age 125 Grow average of 412 inchesyear Put on average of 52 lb Growth is complete by age 175 o Childhood through Adolescence Skeletal amp Body Growth 0 Child s hand with epiphyseal growth plates 9 emerging adult s hand o Growth Spurts amp Asynchronicity 0 Not all parts of the body grow at the same pace 0 Asynchronicity in growth explains the gangly look in early adolescence o Extremities 9 first to hit growth spurt o Muscle Mass and Body Fat 0 Girls enter growth spurt before boys Boys have higher muscle mass composition a Before puberty 9 80 muscle mass a After puberty 9 90 muscle mass Girls have higher body fat composition a Before puberty 9 80 muscle mass a After puberty 9 75 muscle mass o Sex Differences in Body Growth in Adolescence 0 Growth spurt Boys 9 starts age 125 Girls 9 starts age 10 o Proportions Boys 9 shoulders broaden longer legs Girls 9 hips broaden o Musclefat makeup Boys 9 gains more muscle aerobic efficiency Girls 9 gain more fat o Nutrition in Adolescence o What body needs Higher the muscle mass 9 need more calories a 2700 caloriesday for boys n 2200 caloriesday for girls a 4560 grams of proteinday Build bone bank 9 need for calcium Healthy blood 9 need for iron 0 What body typically gets Fast food 0 Obesity Percent of teens age 1219 who are overweight D 197680 9 5 D 198894 9 105 D 200304 9 174 0 Eating disorders o Sleep 0 Adolescents need more Recommended 9 925 hours of sleep 0 Sleepwake cycle changes Sending melanin to brain 9 signals brain to sleep 0 Effects on functioning Number one variable in determining aptitude 2252009 111600 AM Ch11 Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence o Hormonal Changes in Puberty 0 Growth hormone GH and thyroxine TSH increases around age 89 Estrogens main class of female sex hormone n More in girls Androgens main class of male sex hormones especially testosterone n More in boys o Sex Hormone 0 From stage 1 to stage 5 boys and girls have increases over puberty in testosterone and estrogen Main female hormone 9 estradiol Main male hormone 9 testosterone o Endocrine System 0 The main thing that happens in adolescents is becoming able to sexually reproduce Hypothalamus 9 acts as a thermostat and monitors leptin and hormone levels Leptin 9 neurotransmitters made by fat cells that sends messages to the hypothalamus which starts the pubertal process Feedback loops occur 9 hypothalamus communicates with pituitary o Endocrine System Feedback Group 0 Hypothalamus monitors levels of androgens and estrogens in bloodstream Pituitary gland responds to level of GnRH by altering production of FSH LH and ACTH o Gonads and adrenal glands responds to levels of FSH and LH by altering amount of sex hormones produced 0 Set point when sex hormones reach an optimal level of the hypothalamus o Sexual Maturation Males 0 Increase in testicle and penis size 0 Pubic hair 0 0 Voice change 0 Spermarche first ejaculation9 average age of 12 In typical ejaculation there are 3050 million sperm 0 Armpit hair 0 Facial hair o Sexual Maturation Females Breast change and enlarge Pubic hair Armpit hair Menarche 9 first period 0 O O 0 Average egg amount 9 400000 Over lifetime female releases about 400 eggs o Order of Pubertal Events 0 Girls Downy pubic hair Appearance of breast buds Growth spurt Growth of sexual and reproductive organs Menarche Secretion of increased skin oil and sweat Development of underarm hair Growth of testes Appearance of pubic hair Growth spurt Increased growth of penis Deepening of voice Secretion of increased skin oil and sweat Development of facial hair o Normal Range and Average Development of Sexual Characteristics 0 Table 111 o Changes Overtime in Initiation of Puberty A Secular Trend 0 Has become earlier and earlier in all countries since 19th century o Individual Differences in Timing of Puberty o Heredity O O 0 Nutrition and exercise 9 body fat being underweight or conducting lots of exercise can delay process and leptin in girls Geographical location 9 access to resources SES 9 higher social classes have earlier puberty because of easier access to resources Family stress 9 associated with earlier puberty Can increase cortisol levels Presence of unrelated male in the home 9 pheromones emitted by unrelated male are picked up from body and endocrine system adjusts to it 2252009 111600 AM Ch11 Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence o Consequences of Timing of Puberty 0 Girls Early maturing n Unpopular withdrawn low confidence n More deviant behavior a Negative body image a More longterm problems Late maturing n Popular n Sociable lively school leaders a Positive body image 0 Boys Early maturing n Popular n Confident independent a Positive body image Late maturing n Unpopular n Anxious talkative attentionseeking a Negative body image o Other Health Issues in Adolescence 0 Sexual activity Teenage pregnancy United States 9 15 before 15 40 1517 70 18 19 0 Substance use amp abuse o Characteristics of Sexually Active Adolescents 0 Personal Early puberty Tendency to violate norms Little religious involvement 0 Family Step singleparent or large