Intro to World Geo. Test Two Study Guide
Intro to World Geo. Test Two Study Guide GR 1123
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mary Carlos on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GR 1123 at Mississippi State University taught by Sarah Radencic in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 93 views. For similar materials see Intro World Geography in Geography at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
Test Two Study Guide , Test March 10 2016 Good Luck! South America Fun Facts about South America o Contains 12 states o Mountains in the west; Amazon Basin in the East o Most of the continent's population lives in Brazil o Most of the populace lives on the coasts o Contains the world's highest waterfall, Angel Falls in Venezuela (over 3200 ft) o South America is the 4th largest continent by landmass o More than 20% of Earth's Oxygen is produced in South America (rainforests) o Brazil has won more world cups than any other country in the world o 51% of the SA population speaks Portuguese o Rich in natural resources Gold, timber, water, oil Physical geography o Longest continent from North to South 4750 miles long Chile is 90 miles wide but 2500 miles long Brazil is the fifth biggest country in the world o The size of the SA allows it to have a wide variety of climates and vegetation Mostly tropical rainforests Argentina is one of the most diverse with 5 different climate zones. Physical Regions o Andes Mountains The world longest mountain chain 23000 ft high; 4300 miles long Rocky mountains are only 3000 miles long o Amazon Basin 2nd longest river in the world Mostly located in brazil o Brazilian Highlands Comprises of several small mountain ranges o Pampas The "Great Plains" of SA, mostly in Argentina Combination of several cultures o Most were well established by year 1000 o Predominately lived in areas called altiplanos Capitol: Cusco, Peru Very advanced for the times o Built huge buildings, roads, bridges in the mountains o Practiced surgery, and were great military strategists o Terracing o Known for potatoes and how to freeze dry and store meat Mit'a o Mining, building bridges, building homes for the nobles, temples, helping with various fields Emperors fields, wore their best clothing, sang song praising the Inca People's fields were taken care of first' The widows, the handicap and the sick Tin Spanish Conquest o Led by Conquestador Francisco Pizarro o In 1531 Spanish arrived and enslaved the Incan Empire Used the existing empire for their benefit Forced the Incan people into mining silver Land Alienation o Hidden Civilization: Machu Picchu o Silver mining created huge wealth for the spanish Spread their colonies to Argentina, Bolivia, Uruguay Potosi o Meanwhile the Portuguese took over the indigenous populations in Brazil o 90% of the indigenous population died of disease and dangerous working conditions Formation of Vice Royalty o Vice - Latin for "in the place of" o Roi - French for "king" o Formed to help the Crown control populations in territories around the globe: o 3 Spanish viceroys established in South America Peru (1542-1824) Richest area. All of SA except for Brazil Nueva Granada (1717-1819) Bogotá Present day Columbia Ecuador Panama Venezuela La Plata (1776-1814) Buenos Aires Argentina Uruguay Paraguay Bolivia Independence from Europe 1800s-1900s o Spurred by the American and French Revolutions Made Spain nervous o Spain relinquished some claims in SA choosing to focus on Spain mainland Argentina 1816 Chile 1818 Peru 1821 o Simon Bolivar "the great El Libertador", helped free other states: Venezuela New Granada (columbia) Ecuador Bolivia (named in his honor) Other Independence o Brazil become independent in 1822 after Portugal was invaded by Napoleon o Uruguay from 1828 Brazil and Argentina o Guyana from the UK in 1966 o Suriname from the Dutch in 1975 o French Guiana currently remains under French Control Second largest French area African Descendants o Sugar was the huge crop of Brazil o Unlike the Spanish, Portugal had no slave population to help with plantation work, mining o Half of all slaves brought to the Americas ended up in Brazil o 198 million Africans live in Brazil today South American Union o UNASUR- Union of South American Nations 2008 Trying to establish a single currency Shared defense (armies, navy's, air forces) Easier passport passage for members Build better infrastructure (highways, high speed rail, canal system) o Not quite effective…. Political posturing Fight of control of resources Some countries not interested South American Economic Geography o Brazil has the most influence o Argentina o Chile, Guyana, Peru SILVER o 1st - agriculture Sugar, soy bean, coffee o 2nd- manufacturing Chemicals, electronics, textiles, biofuels o 3rd- oil production Brazil and Venezuela o Unevenly developed Only contained to brazil, Chile, and Argentina's urban areas (coasts) o Political instability for most countries Mercosur - the "southern common marker" o Purpose is to promote free trade and the fluid movement of goods, people, and currency o Economic bloc containing Member States and Associate States o FULL MEMBERS: Brazil, argentina, urguay, paraguya, and venezuela o Mexico and New Zealand observe these rights even though they are not a part of South America SA Urbanization o City populations have grown steadily since 1950 o >80% of the populations in urban And growing fast o Cities provide opportunities Increased chance of making more money Receive better education for their children More "things" to