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Intro to Criminal Justice Study Guide

by: Alexis Braxton

Intro to Criminal Justice Study Guide Crmj 254

Marketplace > Towson University > Criminal Justice > Crmj 254 > Intro to Criminal Justice Study Guide
Alexis Braxton

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About this Document

General information needed to know about exam with general answers. All notes are not posted on this study guide.
Intro to Criminal Justice
Miriam D. Sealock
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexis Braxton on Saturday March 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Crmj 254 at Towson University taught by Miriam D. Sealock in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Intro to Criminal Justice in Criminal Justice at Towson University.

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Date Created: 03/05/16
Intro to Criminal Justice  Study Guide Exam 1 What you should expect….. 1. The general goals of the criminal justice system Doing Justice  Holding offenders accountable   Treating people fairly o Protect the rights those who have contact with the system  Offenders  Crime victims(to a lesser extent) o “Like” offenses will be treated alike BUT also take into account relevant  differences among offenders and offenses. Responding to crime  Criminal Justice is designed to manage crime by: o Arresting o Prosecuting o Convicting   Punishing those who disobey the law ­In terms of policy and practice (that is, in the making of laws, and/or how those laws are  enforced),  Federalism  Discretion  Individual freedom v. Community Interest Federalism­ Powers and responsibilities are divided between national and state government (each acts according to its own interest). Bodies   of   law­   define   appropriate   conduct   for   all   and   to   restrict   the   actions   of representatives of government.  Law Enforcement Agencies­ to enforce laws and investigate crimes Court Systems­ To interpret law, prosecute criminal cases and determine guilt. Correctional Systems­ To punish and/or rehabilitate convicted offenders. Discretion­ Making decisions (Should a case move on to the next step of the process?) Once a crime has occurred, various actors (Crime victim, police, etc.) use discretion to decide what occurs next. ­ What is the concept of deterrence, and how does the criminal justice system utilize this  concept to try to prevent crime? Deterrence Theory­ rational creatures and weigh the costs vs. benefits of our actions  (including committing crime) Formal cost­ apprehended, arrested, punishment Informal cost­losing your job, home etc. Criminal justice system has the power to impact the potential coat  Severity of punishment  Certainty of punishment  Speed/efficiency of punishment Certainty > Severity High severity doesn’t equal deterrence of crime 2. The steps of the criminal justice process (i.e., what happens at each step and the various decisions that might be made at that stage of the process) ­Grand juries vs. preliminary hearings: 3.  What are the various procedural differences between them – that is, what are all of the  ways that they operate differently? (Be prepared to compare/contrast preliminary hearings and grand juries in terms of how they work.) 4. What is the fundamental purpose of both?  Purpose: To protect the defendant from hasty and malicious prosecution o Neutral 3  party is asked to determine if there is sufficient grounds to go to  trial based upon the state’s case thus far.  o Both are one sided proceedings that only states case will be presented  Should the case proceed? Is there probable cause exist to support the charges  against the defendant?  Varies by jurisdictions o Federal court system and ½ of the states in the U.S use grand juries at this  step o The remainder use preliminary hearings (and never use grand juries) o Some states use both  Defendant might waive the right to preliminary hearing/grand jury  Differences  o PH­ preside over (and final decision is made)by judge but GJ preside  over(and final decision is made) by a jury (people in the community) o PH­Defendant and his attorney will be present but GJ they do not have the  right to be present  They can request to address grand jury  o PH­ Defense can cross­examine prosecution witnesses but GJ cannot cross­ examine prosecution witnesses o PH­open to the public but GJ closed to public­secret o PH­ if sufficient evidence exist to support the filing of charges, will issues a  formal charging document called an information but GJ the charging  document called an indictment or true bill 5. From our class discussion – know generally where our information about crime patterns  comes from, as well as:  General patterns of crime victimization (statistically speaking, what  demographic groups are relatively more likely, or less likely, to  experience a criminal victimization?)  General likelihood of particular crimes being:   …reported to police   …cleared by arrest  Factors that influence the likelihood of crimes being:   …reported to police   …cleared by arrest  Primary vs. secondary vs. tertiary victims of crime 6. What kinds of “victims’ rights” provisions exist in the United States? 7. Victim impact statements – what are they, and what role do they play (formally as well  as informally) in sentencing hearings specifically? View Victim Impact PowerPoint on Class website  View Week 2­6 for more detail  You are allowed to bring a sheet of notes with answers to the study guide and any  additional notes.


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