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Sociology 100

by: Shayla Pedigo

Sociology 100 soc 100

Shayla Pedigo

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About this Document

This study guide is great for the first exam
Steve Hillis
Study Guide
sociology, Sociology 100, soc, Soc 10000, Exam 1
50 ?




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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shayla Pedigo on Saturday March 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to soc 100 at Purdue University taught by Steve Hillis in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 375 views. For similar materials see sociology in Sociology at Purdue University.


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Date Created: 03/05/16
Sociology 100 Study Guide >>Key located at end of study guide<< Sociological Imagination- a concept used by the American Sociologist C. Wright Mills to describe the ability to “think yourself away from the familiar routines of everyday life” and look at them from an entirely new perspective. Falsifiability- of a statement, hypothesis, or theory is the inherent possibility that it can be proven false. A statement is called falsifiable if it is possible to conceive of an observation or an argument which negates the statement in question. Conflict Theory-interprets society as a struggle for power between groups engaging in conflict for limited resources. Karl Marx is the founder of conflict theory. Anomie- lack of the usual social or ethical standards in an individual or group. Functionalist Theory- the perspective in sociology according to which society consists of different but related parts, each of which serves a particular purpose. Interactionist Theory- perspective that derives social processes (such as conflict, cooperation, identity formation) from human interaction. It is the study of how individuals act within society. Macrosociology- an approach to sociology which emphasizes the analysis of social systems and populations on a large scale, at the level of social structure, and often at a necessarily high level of theoretical abstraction. Microsociology, by contrast, focuses on the individual social agency. Microsociology- one of the main points (or focuses) of sociology, concerning the nature of everyday human social interactions and agency on a small scale: face to face. Reliability- the extent to which an experiment, test, or measuring procedure yields the same results on repeated trials. Validity- the quality of being logically or factually sound; soundness or cogency Internal Validity- refers to how well an experiment is done, especially whether it avoids confounding (more than one possible independent variable [cause] acting at the same time). The less chance for confounding in a study, the higher its internal validity is. External Validity- the validity of generalized (causal) inferences in scientific research, usually based on experiments as experimental validity. In other words, it is the extent to which the results of a study can be generalized to other situations and to other people. Correlation- a mutual relationship or connection between two or more things. Measurement- the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event, which can be compared with other objects or events Causality- the relationship between cause and effect; the principle that everything has a  cause. Independent Variable- a variable that stands alone and isn't changed by the other variables you are trying to measure. Dependent Variable- what you measure in the experiment and what is affected during the experiment. The dependent variable responds to the independent variable. It is called dependent because it "depends" on the independent variable. Hawthorne Effect- type of reactivity in which individuals modify or improve an aspect of their behavior in response to their awareness of being observed. Longitudinal Research- a correlational research study that involves repeated observations of the same variables over long periods of time, often many decades. It is often a type of observational study, although they can also be structured as longitudinal randomized experiments. Measurement Error- the difference between a measured value of quantity and its true value. Measurement Bias- The errors are random rather than biased: They neither understate nor overstate the actual measurement. In contrast, measurement bias, or systematic error, favors a particular result. A measurement process is biased if it systematically overstates or understates the true value of the measurement. Sampling Error- the error caused by observing a sample instead of the whole population. The sampling error is the difference between a sample statistic used to estimate a population parameter and the actual but unknown value of the parameter Sampling Bias- a bias in which a sample is collected in such a way that some members of the intended population are less likely to be included than others. Random assignment- an experimental technique for assigning human participants or animal subjects to different groups in an experiment using randomization, such as by a chance procedure or a random number generator. Random Selection- refers to how sample members (study participants) are selected from the population for inclusion in the study.  