family Parenting extremes n Weak parental monitoring parentchild communication a Very strict parental style 0 Peer Sexually active friends or siblings 0 Educational Poor school performance Low educational goals o Risks for Teen Mothers 0 Less educational achievement 0 More time as single parents 0 Lifetime poverty 0 Pregnancy and birth complications 0 Lack of parenting skills o Substance Use in Adolescence o US has highest rate of adolescent drug use of any industrialized nation 0 Monitoring the future study From 20042005 a Overall drug use o Percentage decrease in past years n Cigarette smoking a Prescription drugs Use of substances in adolescence has stronger more negative implications for human development than we had previously thought Only substance use to increase 9 prescription drugs a 1 in 10 12th graders have used prescription pills o Adolescent Brain Development 0 Especially in prefrontal cortex 9 behind forehead associated with higher levels of thinking Increase in synaptic connections Pruning of unused connections Myelination Neurotransmitter changes a Dopamine inputs Gray matter peaks at age 1011 a Creates capability of higher thinking o Regulation of Emotions o Prefrontal cortex Involved in higherorder cognitive functioning such as decision making Located behind forehead o Amygdala Involved in processing information about emotion Located in center of brain o Adolescent Moodiness o Perceive more negative life events 0 Stronger responses to stimuli 0 Less stable moods o Piaget s Theory Formal Operational Stage develop capacity for abstract systematic scientific thinking around age 11 o Propositional thought Evaluating the logic of verbal proposition without referring to realworld circumstances 0 Hypotheticodeductive reasoning Deducing hypotheses from a general theory Pendulum problem 9 explaining speed of pendulum at different weights and differently sized strings 2252009 111600 AM Ch11 Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence o Evaluating Piaget s Theory on Formal Operational Thought 0 Prevalence among adolescents 9 only 13 of all adolescents 0 Education 9 not natural capability 0 Culture 9 nonwestern cultures less likely to exhibit formal operational thinking 0 Sexgender 9 boys more likely to exhibit thinking o InformationProcessing Approach 0 Views cognitive change as continuous 0 Focus is on the thinking processes computer analogy 0 Processing gains in adolescence Processing speed Automaticity Attentioninhibition 0 Brain development 9 myelination prefrontal cortex higher levels of dopamine enables focus Ch10amp12 Emotional and Social Development in Middle Childhood and Adolescence o Erikson s Psychosocial Stages 0 Basic trust v mistrust 9 birth to 1 year Autonomy v shame and doubt 9 13 years Initiative v guilt 9 36 years Industry v inferiority 9 611 years Identity v role confusion 9 adolescence Intimacy v isolation 9 early adulthood Generativity v stagnation 9 middle adulthood Ego integrity v despair 9 late adulthood o Middle Childhood Industry versus Inferiority 0 Industry Developing a sense of competence at useful skills 0 Inferiority Pessimism and lack of confidence in own ability to do things well o Adolescence Identity versus Role Confusion 0 Identity development Exploration 0 O O O O O O Selfdefinitions Commitments 0 Role confusion Involves lack of n Exploration n Selfdefinition n Commitment n Prior conflict resolution o Identity Statuses James Marcia 0 Level of commitment 9 high Level of exploration 9 high a Identity achievement 9 commitment to values beliefs and goals following period of exploration Level of exploration 9 low a Identity foreclosure 9 commitment in the absence of exploration 0 Level of commitment 9 low Level of exploration 9 high a Identity moratorium 9 exploration without having reached commitment temporary prohibition of activity Level of exploration 9 low a Identity diffusion 9 apathetic state with lack of both commitment and exploration o Selfconcept from Middle Childhood to Adolescence o Selfconcept what a person describes or understands himherself to be like more qualitative How changes from middle childhood to adolescence o Selfesteem from Middle Childhood to Adolescence o Selfesteem the value of a person applies to hisher self concept more quantitative Patterns over time 9 decline from 6th to 10th grade Factors affecting 9 shifts from parents to friendspeers Focus in adolescence 9 girls generally have lower self esteem than boys Outcome measures o Socioemotional Consequences of Abstract Thought 0 Imaginary audience 9 extreme selfconsciousness belief that everyone is watching them 0 Personal fable 9 sense of invincibility Optimistic bias 9 bad things happen to other people End up in higher risk group and those in other age groups 2252009 111600 AM Ch10amp12 Emotional and Social Development in Middle Childhood and Adolescence o Heinz Steals the Drug o Kohlberg s Stages of Moral Development 0 Preconventional level 9 accepting rules of authority figures and judge actions by consequences Stage 1 9 punishment and obedience a Not doing something for fear of