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Intro to Human Development

by: Samantha Hettinger

Intro to Human Development PSYC 241

Marketplace > West Virginia University > Psychlogy > PSYC 241 > Intro to Human Development
Samantha Hettinger
GPA 3.87

Aaron Metzger

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Aaron Metzger
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Hettinger on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 241 at West Virginia University taught by Aaron Metzger in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see /class/202798/psyc-241-west-virginia-university in Psychlogy at West Virginia University.


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Date Created: 09/12/15
Psych Study Guide 2 Chapters 4 10 THE NEWBORN BABY o Fontanels soft plates of head 0 Lanugofuzzy prenatal hair 0 Vemix caseosa oily protection against infection at nose receding chin that helps them nurse 0 Apgar Scale standardized to assess status ofnewbom at l and 5 minutes post birth 012 assessment of appearance pulse grimace activity and respiration Neurological Status Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale measures neonate s responses to the environment with a focus on o Re exes COMPLICATIONS 0 Birth trauma any injury at birth most common anoxia oxygen deprivation can lead to brain damage 0 Postmature stays in womb to long 42 weeks or more gets less oxygen Low birth weight less than 5 12 pounds 2quotd leading cause of death Prematurity born before 37 weeks and almost always has a low birth weight Smallforgestational age 0 Cephalocaudal principle principle that development proceeds in a headtotail direction that is that upper parts of the body develop before lower parts of the trunk Proximodistal principle principle that development proceeds from within to without that is that parts of the body near the center develop before the extremities 0 Early Sensory Capacities 0 Infant memog infantile amnesia the inability to remember events prior to the age of 3 years Piaget Sensorimotor Stage 0 Sensorimotor stage birth to age 2 infants learn about themselves and their world through their developing sensory and motor activity Schemes organized patterns of thoughts and behaviors Circular reactions when an infant learns to reproduce pleasurable or interesting events originally discovered by chance Tertia reaction when toddlers show curiosity and experimentation Imitation 0 Invisible imitation imitation using parts of the body that a baby cannot see such as the tongue 0 Visible imitation the use of hands and feet which babies can see 0 Deferred imitation an act they saw some time before because they are not yet able to retain mental representations 0 Elicited imitation when a toddler can see you do something and repeat it and then remember it the next day 0 Object permanence the realization that an object or person continues to exist when out of sight 0 Symbolic representation when a child can know that something is a symbol if that particular thing OTHER METHODS o Habituation familiarity with a stimulus reduces slows or stops a response or attention Pupils constrict heart rate returns to normal breathing is steady sucking resumes o Dishabituation increase in responsiveness after presentation of a new stimulus Interest is shown through Characteristics of Early Speech 0 Young children simplify 0 Young children underextend word meanings Young children overextend words meanings SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Temperament characteristic disposition or style of approaching and reacting to situations Temperamental Patterns in the New York Longitudinal Study Goodness of f1t appropriateness of environmental demands and constraints to a child s development Gender signi cance of being male or female Gendertyping socialization process by which children at an early age learn appropriate gender roles Industry vs inferiority Erikson s 43911 stage of psychosocial development in which children must learn the productive skills their culture requires or else face feelings of inferiority Competence a view of the self as able to master skills and complete tasks Parenting Issues Coregulation and Discipline Gay and lesbian families GENDER Gender identityawareness of one s femaleness or maleness and all it applies in one s society Gender differences are psychological or behavioral differences between males and femals Sex differences Perspectives on Gender Development Gender roles behaviors interests attitudes skills amp personality traits that a culture considers appropriate for males or females Gender typing the process by which children learn behavior that their culture considers appropriate for each sex Gender stereotypesare preconceived generalizations about male or female behavior Gender constancya child s realization that his or her gender will always be the same Genderschema theog combines elements of cognitivedevelopmental and social learning theory Social cognitive theoryobservation enables children to learn much about gendertyped behaviors before performing them Developing Trust and Attachment First signs of emotioncrying smiling and laughing Basis trust vs basic mistrust Erikson reliability of people and objects Hope the belief of infants that they can fulfill their needs and obtain their desires Attachment reciprocal enduring tie between infant and caregiver each of whom contributes to the quality of the relationship Strange situationlaboratory technique used to study infant attachment Secure attachment pattern in which an infant cries or protests when the primary caregiver leaves and actively seeks out the caregiver on his or her return Avoidant attachment pattern in which an infant rarely cries when separated from the primary caregiver and avoids contact on his or her return Ambivalent attachment pattern in which an infant becomes anxious before the primary caregiver leaves is extremely upset during his or her absence and both seeks and resists contact on his or her return Disor ani ed disoriented 39 