History 173 Midterm Study Guide #1 AND Quiz Answers
History 173 Midterm Study Guide #1 AND Quiz Answers History 173
Long Beach State
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Eunice kim on Saturday March 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to History 173 at California State University Long Beach taught by Brian O'Neil in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see U.S. History 173 in History at California State University Long Beach.
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Date Created: 03/05/16
History Midterm #1 Study Guide Westward Expansion Quiz Questions 1) Identify the author or document of the following primary source quote: "The existence of an area of free land, its continuous recession, and the advance of American settlement westward, explain American development." Frederick Jackson Turner, 1893 2) Which of the following is true about Native American tribes in the transMississippi West? The gap between rich and poor was generally small. Although some tribes were materially better off than others, the gap between rich and poor within tribes was seldom large. 3) Virginia City, Nevada, experienced all of the following after the Comstock Lode discovery EXCEPT: A religious revival 4) What had turned many of the Plains Native Americans towards a more nomadic existence in the 1840s? Their mobility and skills as horseback hunters created larger buffalohunting grounds. Cheyenne, Comanche, and Apache tribes had become master riders and hunters, and their new mobility far extended the area in which they could hunt buffalo. 5) What did Anglo settlers discover as they moved to the Western frontier in the wake of the Civil War? There were many Western frontiers, not just one. Settlers moving westward found that the West was not just one frontier but many, all moving in different directions. 6) What was so "unNative American" about the outlook of Missouri politician William Gilpin? Land was property to be employed. Gilpin told an audience in Missouri in 1849 that the most important thing for the nation was cheap land for farms and a railroad in the West. In this view, land was nothing sacred, only property to be employed. 7) Identify the author or document of the following primary source quote: "I had just reached the point where I said that the women were killed. We heard, besides the killing of the men, of the onslaught also made upon the women and children, and they were treated as roughly and indiscriminately as the men and boys were." Lakota Account of Wounded Knee, 1890 8) What did the vast majority of prospectors in the gold and silver rushes of the 1840s and 1850s have in common? They were male. Almost all prospectors were male, and nearly half were foreignborn. 9) Which of the following was the largest single group of workers on the Central Pacific in the transcontinental railroad construction? Chinese Charles Crocker of the Central Pacific relied on ten thousand Chinese laborers. 10)Which of the following best characterizes the role of the American West at the turn of the century? The region had become a significant producer of raw materials for the global economy. Westerners became part of a vast network of production and trade that spanned the globe. 11)What were "bonanza farms"? farms of one thousand acres or more Farms of more than one thousand acres were known as "bonanza farms" and were most common in the wheatlands of the northern plains. 12)Identify the author or document of the following primary source quote: "All men were made by the same Great Spirit Chief. They are all brothers. The earth is the mother of all people, and all people should have equal rights upon it." Chief Joseph, 1879 13)All of the following helped popularize notions of the mythic west EXCEPT: Chief Joseph 14)In the wake of the Plains Indian wars, U.S. Indian policy changed from a policy of ________ (recognized as a failure by the 1880s) to a policy of ________ (an effort that also failed). concentrating tribes onto reservations; trying to integrate Indians into white society as farmers 15)What did Las Gorras Blancas fight against? Anglo cattle ranchers pushing Hispanics off their land When Anglo cattle ranchers began forcing Hispanics off their lands, near Las Vegas, local residents assembled in a band of masked night riders known as Las Gorras Blancas. 16)Identify the author or document of the following primary source quote: “To add to our misery and despair, a bloated aristocracy has sent to Chinathe greatest and oldest despotism in the worldfor a cheap working slave. It rakes the slums of Asia to find the meanest slave on earththe Chinese coolieand imports him here to meet the free American in the Labor market, and still further widen the breach between the rich and the poor, still further to degrade white Labor.” Denis Kearney, 1878 17)Why did ranchers' profits decline in the 1880s? Overproduction led to lower prices. High profits had swelled the herds, and this overproduction prompted lower prices. Increased international competition further pushed down prices. 