Random Sampling- a set of items that have been drawn from a population in such a way that each time an item was selected, every item in the population had an equal opportunity to appear in the sample. Research Design- refers to the overall strategy that you choose to integrate the different components of the study in a coherent and logical way, thereby, ensuring you will effectively address the research problem; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement, and analysis of data. Experimental Research- an experiment where the researcher manipulates one variable, and control/randomizes the rest of the variables. It has a control group, the subjects have been randomly assigned between the groups, and the researcher only tests one effect at a time. Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis- a theory developed by Edward Sapir and Benjamin Lee Whorf that states that the structure of a language determines or greatly influences the modes of thought and behavior characteristic of the culture in which it is spoken. Also called Whorfian hypothesis. Types of social norms- Laws, Folkways, Mores, Custom, Morality and religion Social Roles- Each social role is a set of rights, duties, expectations, norms and behaviours that a person has to face and fulfill. The model is based on the observation that people behave in a predictable way, and that an individual's behavior is context specific, based on social position and other factors. Cultural Adaptation- refers to the process and time it takes a person to assimilate to a new culture. Margaret Mead’s Study- Her reports detailing the attitudes towards sex in South Pacific and Southeast Asian traditional cultures influenced the 1960s sexual revolution. She was a proponent of broadening sexual mores within a context of traditional Western religious life. Causes of Cultural Change- Technology advancements, geological and ecological factor, contact. Argot- the jargon or slang of a particular group or class. Culture- a way of life of a group of people--the behaviors, beliefs, values, and symbols that they accept, generally without thinking about them, and that are passed along by communication and imitation from one generation to the next. Cultural Lag-  refers to the notion that culture takes time to catch up with technological innovations, and that social problems and conflicts are caused by this lag. Cultural Diffusion- the spread of cultural beliefs and social activities from one group to another. The mixing of world cultures through different ethnicities, religions and nationalities has increased with advanced communication, transportation and technology. Cultural Relativism- the principle of regarding the beliefs, values, and practices of a culture from the viewpoint of that culture itself. Originating in the work of Franz Boas in the early 20th century, cultural relativism has greatly influenced social sciences such as anthropology. Cultural Universals- as discussed by Emile Durkheim, George Murdock, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Donald Brown and others, is an element, pattern, trait, or institution that is common to all human cultures worldwide. Dominant Ideology- In Marxist philosophy, the term dominant ideology denotes the attitudes and beliefs, values and morals shared by the majority of the people in a given society; as a mechanism of social control, the dominant ideology frames how the majority of the population think about the nature of and their places in society; of being in and of a social class. Subculture- a cultural group within a larger culture, often having beliefs or interests at variance with those of the larger culture. Socialization- refers to the general process of acquiring culture, anthropologists use the term enculturation for the process of being socialized to a particular culture. You were enculturated to your specific culture by your parents and the other people who raised you . Nature vs. Nurture- whether a person's development is predisposed in his DNA, or a majority of it is influenced by this life experiences and his environment. Chomsky’s universal grammar- theory in linguistics, usually credited to Noam Chomsky, proposing that the ability to learn grammar is hard-wired into the brain. Cooley’s “Looking Glass Self”- Cooley argued that the self is a product of our social interactions with other people that involves three steps: 1) The imagination of our appearance to other people and associated feelings; 2) Imagining that others are evaluating our behavior; 3) We develop feelings and react to the imaginary evaluations of ourselves as objects. G.H. Mead and sense of self- According to Mead, the self, the part of one's personality composed of self-awareness and self-image, emerges through social interaction. Mead made several assumptions in proposing this idea: 1) that the self develops only through social interaction; 2) that social interaction involves the exchange of symbols; 3) that understanding symbols involves being able to take the role of another. Goffman’s Dramaturgy- Developed by American sociologist Erving Goffman in his seminal 1959 text The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, dramaturgy uses the metaphor of theater to explain human behavior. According to this perspective, individuals perform actions in everyday life as if they were performers on a stage. Creole Language- (orig. person of European descent born and raised in a tropical colony) is a language that was originally a pidgin but has become nativized, i.e. a community