punishment 9 not hitting brother speeding Stage 2 9 instrumental purpose a Maximizing rewards 9 eating vegetables for dessert 0 Conventional level 9 maintaining societal order Stage 3 9 good boygood girl morality of interpersonal cooperation Stage 4 9 social order maintaining o Postconventional or principle level 9 define morality in terms of abstract principles Stage 5 9 social contract a Some laws are not always ethical 9 slavery women s suffrage Stage 6 9 universal ethical principle o Collectivist Orientation in Moral Reasoning 0 Rights ampjustice orientation Kohlberg 0 Vs collectivist orientation Gender Carol Gilligan Culture 0 Is one really betterhigher morality o Time Spent with Family from Middle Childhood to Adolescence 0 Through adolescence 9 less and less time spent with family o ParentChild Relationships during Adolescence 0 Rise in conflict Physical distancing n Less likely to hug or show physical affection toward child from middle childhood to adolescence Psychological distancing n Less likely to tell child they love them from middle childhood to adolescence Less likely to tell child they appreciate something that they did from middle childhood to adolescence Desire for autonomy 9 sense of oneself as separate selfgoverning individual 0 Most conflict is mild o Benefits of Friendships o In middle childhood AND adolescence Selfexploration Develop social and relational skills Foundation for intimate relationships Social comparison more accurate with maturity o In adolescence Supportstress relief Can influence achievement and risktaking or 2252009 111600 AM Ch13 Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood o Physical Development amp AdolescenceEmerging Adulthood o V02 max Maximum amount of oxygen in milliliters one can use in one minute per kilogram of body weight At highest level in late teensearly adolescent years 0 Muscle strength Muscle mass and grip strength at peak levels in early adulthood 0 Reaction time Faster in emerging adulthood than at any other time of life 0 Cardiac output Cardiac output is the volume of blood pumped by heart in a minute Peaks at age 25 o Immune system c Senescence Biological Aging 0 Theories about why we age 0 Factors affecting differences among us Genes Lifestyle Socioeconomic environment Historical period c Theories of Biological Aging systemic o DNAcellular level Programmed effects of specific genes n Teomere shortening 9 aging genes Random events a Mutations and cancer a Free radicals 9 cellular abnormalities that are naturally occurring highly reactive chemicals that form in presence of oxygen o Antioxidants reduce free radicals 9 strawberries walnuts beans vitamin C donate electrons o Theories of Biological Aging organ amp tissue level 0 Crosslinkage theory Protein bridges make DNA less elastic 9 tissue becomes less elastic o The brain hypotheses Gradual failure of endocrine system Hypothalamus become less able to maintain homeostasis o The autoimmune theory Declines in immune system Autoimmune system becomes more impaired 9 Tcells fight cancer and foreign bodies and Bcells attack viruses and cancer cells o Physical Changes of Aging in Early Adulthood p343 0 Changes from age 30 Vision Hearing more form age 20 o Gradual changes Touch Cardiovascular Respiratory Immune Muscular Skin 0 Changes from age 35 Fertility declines incidence of chromosomal disorders increases o Changes in Musculoskeletal System 0 Muscle Strength peaks in mid205 Sarcopenia n Definition 9 loss of muscle mass and strength often associated with aging n Statistics 9 muscle mass decreases with age o Fasttwitch muscle fibers decrease 30 from age 30 to age 80 o If exercise 9 maintain slowtwitch fibers until age 50 0 Bones Growth in early adults 9 bones finished growing Need for calcium o Athletic Performance and Aging 0 Peaks at age 20 0 Changes in muscle mass 0 Changes in cardiovascular functioning 2252009 111600 AM Ch13 Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood o Cardiovascular and Respiratory Changes 0 Heart 9 heart muscles loss mass heart cannot pump as strongly Changes in early adulthood n Raceethnicity Ways to keep heart healthy n Maximum number of heartbeats declines o Lungs Lung capacity declines 10 per decade with age Maximum vital capacity declines after age 25 Stiffness makes breathing harder with age Exercising creates less decline 0 Ways to reduce hypertension HBP Exercise Stop smoking Reduce salt intake only 200 mgday Reduce alcohol consumption 9 linked to increases in bad fat triglycerides and increase in blood pressure and weight Decrease stress Lose weight Increase potassium eating more fruits and vegetables 0 Differences in races 12 more African Americans have hypertension Death rates from cardiovascular disease are also 28 higher for blacks than whites o Consequences of Being Overweight 0 Health problems Blood pressure 9 heart Diabetes 9 higher risk as fat cells dilute ability of receptors creating high amounts of unused sugars Cancer 9 increased risk of breast endometrial colon and kidney cancers Liver gallbladder Arthritis Sleep digestive 9 sleep apnea 0 Social