POLS 302 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE
POLS 302 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE POLS 302
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brittany Smith on Saturday March 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POLS 302 at Colorado State University taught by Kyle Saunders in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 86 views. For similar materials see Political Parties and Elections in Liberal Arts at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 03/05/16
American Political Parties and Elections Midterm Study Guide ~~Includes a study guide for both textbooks that piggyback off each other~~ Hershey Study Guide Chapter 1 Three Parts of Parties o Definition of Party organization o Definition of Party in the electorate o Definition of Party in government What Parties Do o Elect Candidates o Educate (or Propagandize) Citizens o Govern Effects of Party Activity How Parties differ from other Political Groups o Parties have a huge role in structuring elections o Full time commitment to political activity o The mobilize large numbers o The last for a long time o They serve as political symbols of loyalty History of American Parties o The Federalist Party o The DemocraticRepublican (Jeffersonian) Part o The Democratic Party o The Whig Party o The Republican Party What Parties Stand For o Definition of Polarization Parties Are Shaped by their Environment o Political culture o Voting and elections o Laws governing parties Chapter 2 The National Party System Measuring State Part Competition o The Ranney Index 3 indicators – what are they? Limited Competitiveness o Incumbency o Homogeneity Causes of Two Party Systems o Institutional Forces Definition of Duverger’s law Definition of Singlemember district Definition of Plurality Election Electoral College Primaries Definition of (OPPOSITE SIDE) Proportional Representation Exceptions to the Two Party System Chapter 3 What is a “Strong” Party o Party organizational strength What are they? Levels of Party Organization o Types of committees Precinct, ward, and/or township committees City party committee County party committee state legislative and/or congressional district committee State central committee o Local Party Committees The county is the main unit Counties are divided into smaller sections called precincts o State Central Committees Definition of Party Machines o The development of machines o How machines held on to power Transformation of State and Local Party Organizations o What is it? Chapter 4 The National Parties o National convention o National Committee o National Party Chairs Other National Party Groups o Congressional Campaign (“Hill”) Committees (CCCs) o Democratic and Republican Governors’ Associations o Women’s and Youth Groups o Party Networks Campaign Finance o Definition of Service Paths o Definition of Soft Money Impact of Stronger National Parties o Effects on Candidates’ Campaigns o Effects on state and Local Parties Definition of Decentralization o Effects on Presidency o Effects on Congress o Relationships within the National Party Three national committees What are they? Chapter 5 What Draws People into Party Activity o Definition of Material incentives Definition of Patronage Definition of Preferments o Definition of Solidary incentives o Definition of Purposive incentives o Definition of Pragmatists (Professionals) o Definition of Purists (Amateurs) Where Do Activists Come From? What Kinds of People Become Volunteers? Chapter 6 Definition of Party Identification Development of Party Identification Patterns of Partisanship o Decline in Partisanship??? Definition of Splitticket voting o Recent changes in party ID Correlation between Party Identification and.. o Political Views o Voting Definition of Straightticket voting Definition of Partisanship as a twoway street Definition of Retrospective evaluations o Political Activity o Attitudes toward Parties The Myth of the independent o Attitudinal Independents What are they? o Behavioral Independents Definition of Party switchers Definition of Standpatters Chapter 7 Definition of Coalition Definition of Party Realignment The American Party Systems o Definition of Party Systems o How many party systems? The Social Basis of Party Coalitions o What are they?? The Central Role of Issues in the GroupParty Linkage o Clearer differences between the Two Parties Coalitions on Issues o Definition of maintaining elections o Definition of deviating elections o Characterizing Changes Definition of Party Realignment Problems with realignment Chapter 8 Rules affecting access to voting rights o What are they? The Special Case of Voting Rights for Black Americans o Definition of Legislative redistricting o Definition of Gerrymandering o Definition of Majorityminority districts Efforts to liberalize voting rules o What are they? Voting ID Controversy o Voter ID laws o Proof of Citizenship o Voter Intimidation Social Group Differences in Turnout o What are they? The Impact of