of speakers claims it as their first language. Next used to designate the language(s) of people of Caribbean and African descent in colonial and ex-colonial countries (Jamaica, Haiti, Mauritius, Réunion, Hawaii, Pitcairn, etc.) Pidgin Language- (origin in Engl. word `business'?) is nobody's native language; may arise when two speakers of different languages with no common language try to have a makeshift conversation. Lexicon usually comes from one language, structure often from the other. Because of colonialism, slavery etc. the prestige of Pidgin languages is very low. Many pidgins are `contact vernaculars', may only exist for one speech event. Agents of Socialization-  the individuals, groups and institutions that create the social context in which socialization takes place. Piaget’s stages of cognitive development-  Sensorimotor. Birth through ages 18-24 months  Preoperational. Toddlerhood (18-24 months) through early childhood (age 7)  Concrete operational. Ages 7 to 12  Formal operational. Adolescence through adulthood “Baby Einstein” & the Mozart Effect”- suggests that listening to Mozart makes you smarter, or that early childhood exposure to classical music has a beneficial effect on mental development Generalized other- a concept introduced by George Herbert Mead into the social sciences, and used especially in the field of symbolic interactionism. It is the general notion that a person has of the common expectations that others have about actions and thoughts within a particular society, and thus serves to clarify their relation to the other as a representative member of a shared social system. Significant other- a person with whom someone has an established romantic or sexual relationship. Social Construction of Aging- Entails the creation of social norms and symbols that encapsulates the aging process. Age is socially constructed because notions of age vary around the world. Different cultures fix age with different meanings and different values. Social Construction of Childhood- Children are dependent on adults for a range of biological and emotional needs. Children need a lengthy process of socialization which takes several years. In contrast to adults, children are not competent to run their own lives and cannot be held responsible for their actions Feral Children- a neglected child who engages in lawless or anti- social behavior. Mead’s Stages of Child Development-  Preparatory Stage- First stage where children imitate the people around them and use symbols to communicate.  Play Stage- Second stage where the child takes on new roles and plays with different characters.  Game Stage- Third stage where the child no longer plays with roles but begins to consider several tasks and relationships simultaneously. The child can now respond to numerous members of its environment. 1. When you are part of a society you take for granted many small cultural patterns that reflect the basic ____, ____, and ____ of the culture of the society.(pick all that apply) A. Beliefs B. Personalities C. Customs D. Values E. Fashions 2. When a fairly large number of people live in the same territory, are relatively independent of people outside their area, and participate in a common culture, they constitute a(n) ____. 3. True or false: Cultural values are uniformly shared among all members of a society. 4. ____ is founded on the work of Charles Darwin and his theory of evolution. A. Cultural relativism B. Endomixis C. Sociobiology D. Ethnocentrism 5. The systematic study of how biology affect human social behavior is called ____. A. Natural science B. Sociobiology C. Global science D. Cultural biology 6. Material culture refers to the physical of technological aspects of our daily lives, including which two of the following?(pick all that apply) A. Raw materials B. Government C. Tools D. Customs 7. Sociologists recognize discovery and invention as the two forms of cultural ____. A. Innovation B. Revitalization C. Stabilization D. Destruction 8. If people go to a foreign country and practice cultural relativism, this means that they do which of the following? (pick all that apply) A. Unquestionably accept every cultural variation B. Place a priority on understanding other cultures C. Judge the host culture as strange and misguided D. Practice value neutrality 9. The tendency to view one’s own culture and way of life as normal and superior to all others is called ____. 10. Countercultures are primarily composed of which of the following? (pick all that apply) A. Foreign terrorists B. People who have a life style outside of the mainstream culture C. Older people who dedicated their lives to the larger culture D. Young people who can more easily adjust to new cultural standards 11. How would cultural relativism impact outsiders’ views of the practice of bullfighting in a society that allows it? A. They would try to legalize bullfighting in their own countries in order to change their cultures’ norms and values. B. They would view bullfighting as strange and exotic, with little or no cultural worth. C. They would recognize that different social contexts have different norms and values from their own cultures. D. They would try to outlaw bullfighting in that country in order to match their own culture’s norms and values. KEY 1. A, C, and D 2. Society 3. False 4. C 5. B 6. A and C 7. A 8. B and D 9. Ethnocentrism 10. B and D 11. C


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