discrimination and mistreatment o Longevity and reduced calorie diet In study with mice group that received 30 less calories in diet had less instances of cancer diabetes etc 9 were healthier and lived longer Human may produce fewer free radicals by doing this o Dietary Fat 0 Saturated fat From meat and dairy Solid at room temperature No more than 10 of daily calories 0 Total fat 30 or less of daily calories Good fats 9 olive canola and fish oils o Exercise 0 Only 13 of people get enough At least 30 minutes of moderate exercise 5 or more daysweek is recommended More often and more vigorous is better 0 Around 13 of North Americans are inactive Women are most likely to be inactive 9 childbirth and childrearing Low SES are more likely to be inactive 9 less time work multiple jobs less access to places of exercise 0 Benefits Reduces fat builds muscle Immune system Cardiovascular benefits Mental health benefits a Stress reduction n Selfesteem Longer life o Leading Causes of Death in Early Adulthood o In the US beginning with most prevalent and continuing with other less common ones Unintentional injury due to firearms cancer heart disease suicide AIDS and homicide o In Canada Cancer unintentional injury suicide heart disease infection diseases including AIDS and homicide 2252009 111600 AM Ch13 Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood o Sexual Activity in Early Adulthood 0 Sexual behavior Frequency amp context a By 22 9 90 have had sex a Usually in steady relationship a Married people have more sex than single Homosexuality prevalence a Common to come out in early adulthood Cohabitation amp marriage a Normative route into marriage 0 Increase in early adulthood AIDS 9 most common in early and middle adulthood Chlamydia 9 more common in women during adolescence and early adulthood Syphilis 9 more common in men during early adolescence 0 Age at first childbirth Average age in US 9 252 years old a In 70 s 9 near 21 years old Changes for age groups n Over 13 of first time mothers are over 30 a Teenage pregnancy has decreased 0 Theories of Changes in Thinking in Early Adulthood Piaget postformal thought cognitive development beyond formal operations a William Perry o Epistemic cognition o How we arrive to beliefthought o Dualistic thinking tend to think in black and white to relativistic thinking viewing all knowledge as framework of thought u Gisella LabouvieVief o Pragmatic thought 0 Logic becomes a tool for solving real world problems o Cognitiveaffective complexity 0 Coordination of negative and positive feelings into complex organized structure a If you re not a liberal at twenty you have no heart if you re not a conservative at age forty you have no brain Winston Churchill o CognitiveAffective Complexity across Adulthood Peak in capacity in early to middle adulthood Decreases by late adulthood o Expertise and Creativity Expertise acquisition of extensive knowledge in a field a Takes many years 9 about a decade a Affects information processing Effects on creativity a 10year rule a Creativity usually rises in early adulthood 0 Educational Attainment in Early Adulthood Bachelor s degrees among those age 2529 a 33 of women amp 26 of men High school dropouts among those ages 2224 a 11 of women amp 14 of men 3050 of collegians drop out of college a Personal factors a Institutional factors Effect on earnings n Average earnings o With college education 9 80k o With high school diploma 9 20k o The College Experience Opportunities for exploration n Increased levels of relativistic thinking worldview o Moral reasoning advancements 242009 110500 AM Ch3 Prenatal Development Birth and Newborn Baby o The Apgar Scale 0 Activity Pulse Grimace Appearance Respiration 0 Healthy score 7 0 Baby scored twice within five minutes upon birth o Low Birth Weight and Disabilities 0 Smaller birth weight 9 higher risk of major or minor disability 0 Preterm 9 born before due date 0 Smallfordate 9 below expected weight during pregnancy o Birth Weight amp Later Health 0 Low birth weight Heart disease Stroke Diabetes Earlier age of menarche starting period in girls Lower testicular volume 0 High birth weight Greater risk of some diseases o Intervention for Preterm Infants 0 Isoette 9 incubator o Respirator 9 lungs do not finish developing until last weeks of pregnancy Respiratory distress syndrome 9 born more than 6 weeks early 0 Feeding tube 0 Intravenous nutritionmedication 0 Special infant stimulation Kangaroo care 9 baby skintoskin with mother s chest baby can feel parent s heart rate o Newborn Reflexes 9 inborn automatic response to a particular form of stimulation 0 Eye blink Rooting 9 prepares for nursing Sucking Stepping 9 precursor to walking first two months Babinkski 9 toe curling as foot is touched O O O O o Grasping 9 holds fingers and can support body weight palmar grasp re ex o Moro 9 arms fling outward in clinging motion when startled o Tonic neck 9 curls limbs on opposite side to which it is looking fencing position 0 Gag o Crawling 0 Breathing o Swallowing o Infant States of Arousal 9 degrees of sleep or wakefulness 0 