Study Guide for Ch1,3,5 EXAM
Study Guide for Ch1,3,5 EXAM Microbiology 210
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jordan Gause on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Microbiology 210 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Elizabeth McPherson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 98 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
This study guide contains VOCAB OTHER INFORMATION YOU MAY NEED PRACTICE QUESTIONS ANSWER SHEET VOCABULARY PROC4RYOTE5 bacteria and archaea Glycoclayces protects cells from dying out all bacteria have this Capsule very close to cell composition similar to chemicals found in humans so harder to recognize as foreign Slime Layer loosely attached sticky layer allows prokaryotes to attach to surfaces as bio lms Bio lms collection of microbes attached to solid surface in liquid environment Flagella prokaryotes responsible for movement move away from toxic environment Filament long shaft extending to environment out of agella Hook base of lament inserts here Basal Body anchors lamenthook into cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane Gram Negative has outer membrane 4 protein rings thin layer of peptidoglycan contains lipopoly saccharides LPS gram stain appears pink Gram Positive thick peptidoglycan layer 2 protein rings gram stain appears purple contains teichoic acid and mycolic acid not in all Tumbles clockwise movement of agella more frequent movement when moving away from stimuli Taxis movement in response to stimuli Phototaxis response to light Chemotaxis response to chemical Fimbriae Pee Hard sticky projections suction cups can help speaksend signals to other cells E longer than mbriae but shorter than agella mediate the transfer of DNA from cell to cell Cell Envelope both gram and contain cytoplasmic membrane and cell wall gram negative also has an outer membrane Teichoic acid in gram positive cell wallpeptidoglycan Mvcolic acid not in every gram positive cell but if it is it s called acid fast Acidfast waxy lipid that keeps cell from drying out Perplasmic Space between outer membrane and cytoplasmic membrane only in gram negative cells Fluid Mosaic Model constantly moving membrane proteins can t switch sides of cell but phospholipids can eukaryotes are steroidlipids and prokaryotes are hapinoids Concentration Gradient between inside and outside of cell more on one side than the other Electrical Gradient provides source of energy many substances are electrically charged Passive Process of Transport includes diffusion facilitated diffusion and osmosis concentration moving HIGH TO LOW across membrane doesn t require energy Diffusion concentration gradient drives this once equilibrium is reached it stays the way it is Nonspecific Facilitated Diffusion helper of some sort integral protein going through membrane REQUIRES CARRIER PROTEIN Specific Facilitated Diffusion only allow speci c type of molecule through permiases protein carry only certain substances Osmosis semipermeable membrane water type of speci c diffusion change in solutes causes osmosis Hypertonic solution with HIGH concentration of solutes this has LOW concentration of water Hypotonic solution with LOW concentration of solutes this has HIGH concentration of water Playsmolysis shrinking of cell when water leaves if opposite happens cell wall stops it from exploding playsmolysis happens when a solution is hypotonic Active Transport use of energy ATP area of LOW TO HIGH concentration always going against electrochemical radiant Group Translocation chemical being transported is chemically morti ed during transportation rst step in gycoosis ONLY IN BACTERIA no radiant because not the same on both sides Electrochemical Radiant move substances so concentrations are even Cytosol liquid portion of cell 7090 cell contains cell s DNA in nucleoid ONE chromosome may contain survival advantage site of chemical reactions Inclusions stores what it can gases etc some are magnetic Endospores NOT METHOD OF REPRODUCTION some bacteria produce these produced if cell knows it s going to die very resistant to sunlight radiation etc germinates or preserves species Ribosomes site of protein synthesis cells make new protein bacteria have 705 ribosomes eukaryotes have 805 ribosomes Cytoskeleton composed of 3 or 4 protein bers play variety of roles in cell NAG AND NAM etc EUIC4RYOTE5 fungi protozoa algae animals Glycocalyces only in cells with out cell walls strengthen cell structure adhere cells to one another present only in animal and protozoan cells that don t have cell walls not as structurally organizes as prokaryotic capsules Membrane raft contain assemblages of lipids and proteins just like hopinoids in prokaryotes Endocytosis physical manipulation of the cytoplasm around cytoskeleton happens inside cell Pseudopods surrounds substance endocytosis occurs when membrane forms this Phagocytosis solid brought into cell Pinocytosis liquid brought into cell Exocytosis enables substances to be exported from cell happens outside cell Flagella composed of tubulin differ from prokaryotes because eukaryotes are within cytoplasmic membrane basal bodies in cytoplasm move rhythmically not rotation composed of tublin microtubules hair like structures shorter and more of them Ribosomes protein synthesizing larger than in prokaryotes within the cytosol of eukaryotic cells attached to endoplasmic reticulum Cytoskeleton anchors organelles and functions cytoplasmic stemming Centrioles play role in mitosis nuclear division Nucleus spherical largest organelle control center Nucleoplasm semiliquid matrix Nucleoli specialized region where RNA is synthesized Chromatin threadlike mass of DNA associated with special proteins Endoplasmic Reticulum functions as a transport system rough because ribosomes on outer surface transports proteins role in lipid synthesistransport Golgi Bodies shipping department packages secretions in sacs called secretory vesicles Lysosome contain catabolic enzymes that damage cell if released from package used to digest nutrients Endosymbiotic Theory eukaryotes formed from union of small aerobic prokaryotes with larger anaerobic prokaryotes Other Things To Know what a bacterial cell wall is composed of be able to differentiate between passive and active transport External Structures of Eukaryotic Cell Eukaryotic Cell Walls Eukaryotic Cytoplasmic Membrane Difference between respiration and fermentation Difference between oxidation and reducing Practice Questions 1 Your TA hands you a tube of an unknown microbe She tells you the microb is a small living organism that does not have a nucleus but has a capsule and an outer membrane What do you suspect is the identity of this microb 2 3 a a protozoan b grampositive bacterium cfungus d gramnegative bacterium e algae All bacteria have a glycocalyx What type of glycocalyx helps protect bacteria from being recognized as foreign by the human immune system because it can be composed of chemicals found in the human body a agellum capsule slime layer eukaryote insoluble DP00quot A bacterium that has undergone a mutation and cannot produce mbriae would be unable to perform which of the following funcUons a it would not be able to protect the cell from drying out b it would not be able to adhere to other bacteria and surfaces c it would not be able to transfer DNA from one cell to another via the process of conjugation d it would not be able to move towards a nutrient needed for growth e it would not be able to synthesize proteins Scientists are developing a new class of antibiotics that inactivate lipoteichoic acids Based on this information choose the type of organism this class of antibiotics would be effective against protozoa gramnegative bacteria algae yeast grampositive bacteria DP00quot In which group of organisms would you expect to see glucose transported into the cell while being transformed into glucose6 phosphate at the expense of energy bacteria algae protozoa fungi plants DP00quot 6 A bacterial cell which has a cytoplasmic solute concentration equal to 85 NaCl is placed into a tube containing a solution that has a NaCl concentration of 2 into what type of solution has the cell been placed a hypotonic b isotonic c protonic d hypertonic e ginotonic What is the cellular component that helps protect against dehydration strengthens the cell surface and which anchors animal cells together a cell wall b glycocalyx c outer membrane d cytoplasmic membrane e lipoteichoic acids Answers FP P FP N WJgtJgtITIWWU
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