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General Biology

by: Favian Swaniawski

General Biology BIOL 101

Favian Swaniawski
GPA 3.82

Alan Sexstone

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Alan Sexstone
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Favian Swaniawski on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 101 at West Virginia University taught by Alan Sexstone in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see /class/202737/biol-101-west-virginia-university in Biology at West Virginia University.


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Date Created: 09/12/15
Exam 2 covers Chapters 5 thru 510 and 6 You need to read the textbook Outline the chapters learn the definitions of bold vocabulary words and study the charts and figures to understand their meaning and content l have used most of these figures in my lecture presentations While reading the text answer the questions at the end of each reading section Answer the questions at the end ofthe chapter Use the chapter review outline to remember key points Chapter 5 DNA contains sections genes that give instructions to make cell proteins These DNA instructions must be expressed within each generation to make cells function ie DNAgt RNA gt ProteinsgtCell Metabolism and Growth The instructions provided by DNA must also be accurately copied and passed from parent to daughter cells between generations The structure of DNA explains how both of the above can be achieved 1 Understand the chemical structure of DNA What are the chemical parts of the double helix How are the sugar amp phosphates linked together to form each strand of DNA Why is the 539 phosphate and 339 hydroxyl site important covalent bonding What are the four nitrogenous bases on DNA nucleotides What are the basepairing rules that determine how the two strands ofthe DNA helix are held together by hydrogen bonding 2 How do the basepairing rules determine how a DNA molecule can be copied replicated into two identical daughter DNA molecules What enzymes are used to replicate DNA If I give you the base sequence of one DNA strand can you give me the sequence of the complementary strand 3 Genotype is the sum of all the genes contained in an organism39s DNA Genes can be located on either strand of DNA The sequence of bases in a gene on one of the DNA strands sense strand provides the instructions on how to make a whole protein or a subunit part of a protein a polypeptide which often functions as an enzyme in cell metabolism The base sequence on DNA determines the amino acid sequence in a protein The amino acid sequence in a protein polypeptide primary structure determines the eventual 3D structure of a protein which determines the enzyme39s active site which in turn determines an enzyme39s specificity and catalytic function 4 Phenotype is what a cell looks like and how it functions Phenotype is determined by the total number of genes in DNA that are actually used expressed Gene expression is DNAgtmRNAgt Protein polypeptide The DNA ofthe gene is transcribed into RNA which is translated into a protein The words ofquotDNA languagequot contained in the base sequence are transcribed into triplets of mRNA bases called codons A specific mRNA codon is translated into a specific an amino acid in quotprotein languagequot This is the genetic code which is used by all living organisms There are 64 possible codons for 20 possible amino acids so more than one codon specifies an amino acid Fig 108a AUG is the universal start codon UAAUAG and UGA are stop codons 5 ln transcription DNA unzips and one strand is copied into a complementary single stranded messenger RNA molecule mRNA What enzyme does this How is the structure of RNA different from DNA What are the complementary base pairing rules between DNA and RNA If I give you a DNA base sequence can you give me the RNA sequence If I give you the mRNA sequence can you tell me the original DNA sequence Prokaryotes translate mRNA directly on 708 ribosomes Eukaryotes process mRNA in the nucleus by cutting out non coding quotintronsquot and splicing together coding regions called quotexonsquot After processing the mRNA leaves the nucleus and goes to 808 ribosomes Protein synthesis takes place on ribosomes What are ribosomes made of How many subunits What is the P site and A site and how do the function 6 ln translation mRNA binds to the ribosome and the sequence of mRNA codons are used to assemble the correct sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide mRNA messages always start with the amino acid methionine start codon lfl give you the appropriated chart can you translate a series of codons into amino acids Transfer RNA tRNA are the molecules that bring amino acids to the ribosomes Different tRNAs are specific for each codon on mRNA because of complementary RNA bases called anticodons For example if the codon on mRNA is GCU then the corresponding anticodon on tRNA is CGA This tRNA would bring the amino acid alanine to the growing polypeptide on the ribosome see Fig 108a to see if you understand this mRNA is fed through the ribosome one codon at a time until a stop codon is reached Each amino acid is added via peptide bonds to the growing polypeptide and is released when the stop codon is reached Fig 1015 summarizes transcription and translation 7 Sometimes when DNA is replicated errors occur in copying the base sequence mutations A change in base sequence can cause a change in the eventual amino acid sequence of the protein gene product Mutations can be base substitutions additions or deletions Base substitutions particularly at the 3 base position ofthe codon may not be too bad However base additions or deletions cause frame shift mutations which usually produce nonfunctioning protein gene products Chapter 1 Prokaryotic cells reproduce by binary fission Their single chromosome DNA molecule is replicated then partitioned into two new daughter cells Each daughter cell is an exact copy clone of its parent 2 Eukaryotes have multiple chromosomes containing a lot more DNA During an orderly cell cycle interphase G1SG2 mitosis cytokinesis these somatic cells grow in size replicate their chromosomes partition the chromosomes into daughter nuclei then divide into daughter cells 3 Know all characteristic events and details occurring during the three phases of interphase Know about chromatin sister chromatids and chromosomes 4 Division of the nucleus occurs by mitosis in four phases prophase metaphase anaphase and telophase You have to know all events and the details of each phase see section 86 5 Each species has a characteristic number of chromosomes Humans have 46 individual chromosomes which occur as 23 pairs 2ndiploid Each pair contains one chromosome derived from a mother and one from a father These pairs are termed homologous chromosomes 22 pairs are autosomes One homologous chromosome pair X and Y specifies gender and are called sex thomosomes Females are XX Males are XY 6 During the sexual reproduction cycle specialized sex cells gametes are produced by a cell division process called meiosis Cells containing 46 chromosomes produce two daughter cells by splitting the homologous chromosome pairs These daughter cells now contain 23 chromosomes or half the original 46 1nhaploid These cells divide once more resulting in 4 gametes each containing 23 chromosomes 7 During sexual reproduction a male gamete sperm fuses with a female gamete egg The 23 chromosomes from each of these gametes combine to form a new fertilized egg that contains 46 chromosomes This diploid cell divides grows and develops by conventional mitotic cell division 8 Know all the characteristic events and details of meiosis see section 814815 9 Variability of offspring results from independent orientation of chromosomes at metaphase l and is increased by crossing over of chromosomes 10 Extra somatic and sex chromosomes can cause developmental problems 11 Cancer is a disease of the cell cycle that results in abnormal cell division and growth


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