Regular quiet or nonREM sleep 9 no body activity face is relaxed breathing is slow and regular 89 hours 0 Irregular active or REM sleep 9 body activity facial movements breathing is irregular 89 hours 0 Drowsiness 9 glazed look falling asleep or waking up varies 0 Quiet alertness 9 fixate and focus on visual objects orients to sound upon hearing noise 23 hours 0 Waking activity and crying 9 frequent bursts of uncoordinated body activity breathing irregular 14 hours Colic 9 persistent crying o Sudden Infant Death Syndrome SIDS 9 unexpected death usually during night of infant under 1 years old that remains unexplained after thorough investigation o Developments in Hearing 0 Prenatal amp newborn sense of hearing Sense of musical phrasing 47 months Screen out sounds from nonnative languages by 10 months Recognize familiar words natural phrasing in native language 79 months o Improvements in Vision 0 Brain and eye maturation 9 retina develops throughout first year binocular vision ability to coordinate both eyes develops across first year o Improvements in visual acuity fineness of discrimination9 20120 by six weeks 2030 by eight months 242009 110500 AM Ch4 Physical Development in Infancy o Infant Mortality around the World 0 Lowest percentage 9 Singapore 0 United States 9 one of higher percentages o Milestones in Face Perception 0 Birth 1 month Prefer simple facelike pattern Can see 12 inches away 0 24 months Prefer complex facial pattern to other complex patterns Distinguishes strange from familiar faces Prefer mom s face over stranger 0 512 months Can perceive emotional expressions on faces o Body Growth 0 Tremendous increases in height and weight First 5 months 9 body weight doubles First year 9 height increases by 50 Second year 9 height increases by another 25 0 Differences between girls amp boys Girls smaller shorter and thinner than boys 0 Increase in baby fat until about 9 months then get slimmer Aids in maintaining body temperature o Changes in Body Proportions 0 Head proportion becomes smaller as age increases o Growth Trends 0 Cephalocaudal trend 9 prenatal period Head to tail Head grows before lower parts of body 0 Proximodistal trend 9 infancy Near to far Head chest and trunk grow first followed by extremities o Influences on Early Growth 0 Heredity 0 Nutrition Breast vs bottle feeding 9 recommended to breastfeed until age 2 o Malnutrition Marasmus 9 diet low in all essential nutrients Kwashiorkor 9 diet low in protein 0 Emotional wellbeing Problems can cause nonorganic failure to thrive 9 lack of parental love show signs of marasmus o Benefits of Breastfeeding for Baby 0 Perfect human food 0 Better growth 0 Better infant health 9 mothers antibodies are passed to child ear infection allergies respiratory infections diarrhea meningitis asthma SIDS hospitalization better vision 0 Fewer diseases later in life 9 obesity diabetes MS heart disease cancer orthodontics 0 Different tastes 0 Higher intelligence 0 Attachment o Benefits of Breastfeeding for Mother 0 Helps uterus contract 0 Burns extra calories 0 Delays ovulation 9 form of birth control 0 Lower risk of disease 9 lower risk of breast and ovarian cancer 0 Convenience 0 Financial emotional 242009 110500 AM Ch4 Physical Development in Infancy o Sense of Smell amp Taste 0 Development of smell 9 developed at 3 months in utero o Odor preference from birth 9 smell oil on mother s nipple 0 Learn to like new tastes quickly Preferences at birth 9 sweet tastes Breastfeeding 9 more adventurous tasting in breastfed babies o Motor Skill Milestone Birth2 years 0 See Table 42 0 Gross motor to fine motor o Motor Skills as Dynamic Systems 0 Increasingly complex systems of actions with each skill 0 Each new skill is joint product of 1 CNS development 9 brain 2 Body s movement capacity 3 Child s goalsmotivation 4 Environmental supports o Milestones of Reaching and Grasping o Prereaching 9 bating and waving at objects 0 Reaching 9 reach intentionally With two hands then one o Ulnar grasp Adjust grip to object Move objects from hand to hand 0 Pincer grasp 9 pinch objects with two fingers o Development of Skull 0 Fontanelles present in newborn 9 2 soft spots on baby s head Purpose 9 baby s head must fit through birth canal brain is still growing Closure 9 five bones fuse n Infant 9 brain is 25 of adult size n Age 3 9 brain is 90 of adult size o Major Milestones of Brain Development 0 Neurons 9 nerve cells that store and transmit information O O O 0 Brain 0 O Synapses 9 where fibers from different neurons come close together but do not touch Synaptic pruning 9 returns neurons not needed to uncommitted state so they can support future development Dendritic spreading overspreadingexuberance 9 neurons begin to connect with one another Myelination 9 fat tissue surrounding nerve cells improves efficiency of message transfer Development and Environment Stimulation is vital when brain is growing rapidly Use it or lose it Experienceexpectant growth 9 young brain s rapidly developing organization which depends on ordinary experiences Experiencedependent growth 9 additional growth and