18)Identify the author or document of the following primary source quote: "Kill the Indian, and save the man. . . . It is a great mistake to think that the Indian is born an inevitable savage. He is born a blank, like the rest of us. . . . Transfer the savageborn infant to the surroundings of civilization, and he will grow to possess a civilized language and habit." Richard Pratt, 1892 19) All of the following are TRUE of the fate of the plains buffalo in the 1870s EXCEPT: Railroad lines disrupted buffalo migratory patterns The market for buffalo hides in the East exploded Disease wiped out most of the herds Buffalo were nearly eliminated by the early 1880s 20) Where did the Union and Central Pacific railroad lines meet in 1869? at Promontory Summit in Utah The two lines were finally linked on May 10, 1869, with a golden spike at Promontory Summit, Utah. 21) Why did Custer and other Union army columns charge into Sioux and Cheyenne territory at Little Big Horn in Montana in 1876? to open the Black Hills to white settlers Custer spread rumors of gold in the Black Hills to attract white settlers, and when negotiations over the Black Hills failed, Custer received order to attack Native Americans there. 22) What important insight did the census of 1890s provide Americans? The frontier no longer really existed. The superintendent of the census noted in 1890 that the continental United States stretched so far that one could hardly speak of a frontier any longer. 23) The Plains Indians used the buffalo for: Food, tools, thread, cosmetics th 24) Which of the following were the largest landholders in the West by the end of the 19 century? Railroads 25) Which of the following killed most Native Americans in their encounters with Anglo settlers? Liquor and disease War was only one way in which contact with whites turned deadly for Native Americans. Liquor and disease killed more Native Americans than combat did. Industrialization/Urbanization/Immigration Quiz Questions 1) Victorian beliefs held that women should be seen as “ _____________” with chaste sexual mores, in opposition to Victorian men, who possessed uncontrollable lust. Pure vessels 2) Identify the author or document of the following primary source quote: "Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!" cries she With silent lips. "Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempesttost to me,I lift my lamp beside the golden door!"" Emma Lazarus 3) What company did J. Pierpont Morgan create in 1901 when he merged Carnegie Steel with eight competing steel manufacturers into one? United States Steel Corporation 4) Which of the following best describes "Taylorism?" careful timeandmotion studies on assemblyline workers to improve efficiency Frederick Winslow Taylor advocated efficiency and conducted careful timeandmotion studies of workers' movements in the steel industry to set up standard procedures and pay incentives for beating production quotas. 5) What urban housing design, once hailed as a helpful innovation, turned out to be a public health disaster for residents and a dangerous blight on the cityscape? The tenement hall 6) Identify the author or document of the following primary source quote: "Genius is 1% invention, 99% perspiration." Thomas Edison 7) Which of the following was Thomas A. Edison's most significant innovation? perfecting the "invention factory" Smallscale inventors were replaced by orderly "invention factories"—and no one did more to bring system, order, and profitability to invention than Thomas Alva Edison. 8) What did the utopian future in Edward Bellamy's Looking Backward (1888) look like? The competitive society of the Gilded Age had been replaced by an orderly utopia managed by a benevolent government. In Edward Bellamy's Looking Backward (1888), fictional Bostonian Rip Van Winkle wakes up in an orderly utopia managed by a benevolent government. 9) Which of the following statements about late nineteenthand early twentiethcentury immigrants is NOT true? Most were skilled urban workers. 10)Wellmade, inexpensive merchandise in standardized sizes and shapes found outlets in new palaces of consumption known as department stores. Wellmade, inexpensive merchandise in standardized sizes and shapes found outlets in new palaces of consumption known as department stores. 11)The rapid industrial development of the United States between 1860 and 1900: produced an economy dominated by enormous corporations 12)Identify the author or document of the following primary source quote: "a drunkard in the gutter is just where he ought to be. . . . The law of the survival of the fittest was not made by man and cannot be abrogated by man. We can only, by interfering with it, produce the survival of the unfittest." William Graham Sumner 13)Which of the following was NOT among the advantages of the corporate form of business organization? It designated a single person as personally liable by law for corporation debts. 14)Before the 1880s, most immigrants came from ________; after the 1880s, most immigrants came from ________. northern and western Europe; southern and eastern Europe 15)The modern city was the product of Industrialization The modern city was the product of industrialization. Cities contained the great investment banks, sweatshops, railroad yards, and department stores. 