do SA Urbanized population o Megacites: Cities that contain more than 10 million people Bogata, Lima, Santiago 10 MILLION Rio De Janeiro, Sao Paulo (largest), Buenos Aires >23 MILLION PEOPLE Poverty in SA Disparity of Rich and Poor Favelas Slums around big cities Problems in SA Disparity of rich and poor Slums produce crime and disease Very high levels of corruption Columbia: drug trade Venezuela murder rate is ten times higher than the US Coco leaves are used to make cocaine but also used as a medicinal herb In addition to silver and gold can also get gemstones and iron from Mining in SA Human Geographic regions in SA The caribbean North The andean west The southern cone Brazil The caribbean north region Platation type lifestyle with european influence in guyana, suriname, and french guiana Population mostly along the coast Columbia and venezuela rich in farming, ranching, and mining Population is somewhat inland than on the coast Columbia Population tends to congregate in the andean mountains a d in the north interior Coffee is the largest export Narcotics are next; 70% of the us cocaine comes from columbia Cartels influence the political system, army and police Fight for control of the trade, network and growing of coca plants Almost overthrew the government in 1999 In some cases cartels have their own army to fight the state and police Insurgent states Several stages: Contention: a rebellion forms and sustains itself within the countries boarders Equilibrium: forms territories within the country At this stage insurgent state is established in which the secede or bring down the government Counteroffensive: legitimate state or country tries to take back control of insurgent area Sometimes outside help Failed State Measured on a spectrum (failed state index, FSI) A product of Social indicators Refugees, boarder disputes, large vengeance seeking group Economic indicators Uneven economic development, group based poverty or inequality Sharp and or sever economic decline Political factors Criminalization of government officials Public services deteriorate Widespread human rights violations Venezuela o 29.7 million people live in Venezuela Mostly in the highlands (close to the resources) Farming and cattle grazing o Contains the world largest water fall (Angel Falls) o 2 main resource areas: Guiana Highlands Maracaibo lowlands o Largely Spanish decent and Catholic o Poor economy in the 1990s Value of the Venezuelan dollar devalued and social unrest o In 1998, Hugo Chavez rose to power in 1998 Re-wrote the constitution (focused on social and economic equality) Tension with the United States In 2007, formed United Socialist Party of Venezuela Remained neutral in the drug wars Traded with Cuba Threatened to stop commerce with US Died of Cancer in 2012 o Future of the country is unknown at the moment French Guiana o Still under French control o Official Oversees French Department Currency…. o Economy Not much agriculture.. Exports gold and seafood Space industry is big Guiana space centre The Andean West Region o Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia and Paraguay o Most of the Amerindian population is located here today o Rich with untapped resources (oil, minerals) Peru o Along 1000 miles of SA west coast Geography defined by 3 zones… o 30.4 million people o Desert Coast City of Lima 40 oases which produce citrus, olives and vegetables Has a climate very similar to Greece o Sierra (Andes Mountains) Contains remnants of the Incan culture (Quechua) Very poor population, mostly mine workers Produces 20% of the worlds gold Also copper, zinc and lead o Selva (Amazon rainforest) Contains the city of Iquitos Iquitos can only be reached by traversing the 2300 mile Amazon River Ecuador o Situated directly over the equator (hence the name) o 14.7 million people Most live in the fertile valleys along the Pacific Coast o Leading export is oil and seafood Bananas, cattle and coffee to be grown "Isolas de Galapagos" o Annexed by Ecuador in 1832 o Very interesting biodiversity o Visited by Charles Darwin in 1835, while sailing on the H.M.S. Beagle o Species adaptation on the different islands Bolivia o Large Amerindian population o Country is divided currently (insurgent state) Spanish (east) vs. Amerindians (west) Clash of culture and fight for power o 60% speak Spanish No official language 90% illiteracy state Read Paraguay in book. NO SLIDE. The Southern Cone o Comprised of 3 countries Argentina Chile Uruguay o Tied to together through trade Mercosur o Physically diverse Mountains west/ pampas East Argentina o Second in area next to brazil o 41.3 Million People Third after Brazil and Columbia o Has a large flat grassland area called the Pampas Used for farming, cattle production, mostly for Europe o Mostly Spanish, heavily influenced by Italians and Germans o 91% of the country's population lives in an urban environment Chile o The longest N-S country in the world Along the Andes Mountains o Mining is huge Copper o Exports lots of vegetables to the US o Lots of earthquakes (ring of fire) Bric/Brick/Brick's Countries o An acronym based on the letter of each country Brazil Russia India China (Kenya) (South Africa) o Emerging economies These countries are growing exponentially at the moment o Indicated by: Growing middle class Science research hubs (well-educated population) Huge populations (tons of workers) (COULD NOT BE AN INDICATOR BY ITSELF) Brazil o Powerhouse of South America In resources, people and geographic area o Rich in farmland, tropical rainforest, untapped