refinement of established brain structures as result of specific learning experiences 242009 110500 AM Ch 5 Cognitive Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood o Piaget s Theory Schemes o Organized ways of making sense of experience 0 Change with age Actionbased sensorimotor sensesphysical patterns 9 spans first two years of life Later move to thinking before acting pattern creative and deliberate o Building Schemes 9 organized ways of making sense of experience 0 Adaptation Building schemes through direct interaction with environment 0 Assimilation Using current schemes to interpret external world 0 Accommodation Adjusting old schemes and creating new ones to better fit environment a Overextension take concept and overuse in association ex calling every animal with four legs a dog a Underextension use broader language for specific idea wanting specific bottle when asking for bottle Example son with whipped cream boy associated shoes with exercise shoes o Using Assimilation and Accommodation 0 Equilibrium steady comfortable condition and Disequilibrium cognitive discomfort Use assimilation during equilibrium Disequilibrium prompts accommodation 0 Organization Internal rearranging and liking schemes o Sensorimotor Stage 0 Birth to 2 years 0 Building schemes through sensory and motor exploration 0 Circular reactions 9 repetitive actions o Sensorimotor Substages o 1 Reflexive schemes Birth 1 mo Newborn reflexes o 2 Primary circular reactions 14 mos Simple motor habits centered around own body Ex bubble blowing stage in infants 0 3 Secondary circular reactions 48 mos Repeat interesting effects in surroundings Ex baby yelling at baby monitor to watch light 0 4 Coordination of secondary circular reactions 812 mos Intentional goaldirected behavior object permanence Ex peakaboo hiding and finding objects 0 5 Tertiary circular reactions 1218 mos Explore properties of objects through novel actions Ex stick can beat drum and also new surfaces 0 6 Mental representations 12 mos 2 years Internal depictions of objects or events deferred imitation Language emerges o Mental Representations 0 Internal mental depictions of objects people events information Can manipulate with mind to come up with ideassolutions Allow deferred imitation and makebelieve play o Deferred Imitation 9 ability to remember and copy behavior of models who are not present 0 Piaget develops about 18 months Ex baby imitating preacher o Precursors 6 weeks facial imitation 69 months copy actions with objects a Ex using computer mouse as phone 1214 months imitate rationally 18 months imitate intended but not completed actions Object Permanence 0 Understanding that objects continue to exist when out of sight 0 According to Piaget develops at 812 months 0 Not yet complete AnotB search error 9 looking for object where last found not where last seen Violation of Expectations Methods 9 habituate babies to physical event determine whether infants recover to an expected event or an unexpected event 0 Window cut to show path of short and tall carrots 0 As tall carrots were not shown through window unexpected event infants stare longer Memory Improvements amp Changes 0 Infantile Amnesia 9 most cannot recall events occurring before age 3 Implicit v explicit n Implicit 9 remembering without trying ex riding a bike driving a Explicit 9 intentional selfconscious remembering occurs during toddlerhood Memory systems a Mobile tasks 26 months a Train tasks 618 months a Move from sensorimotor to mobile 242009 110500 AM Ch 5 Cognitive Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood cont o Three Theories of Language Development 0 Behaviorist Learned through operant conditioning reinforcement and imitation o Nativist Inborn Language Acquisition Device LAD biologically prepares infants to learn rules of language 0 Interactionist Inner capacities and environment work together Social context is important Piaget and modern scientists o Core Knowledge Theory 0 Humans are born with innate specialpurpose knowledge systems Linguistic 9 ex baby mimicking faces Psychological Physical 9 ex carrot experiment Numerical 9 0 Core domains allow quick grasp of related information o Infants Numerical Knowledge 0 Infants may be able to Discriminate quantities up to 3 Do simple arithmetic 9 ex experiment counting number of puppets behind screen 0 Findings are controversial o Language Development in Infancy 0 Birth 9 crying o 12 months 9 cooing begins practicing vowel pronunciation o 6 months 9 babbling begins practicing of consonant pronunciation 0 812 months 9 use of gestures showing and pointing comprehension of words appear 1015 months 9 first word spoken 18 months 9 vocabulary spurts start 0 O 0 1824 months 9 use of twoword utterances rapid expansion of understanding of words o Rule Systems of Language 0 See figure o Language Loop in Brain 0 Broca s area 9 making words to communicate o Wernicke s area 9 comprehending language develops first 0 Attached by arcuate fasciculus 0 Found in left side of brain 9 corresponds to handedness o Individual Differences in Language Development 0 