pattern in which an infant after separation from the primary caregiver shows contradictory repetitious or misdirected behaviors on his or her return Mutual regulation process by which infant and caregiver communicate emotional states to each other and respond appropriately Stillface research technique in which the mother suddenly becomes stonyfaced silent and unresponsive Reunion when the mother returns to normal interaction after the still face episode Sense of self the development of the toddler s knowledge of being a separate person from those around him or her Autonomy vs shame and doubt Erikson goal is to achieve a balance between selfdetermination and control by others 0 Autonomy a shift from external control to selfcontrol o Shame and doubt helps toddler recognize need for limits Gross motor skills physical skills that involve the large muscles Fine motor skills physical skills that involve the small muscles and eyehand coordination Piagetian Approach 1 quot stage children become more sophisticated in their use of symbolic thought but are not yet able to use logic 0 Symbolic function Piaget s term for ability to use mental representations words numbers images to which a child has attached meaning 0 Deferred imitation Piaget s term for reproduction of an observed behavior after the passage of time by calling up a stored symbol of it o Pretend play play involving imaginary people and situations 0 Language communication system based on words and grammar Transduction Piaget s term for a preoperational child s tendency to mentally link particular phenomena whether or not there is logically a causal relationship Identities The 5 Principle s of counting Ordinality the concept of more or less bigger or smaller Centration the tendency of preoperational children to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect others Egocentrism the inability to consider another person s point of view Conservation awareness that 2 objects that are equal according to a certain measure remain equal in the face of perceptual alteration so long as nothing has been added to or taken away from either object Theory of mind and J J39 of mental processes 0 False beliefs and deception the understanding that people can hold false beliefs ows from the realization that people hold mental representations of reality which can sometimes be wrong 0 Appearance vs reality when kids put on sunglasses and it made the milk look green they say the milk is green 0 Fantasy vs reality can tell when something is imaginary like a stuffed animal Encoding putting it in your brain Storage putting the info into your brain Retrieval getting it out of your brain Social interaction we construct autobiographical memories through conversation with adults about shared events Zone of proximal development the gap between what they are already able to do and what they are not quite ready to accomplish by themselves Scaffolding the temporary support that parents teachers or others give a child to do a task until the child can do it alone Selfconcept sense of self Cogpitive construction Selfesteem the judgment to a person makes about his or her selfworth Erikson Initiative vs Guilt balance the urge to pursue goals with moral reservations that may prevent carrying them out Rough and tumble playwrestling kicking and chasing Content play Social dimension play as children get older the more social their play is Functional play repetitive muscular movements Constructive play use of objects or materials to make something Pretend play fantasy dramatic or imaginative play Formal games wrules organized games with known procedures and penalities Discipline methods of molding children s character and of teaching them to exercise selfcontrol and engage in acceptable behavior Power assertion intended to stop or discourage undesirable behavior through physical or verbal enforcement or parent control 4 ti quot when I J 39 39 39 behavior by reasoning with a child Withdrawal of love may include ignoring isolating or showing dislike for a child Authoritarian control and obedience Permissive selfexpression and selfregulation Authoritative respect for individuality and effort to instill social values Neglectful or uninvolved parents focus on their own needs rather than those of the child Instrumental aggression aggression used as an instrument to reach a goal Hostile aggression Overt aggression aggression that is openly directed at its target Relational aggression aggression aimed at damaging or interfering with another person s relationships reputation or psychological wellbeing Causes of obesity include o Inherited tendency 0 Little exercise and wrong kinds of food Prevention and Treatment include 0 Watch children s eating habits and activity patterns Overweight children tend to become obese adults and have a high risk for hypertension Concrete operations ages 712 develop logical but not to abstract thinking Seriation ability to order items along dimension Transitive inferenceunderstanding of the relationship between 2 objects by knowing the relationship of each to a third object Class inclusion understanding of the relationship between a whole and its parts Inductive reasoning type of logical reasoning that moves from particular observations about members of a class to a general conclusion about the class Deductive reasoning type of logical reasoning that moves from a general premise about a class to a conclusion about a particular member or members of a class Rehearsal mnemonic strategy to keep an item in working memory through conscious repetition Organization mnemonic strategy of categorizing material to be remembered Elaboration mnemonic strategy of making mental associations involving items to be remembered Enrichment approach to educating the gifted which broadens and deepens knowledge and skills through extra activities projects field trips or mentoring Acceleration approach to educating the gifted which moves them through the curriculum at an unusually rapid pace


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