16)The new steel cooking technology that converted large quantities of iron into steel was called the Bessemer process. The new steel cooking technology that converted large quantities of iron into steel was called the Bessemer process. 17)The American Federation of Labor was comparatively successful because it stressed gradual, concrete gains for its members. 18)Which urban institution was the workingman's club of the Gilded Age? The saloon The saloon was an allmale preserve where one could drink and talk, free from Victorian fingerwagging. 19)By 1900, most wage workers in industry worked ten hours, six days a week. By 1900, most of those earning wages in industry worked six days a week, ten hours a day. 20)Complete the following statement by investment banker J.P. Morgan around the turn of the century: "I like a little ___________, but I like ___________ more." Competition; combination "I like a little competition," J. P. Morgan used to say, "but I like combination more." 21)Leader of the American Federation of Labor from its founding in 1886 to 1924 was Samuel Gompers 22)Identify the author or document of the following primary source quote: "Watch the costs, and the profits will take care of themselves." Andrew Carnegie 23)A new experiment in providing social services to female slum dwellers featured centers where middleclass women lived among the poor, provided amenities and job skills classes, and taught American ways to immigrants. These were called Settlement houses 24) First "talking" motion picture, released by Warner Bros. in 1927, which deals with the dilemmas of assimilation: The Jazz Singer 25)Which of the following statements best describes the typical pattern of immigrant life? Clustered into everchanging neighborhoods in the cities, with a church or synagogue at the center, ethnic communities both preserved Old World flavor and eased the transition to an Americanized culture. 1) How would you characterize whiteIndian relations in the US west from 1865 to 1900? Violent and full of conflict In what ways did Indian cultures (practices and beliefs) differ from that of whites, particularly in terms of land use and ownership? White wanted it for land and their homes...Indians chased buffalos off the cliffs and set fires for vegetation. Ghost dance scared whites. How did white Americans and US government policy attempt to change the ways of the Indians? Indian reservation policy, Treaty of Fort Laramie 1868, Dawes Act 1887 What were the common attitudes that underlay US policies towards Indians peoples? Common attitudes were that Indians were savages. Their “culture has got to go”. “Kill the Indian, save the man” – Richard Pratt How would you characterize the “Friends of the Indian” movement of the later nineteenth century? Richard Pratt used children and took them to U.S. boarding schools to “kill their culture” and influence them to be/act like whites. 2) In what ways did industrialization transform American society between 1865 and 1900? Compare the costs and benefits of industrialization for US society. Benefits: more consumer goods = prices go down with mass production, improved transportation, more mobility Costs: disease and poverty in lower classes, lack of potable water, crime, distribution of wealth skewed What were the new social classes brought about by industrialization? Women and children entered the workforce What was "social Darwinism" and how was it used to justify some of the harsher effects of industrialization on the working classes? Survival of the fittest…William Graham Sumner What was daily life like for an average factory worker? 60 hours a week or more and no safety standards Would you have liked to have been an industrial worker in urban America in 1900? Why or why not? Yes, because at least I’m getting paid and feel like I am helping to provide for my family. If others came to America to make money and work, I should be grateful that I even had a job even if it was long hours and low pay. 3) In general, what was life like for African Americans in the southern United States during the late nineteenth, early twentieth century? Segregation still exists because of vagrancy laws and Jim Crow Describe the "Jim Crow" laws and customs that were put into place between 1877 and 1920? Brown vs Board of Education: whites and blacks at schools, What was the Supreme Court's ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson? “separate but equal” How did blacks resist such social conditions? sit ins, resistance, riots In the struggle for full civil rights, compare and contrast the schools of thought of the two leading civil rights activists of the era, Booker T. Washington and WEB DuBois. Washington = push for Blacks to improve industrial skills and creates Tuskegee Institute (1881) to teach about such skills, accepts Jim Crow segregation. WEB = argues Black need civil rights and not only jobs but higher education so that they could be professionals (Talented Tenth), cofounded NAACP (1906)
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