Environment 0 Gender 0 Personality 0 Language style Referential 9 using words that describe objects develop language sooner than expressive speakers Expressive 9 using more descriptive words o Supporting Early Language Learning 9 Supporting Social Cognition 0 Infants Respond to coos and babbles Establish joint attention 9 ex following bird with finger Use childdirected speech 9 short sentences with high pitched exaggerated expression clear pronunciation distinct pauses be Play social games 9 ex peekaboo o Toddlers Play makebelieve together Have frequent conservations Read often and talk about books o ToddlerInfant Intelligence Tests 0 Bayley Scales play tasks 0 Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence 9 tests infants visual memory 242009 110500 AM Ch 6 Emotional and Social Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood o Video 9 understanding only one language at 11 months can understand certain words and sounds that are not birth language from 6 to 10 months Psychological Stages during Infancy and Toddlerhood 0 Year 1 Age 9 Basic trust vs mistrust Erikson s stage 9 responsiveness Needed from caregivers Year 2 9 Autonomy vs shame and doubt 9 Guidance amp reasonable choices Give toddlers choice takes patience First Appearance of Basic Emotions 9 happiness interest surprise fear anger sadness and disgust 0 Happiness Smile from birth Social smile 610 weeks 9 interaction with others Laugh 34 weeks 0 Anger General distress from birth 46 months 0 Fear First fears 2nd half of first year Stranger anxiety 812 months Secure base 9 familiar caregiver o Attachment 9 a close emotional bond between two people 0 Theorists on attachment Freud 9 infants attached by oral fixation Harlow 9 monkey experiments baby monkeys prefer soft stuffed monkey over wire monkey Erikson 9 trust arises from physical comfort Bowlby 9 humans are programmed to elicit attachment newborn biologically elicits attachment from caregivers o Strange Situation Tests of Infant Attachment Mary Ainsworth o Securely attached 65 9 explores environment displays little emotion when caregiver leaves Some researchers put more emphasis on the return than on the leaving 0 Video 9 mother is able to elicit response from baby upon leaving and returning while stranger cannot o Avoidant 20 9 baby doesn t react much with caregiver upset when they leave but doesn t treat stranger differently than parent 0 Resistant 1015 9 clings to caregiver and protests loudly when caregiver leaves strong and angry emotion o Disorienteddisorganized 510 9 extreme fearfulness shown with caregiver greatest amount of insecurity and attachment issues Stranger Anxiety 0 Description 9 fear of strangers o Emergence 9 starts at 89 months peaks at 1 year old typically goes away by 2 years old 0 Explanation 9 functional baby needs caregiver 0 Factors affecting 9 mother s location infant s location unknown place or known place Separation Anxiety 0 Description 9 fear of being away from caregiver o Emergence 9 peaks about 15 months goes away around 2 years old 0 Explanation 9 establishing trust in environment recommended not to give into child distract child Understanding Emotions of Others 0 Emotional contagion early infancy 9 emotion is contagious emotion seen on others is reflected Recognize other s faction expressions 45 months Social referencing by one year old 9 assessing caregiver s response when faced with unsure situation Emotional SelfRegulation 9 adjusting one s state of emotional intensity 0 Grows over first year with brain development 0 Caregivers attribute to child s selfregulated style Temperament 0 Reactivity 9 speed and intensity of emotional arousal attention motor activity o Selfregulation 9 strategies that modify reactivity 242009 110500 AM Ch 6 Emotional and Social Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood o Structure of Temperament Thomas amp Chess 9 earlyappearing stable individual differences in reactivity and selfregulation 0 Easy 40 9 establish regular routines generally cheerful adapts easily to new experiences Difficult 10 9 irregular daily routines slow to accept new experiences reacts negatively and intensely o Slowtowarmup 15 9 mild lowkey reactions negative in mood adjusts slowly to new experiences 0 Unclassified 35 o Biological Basis of Temperament Kagan o Inhibited shy React negatively withdraw from new stimuli High heart rates stress hormones amp stress symptoms Higher right hemisphere frontal cortex activity Greater use of amygdala o Uninhibited sociable React positively approach new stimuli Low heat rates stress hormones amp stress symptoms Higher left hemisphere frontal cortex activity Lesser use of amygdala o Kagan s Research on Temperament 0 Stable trait Toddler 9 adulthood 0 Association with later mental health Ch7 Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood o Body growth slows 0 Shape becomes more streamlined 0 Age 3 brain is 90 of full size 0 Age 6 brain is 95 of full size o Skeletal Growth 0 Growth of skeleton in early childhood Infancy bones consist of more cartiledge Growth plates creates bone cells through