Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide MSCI 210 001
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MSCI 210 001
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maggie Hubacher on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MSCI 210 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Lori Anne Ziolkowski in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 543 views. For similar materials see Oceans and Society in Marine Science at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
OCEAN basic facts Major Oceans Paci c Oceans o Discovered in 1500 s by Vasco de Balboa o Magellan was rst European to complete transpaci c voyage Biggest by surface area and volume Ring of re Average width 13000 km Average depth 42 km deepest 11km OOOO Atlantic Ocean 0 Long narrow S shaped o Named by romans o Relatively shallow bc of the mid atlantic ridge 0 Few depths below 6 km 0 Islands not as common Indian 0 Mostly in Southern hemisphere 0 Average depth 39 km 0 Important trade routes 0 Egyptians sailed on it 2500 years ago Arctic Ocean 0 Shallow small Separated from Atlantic by submarine ridge Mostly landlocked ice covered Least studied was uncharted until the late 1800 s Cold war and use of nuclear submarines advanced knowledge Southern Antarctic Ocean 0 Area 203 million kmquot2 0 Depth 40005000 meters on average 0000 Scienti c Method Scienti c method 0 Ask a question Form a working hypothesis 0 Observe or experiment 0 Form theories or laws Where did earth come from Mass of universe was concentrated at single point expanded 137 billion years ago then cooled to form hydrogen atoms 11 billion years ago matter congealed to form galaxies Every chemical heavier than hydrogen lighter than iron was manufactured and released into space by stable stars 0 Anything heavier came from unstable exploding stars How did the salty ocean form When earth cooled water collected Rains eroded minerals in rocks that collected in water basins Most of ocean was in place 38 billion years ago How did life form Water Carbon Exposure to light heat electricity 0 This creates amino acids Earth is unique because 0 Circular orbit around a stable star 0 Distance from sun allows for liquid water History of marine science Eratosthenes 0 Library at Alexandria allowed record duplication rst systematic study of the ocean 0 Calculated earth s circumference 0 Established a global grid system for charts though it was I rregular Hipparchus 0 Established regular grid system Ptolemy o DMS system oriented charts with north at the top 0 Produced rst world atlas 0 Major aw estimated earths circumference at 70 of true value Voyages of Oceanian peoples o Commuted long distances with no reference points 0 Used stick charts showing wave refraction patters 0 Charts recorded swell direction strength location of islands Chinese voyages o Developed the rudder and magnetic compass European renaissance leads to voyages 0 Prince Henry of Portugal recognizes commercial value of maritime knowledge 0 Magellan rst to circumnavigate the globe established updated grid Problems measuring longitude o Latitude calculated by measuring the suns angle at noon using a sextant 0 To calculate longitude needed to know time accurately 0 Two problems different countries used different reference points of longtitute clocks of the time were not accurate and did not work on ships Marine chronometer designed byJohn Harrison solved this problem Capt James Cook Three voyages to chart the paci c Beginnings of scienti c oceanography Plate Tectonics Alfred Wegener proposed plate tectonics theory Evidence fossils and mountains in similar places coral reefs at high altitudes tropical pants foun in Arctic and Antarctic Mantle plumes heat reased from core Hawaiian islands Hot spots stationary of permanent surface evidence of a plume Yellowstone 7 major lithospheric plates Radioactive decay is primary heat source in earth s core Unstable atomic nuclei ose energy in form of radiation Three types of plate boundaries Most trenches found around Paci c ocean Continents rise above the ocean because of sostatic equilibrium Buoyancy Old plates must be subducted at the same rate that new plates are being formed MidAtlantic ridge is formed by convergent boundary of tectonic plates Lithospheric plates move as fast as ngernails grow Three provinces of the sea floor Active margin leads to subduction causes a trench Passive margin broad continental shelf smooth transition between continental and oceanic plate Active Margins Associated with plate boundaries coiding oceanic and continental plate Have deep and narrow trenches West paci c coast of North and South America Passive Margins Lithospheric plate next to plate boundary Divergence occurring Litte volcanic or earthquake activity Thick sediment cover Broad continental shelf Most coastlines in Americas Components of continental margins Seaward extension of continent Shelf break abrupt transition from shelf to slope Continental rise accumulated sediment at base of slope lying on top of ocean crust Features of deep ocean floor oceanic ridges hydrotherma vents abyssa plains and hills seamounts and guyots trenches and island arcs hydrotherma vents formed by superheated