resources o 200 million people, diverse populace Speak Portuguese and largely influenced by Europe and Africa Heavily mixed population (moderate race relations) 13 cities over 1 million people Catholicism prevalent (70% of the population) o Brazil comes from the Portuguese/Amerindian word "pau-brasil" which means brazil wood Lots of wood exports… o Soccer is the national sport; 2016 Olympics Brazil Economy o Economy has done well since adopting Democracy in 1989 o Common exports: Agriculture: coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus and beef Mining: iron, oil, natural gas, gold Manufacturing, airplanes, bio-fuels, footwear/clothing, electrical equipment o Tourism is huge Rainforest Beaches Video o Four things that help a city be successful while moving towards the future A city of the future has to be environmentally friendly Urban heat island: big cities, actually have a higher temperature than cities around them creating a microclimate Can lower temp by using green space A city of the future has to deal with mobility and integration of its people. A city of the future has to be socially integrated Brought in education, health care and built up the infrastructure A city of the future has to be able to use technology. Europe Some interesting cultural differences o Cars are mostly manual transmission US mostly Automatic Smaller in Europe; huge in the US Oil prices are much higher in Europe o Tips and taxes are already included in price (VAT) In the US we pay tax on top of price We pay a gratuity in addition to cost of service o Like to drink…. A lot Booze, coffee, tea (not much water) o Europeans work less and have much more vacation*** Defined by law in some nations 4 weeks of vacation at the very least o Lunch is a big deal Dinner not so much o Power outlets Basic facts about Europe o Population of the continent 11% of the world o 42 countries in a very small area Smallest continent by area o World war 2 massively changed the layout of Europe o Technically, Europe is a peninsula of Asia o Vast differences between East and West Past Soviet States and Western Culture o Ukraine is the largest country in the area Vatican City has the smallest area o Germany has the largest population o Highly urbanized Realm 75% of the population lives in an urban area Complexity of Europe o Europe contains 5% of the worlds land but has 20% of the worlds countries o Nations were formed as a result of.. French Revelation Romantic Nationalism (love of country) Languages Ethnicity and Race Religion o Nationality: Protects you legally internationally Also makes you follow the laws of the state you are from Automatically given when you are born o You can gain dual-nationality through marriage or by expatriation Cultural Diversity o 49 different languages in 11 major Indo-European families o Mostly Christian roots (product of the Crusades) Secularism is on the rise Catholic and Protestant tension Islam increasing in South Eastern Europe o Economic Disparity: Rich are in the west; Poor in the east (Slavic Nations) Economies in Europe o Poorest country in Europe is Moldova Average income per citizen is $3500 per year Communist economy Former Soviet Territory Entire economy is based on Agriculture Land-locked o Richest country in Europe is Luxembourg Average income per citizen is %109000 Small size in area and people = easier to manage 2/3 are mostly computer workers and foreign nations Government is very stable How is Europe Connected? o Economies and political networks Complementarity: excess products and goods can be shared with others within the realm given the need Coal in Britain for Cars in Germany Norway Lumber, Greece Cotton Transferability: very easy to move goods via transport networks and infrastructure Small area (efficiency?) Spatial Area of Europe o About 60% the size of the US o But contains twice the amount of people Ca. 600 million citizens live in Europe Maps of Europe o Surrounded by water (moderates climate) Climate o Mostly mild climate Decent precipitation all year round Cool to cold winters Warm to hot summers o Generally temperate forests Both deciduous and Pine o Similar to most of the climate in the Eastern US More Mediterranean climate in the south and gets colder as you go North. The Gulf Stream o Moves heat from the tropics to the poles o Moves water from FL to Europe Controls the European climate dramatically Warms air above the water through conduction Moderates climate o How we know it affects climate? December average temp for London 42 degrees F. Physical geographic regions of Europe o Central uplands "the heart of Europe" o Alpine Mountains Pyrenees to the Balkan Mountains Includes most of the Mediterranean o Western uplands Very old geologically o North European Lowlands Culturally diverse and complex Ancient History o After the last Ice age, people started to move into Europe Predominately from Africa and Asia Agriculture originated in Africa As well as clearing the fields and introducing Carbon into the atmosphere Ancient Europe o Neolithic Simple stone tools, spears, fire, domestication of animals 10,000BCE o Copper age: Simple shields, modest swords, axes, armor 5000BCE o Bronze age Sailing, trade navigation, Stonehenge was built, writing developed 3000BCE o Iron age Iron, the steel… 1200 BCE to AD Greece o Rise of Science, Philosophy, Government, Art, formal writing/mathematics o Origins of Western Government (Republic and Democracy) o City-state: A city that has its own government and which it controls the surrounding territory to form an independent