mitosis n Disappear around 20 years old Epiphyses rounded ends of bones O Diaphysis middle shaft of bone Loose teeth around end of early childhood stage o Influences on Physical Growth and Health 0 Nature 9 predicts how tail on could be Genes Hormones a Growth hormone o Nurture 9 predicts how tall one will be Infectious disease a Malnutrition n Immunization Childhood injuries Nutrition SES o Infectious Disease and Malnutrition 0 Causes disease 0 Disease 9 malnutrition Rickets 9 lack of vitamin D Scurvy 9 Vitamin C deficiency Goiter 9 iodine deficiency Pallagra 9 lack of niacin o Diarrhea Oral rehydration therapy and zinc can help o Immunizations 0 Many American children lack full set Why a Financial n Religion n EducationFear 0 Implications Polio 9 causes death and deformity Measles o Brain Development in Early Childhood o Frontal lobe areas for planning organization higher level thinking develop 0 Left hemisphere active Language skills Handedness o Linking areas of the brain develop Cerebellum reticular formation corpus callosum n Corpus callosum 9 allows sides of brain to communicate a Cerebellum 9 coordination and balance a Reticular formation 9 develops selfconsciousness o Handedness o Reflects dominant cerebral hemisphere Righthanded 90 left hemisphere Lefthanded 10 both hemispheres different areas are less specialized 0 May be genetic basis but affected by experience Position in uterus practice Culture 0 Correlates of lefthandedness Neurological disorders 9 epilepsy autism dyslexia down syndrome schizophrenia Overrepresented among most successfulintelligent 9 Einstein Newton Franklin Da Vinci Michaelangelo Obama Clinton Explanation 242009 110500 AM Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Ch 7 o Motor Skill Development in Early Childhood o Criticalprime time of deveopment o Correlated with cognitive skills Piaget New research 0 Motor music skills 0 Two types of motor skills gross and fine o Gross Motor Skills in Early Childhood 0 Balance improves o Gait smooth and rhythmic by age 2 0 Upper and lowerbody skills combine into more refined actions by age 5 0 Greater speed and endurance o Fine Motor Skills 0 Fine motor skills Selfhelp dressing eating Give child many opportunities a Zone of proximal development Vygotsky Drawingwriting o Progression of Drawing Skills 0 Scribbles During 2nd year 0 First representational forms 0 More realistic drawing PreK to school age 0 Early printing Ages 35 o Piaget s Preoperational Stage 0 Ages 27 0 Gains in mental representation Symbolic representation of real world Makebelieve play 0 Limitations in thinking Conservation 9 certain physical characteristics of objects remain same even when their outward appearance changes Egocentrism perspective taking 9 failure to distinguish symbolic viewpoints of others from one s own Hierarchical classification 9 organization of objects into classes and subclasses on basis of similarities and differences Animistic thinking 9 belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities such as thoughts wishes feelings and intentions Early Childhood The Play Years 0 Development of play Nonsocial sensorimotor play birth18 months Parallel play 18 month4 years 9 no interaction Associative play 9 separate activities with little interaction Cooperative play 45 years 9 much interaction Games with rules 5 years 0 Play essential to higher levels of brain development Maturation of cerebellum amp cerebral cortex 0 Play threatened by visual media Piaget we must explore world with all our senses 0 Skills learned in free unstructured play Socialinterpersonal Language Physical Academic MakeBelieveSociodramatic Play 0 Developed capacity in early childhood 0 Benefits Theory of Mind ToM an understanding of human mental processes 0 Develops around age 4 o If you have ToM you understand that people have a false belief which is 1 Accepting that someone could have a belief that you know is false or that they could believe something different than you 2 Knowing that you can deceive someone else 0 The ability to attribute or instill a false belief to or in others indicated the presence of theory of mind o Theory of Mind Why Does is Matter 0 Typical children social competence ampToM Social importance Peer social status 0 AutismAsberger s and ToM Difficulty acquiring o Language Development During the Play Years 0 Most rapid increase in all aspects of language development 9 before age 7 0 Why 1 Brain maturation 2 Increase in social motivation amp selfcriticism n More aware of others thoughts 3 Engagement in play more linguistic opportunities 4 Acquisition of symbolic thought whole new world of thought and ideas o Language in Early Childhood 0 View chart o Grammar structures techniques and rules used to communicate meaning 0 By early play years age 3 children s grammar quite advanced Order words correctly I eat red apple Begin to use plurals understand amp use part amp future verb tenses 0 Exhibit overregulation frequently overapply grammar rules to exceptions o Children s Private Speech 9 selfdirected speech
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