water at spreading centers Shallow magma chambers heat water Marine sediments Marine dirt Can be classi ed by size shape chemical makeup color and origin Most useful is origin and size Continental rise has lots of sediment Biogenous sediment From microscopic organisms usually based on calcium carbonate or silicon dioxide Rising coZ in atmosphere impacts acidity of ocean shells dissolve in acidic solution Sediments derived from shells are very ne Called oozes Silica and carbonates are bioligcally extracted from seawater by metabolic processes of single celled organisms Hydrogenous authigenic Chemical precipitates Come directly from seawater Cosmogenous From cosmos Fall to earth as meteorites or interplanetary dust Meteorites shatter upon impact forming fragments called tektites Sediments on continental shelves neritic sediments contain mostly terrigenous material Sediments on slope rise and deep ocean pelagic sediments greater portion of biogenous sediment mostly ooze Factors that in uence deposition of biogenous sediments More productivity more organisms more ooze Polution dilutes sediment Far from land there is less sediment Soubility of shells increases with depth Carbonate compensation depth where sedimentation and dissolution are equal Sediments are key historical records of ocean processes What can sceientists learn by studying sediments Location of natural resources oil and gas Paleooceanographic and climatologic information Water Properties Hydrological cycles Water has unique properties Water is made of one oxygen and two hydrogens bound by hydrogen bonding ls a polar molecule Properties Surface tension High heat capacity Unique temperature and density relationship densest at 4 degrees C Requires heat to change state Water is universal solvent Average salinity of ocean 35 Densitymeasures how tightly the molecules of a substance are packed into a given space ocean strati ed by density Cod salty water is denser than warm less salty water Zones in ocean based on strati cation surface zone upper layer least dense 2 of ocean pycnocline density increases with depth 18 of all ocean deep zone uniform density 80 of all ocean water Vertical features of the water column thermocline where the temperature changes rapidly with depth isothermal where the water temperature is the same with depth halocline where the salinity changes rapidly with depth isohaline where the salinity is the same with depth pycnocline where the density changes rapidly with depth dissolved gases in seawater gasses dissolve easier in cold water than warm water mainly three gases dissolved in seawater nitrogen 48 oxygen 36 carbon dioxide 16 If something has a conservative pro le such as salts then it is not being used by biology the concentration of gases changes with depth because of biology oxygen is depleted just below the surface due to photosynthesis carbon dioxide increases with depth due to respira TIMELINE OF EARTH 13 billion years ago big bang 11 billion years ago first galaxies form 46 billion years ago Earth forms 40 billion years ago oceans form 38 billion years ago oldest dated rocks 35 billion years ago first fossil evidence of life 2 billion years ago oxygen becomes important to atmosphere and life 08 billion years ago oceans and atmosphere reach same state as today 800 million years ago first animals arise 510 million years ago first fish arise 210 million years ago Pangaea breaks apart 66 million years ago end of dinosaurs 50 million years ago first marine mammals 3 million years ago humans appear Blue planet documentary Ocean is powerful examples swells in the open ocean can be big only once it reaches the shore does it break the water at the bottom of the wave slows causes it to break oceans never rest Currents such as Gulf Stream control the distribution of life and nutrients seamounts can have a lot of life around them ocean currents make life happen as the currents bring the nutrients through upwelling plankton feed off nutrients plankton feeders eat the plankton tuna eat the plankton feeders which are eaten by the sharks lots of sharks can be found around seamounts for this region not all of the sharks come for food they come to be cleaned by symbiotic fish Phytoplankton basis of all life in the ocean microscopic life that is driven sunlight At night the largest migration on earth occurs when sea life rise to the surface of the ocean to eat phytoplankton then in the morningg the sea creatures descend to depth Moon also in uences the ocean in uences the tides on a daily cycle monthly cycle also triggers events in the ocean turtles lay eggs based on moon cycle Annual cycle of the sun in uence a lot about the ocean increasing strength of sunshine in uence the waters waters turn green with looming of phytoplankton and herring lots of food in this productive region humpback whales are top of food chain this provides most of the food for their year fertilized eggs attach themselves to every rock and plant herrings eggs are popular food for lots of different types of birds grey Whales make the largest journey of any whales meXico to the Arctic they eat the kill that eat the phytoplankton killer whales
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