Current Campaign o The excitement of the Election o Close competition Sides Study Guide Chapter 1 Definition of campaign Definition of Elections Four aspects of campaigns and elections o What are they o Definition of Incumbent Ways to evaluate campaigns o Free choice What does this mean? o Political equality What does this mean? o Deliberation o Free Speech Chapter 2 Who can run for office? What are qualifications for o Senate o House Representative o President o Definition of Independent candidates o Definition of Term limits When are elections held? o Senate? o House? o President? o Definition of Primary election o Definition of Permanent campaign Benefits Disadvantages Where to Run o Definition of Singlemember districts o Definition of Atlarge elections o Definition of Reapportionment o Definition of Redistricting o Definition of Malapportionment o Definition of “one person, one vote” o Definition of Voting Rights Act o Definition of Communities of interest o Definition of Gerrymandering o Definition of Majorityminority districts Who Can Vote? o Definition of Poll taxes o Definition of Literacy tests o Definition of Closed primary o Definition of Semiclosed primary o Definition of Open primary o Definition of Blanket primary o Definition of Sameday (or electionday) registration Who Wins? o Definition of Plurality rule o Definition of Proportional representation o Definition of Duverger’s Law o Definition of Strategic voting Chapter 3 Four major eras of Political Campaigns o The First Campaign Era Time period? Involved which parties? Definition of Era of predemocratic campaigns o The Second Campaign Era Time period? Involved which parties? Definition of Reconstruction Definition of Political machines o The Third Campaign Era Time period? Involved which parties? Definition of Frontporch campaign Definition of Australian ballot o The Fourth Campaign Era Time period? Definition of Retail politics Definition of Survey research What about today? o New Developments Definition of Focus groups Definition of “Big Data” Definition of “Analytics” Definition of Field experiments Definition of Sorting Chapter 6 Organization of political parties o Definition of Political Parties o Two major political parties What are they? o Definition of Partyintheelectorate o Definition of Partyasorganization o Definition of Partyingovernment Why do we have parties? o 5 reasons, what are they? Democratic and Republican Parties o Democratic Party Stands for? o Republican Party Stands for? Third Parties o Easy or hard for third parties to win? Why? o Definition of Plurality voting What Roles do Parties Play in Campaigns? o PartyintheElectorate o PartyasOrganization Definition of Coordinated expenditures o PartyinGovernment Rules that affect the parties o Election laws Primary elections Specific dates set for these o Campaign finance laws Definition of Soft money Super PACs Reality that affect parties o Definition of Party identification o Definition of Issue ownership Are Political Parties in Decline? o Yes or No o Definition of Invisible primary o Definition of Polarization Chapter 11 Rules and Reality in Local Elections o Nonpartisan elections o Atlarge elections o Offcycle elections o Smallscale democracy Rules and Reality in State Elections o Term limits What are they? o Legislative professionalism Definition of Professionalism Definition of Citizen legislatures o Characteristics of the Electorate What are they? o State Party Organizational Strength o National Factors What are they? o Definition of Coattail Effects Professionalization of State and Local campaigns o Definition of Ballot initiatives o Definition of Referendum o Judicial elections Three types What are they? Paradox of State and Local Elections o What is the paradox? Chapter 12 Definition of Electoral Participation Definition of Participatory distortion Participation Trends/Voting Trends o What are they? o Definition of Getoutthevote (GOTV) efforts o Worldwide st U.S. ranks __ out of the 76 countries that hold presidential elections between 2004 and 2014 U.S. ranks ___ in midterm elections compared to the 114 countreis with parliamentary elections Why do People Participate in Campaigns and Elections? o Ability Depends on ? ? ? o Motivation Individual motivation Generated by others Definition of Political interest Political knowledge Partisan strength Selfinterest Definition of Material benefit Definition of Solidarity benefits Definition of Purposive benefits o Contextual Factors Two types What are they? Definition of Mobilization Definition of Social Contexts Examples of social contexts are? o Opportunity Voter Registration Definition of Motor Voter Act Voting Definition of Convenience voting Definition of Absentee voting Definition of Vote by mail Electoral Competitiveness Participating Online How? Group differences in electoral participation o What are they between each category? The wealthy and the poor The old and the young Whites and nonwhites Men and Women
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