state. Past examples: Athens and Sparta Current day examples: Washington D.C., Mexico City, Vatican City, Singapore o Major temple or shrine Delphi Olympia Delos MAJOR PART OF GREEK CULTURE o Military Strategy Fighting formation called syntagma Roman Empire o A majority of the Roman empire was the Mediterranean Sea at its height. o Created urban areas and trade routes Aqueducts, roads, coliseum, buildings with plumbing, brick roads, standard currency Allowed control over their lands and people Vast infrastructure o Dominant language, LATIN, which majorly influenced culture, still to this day e.g. "Romance languages" "Dark" or "Middle" Ages o Tribes of German and Slavic people from Asia, the Middle East and Africa moved into Europe Rise of Religion squashed science, the arts, philosophy… Also includes the Crusades o Feudalist system King Tenants-in-chief Knights (lords) peasants YouTube Video about the Dark Ages o The University o Modern Science o Architecture o Magnificent Art o Local self-government o Free associations of men o Chartered towns The church v. Galileo o The church believed in Geocentricism (earth centered) o Galileo was a proponent of Heliocentrism(sun centered) o In 1633, was found "vehemently suspect of heresy" and convicted as a heratic. During the trial, he was tortured to "abjure, curse and detest" his beliefs He was given house arrest for the remainder of his life. European Crusades o "military campaigns sanctioned by the Roman Catholic Church during the Middle Ages." o Began in 1095 Pope Urban II's plea for war with Muslim World ("Saracen") Recovery of the Holy Land (Jerusalem) o No longer had the threat of the Vikings o The knights weren't the nicest people o Made them swear allegiance o 9 crusades over 200 years all were trying to regain the Holy Land o 3 oldest religions Judaism Christianity Islam o Jerusalem has long been appointed contingency o Vlad the Impeller AKA Dracula European Revolutions: Cultural and Political o Colonialism Territorial development strategy where a territory is occupied by a foreign government Used military power to acquire foreign territories and resources Organization according to objectives related to resource acquisition and market expansion Often politically, religious, or racially driven Between 1400 and 1945, colonial movements were undertook by Europe all over the world. 1400-1800 Spain, Portugal, Holland, France and England were the main colonial powers After 1800: England had a dominance over others Early modern Europe o Renaissance began in the early to mid 1400s to the early 1600s A desire to expand knowledge Appreciation for science and the arts The foundation of modern states began in this time period o As the population rose… monarchies, tribes began fighting over resources and land A desire to formally recognized territory was demanded by the wealthy Cities began to grow rapidly, desire to establish control o Agrarian Revolution Growth of ports, cities and markets demanded food Farming became huge in Europe Started the system of trade for goods and services (a system; key for a region to develop) Began in europe in the 1750s Based on new agricultural innovations: Mechanization and fertilizers Scientific and commercial agriculture Crop rotation Declining food prices ALL POSITIVES New crops (Potato, Tomato) Enabled increased food production Enabled sustained population increase Political Revolutions o Growth helped to unify areas further Establish territories and end fighting The Treaty of Westphalia in 1684 Recognized Spain, Netherlands, Sweden, many others Established international law (property laws) Early Europe: monarchs had absolute power, with few given to the people By the end of the Industrial Revolution Monarchs on their way out… French Revolution ended the absolute power of monarchs in Europe (late 1700s) Creation of the modern nation-state: The concept of nationalism (19th century) Centered around a common language, religion and ethnicity Not wanting to be ruled by a foreign country Cultural identity for groups of humans Democracy/Parliamentary Systems: Rebellion against absolute political power (monarchy) Separation between the State and the Church Not really (Church of England; The Vatican) Industrial Revolution o Started in the UK between, 1750-1850. o Technical innovations occurred in British industry: Use of new materials Use of thermal energy to produce mechanical energy Mechanized labor replaced human and animal labor Production (factories) Transportation (rail) o Health (medicine) o Proved to be a major catalyst towards increased urbanization People moved where the jobs were o Improved European global power o Was not a "sudden process" o Took place in several areas at different times Started in Britain and moved east into the European continent, eventually in N.A. in the mid-1800s (post-civil war) o Britain was the origin since it had access to raw materials from around the globe Textiles, steam power, iron making o France, Germany, Poland, Scandinavia, and Russia started getting involved with supplying raw materials eventually with production of their own. Problems that arose during Industrial Revolution o General Exploitation Child labor Long working hours Safety Very low pay Most people didn't have a choice… If they complained, they were replaced. World War I: "The Great War" o Tanks o Chemical Weapons o Airplanes o Submarines o Machine guns o Trench warfare o WWI July 1914- November 1918 9 million people were killed in Europe Many issues leading up to WWI (imperialism, nationalism, alliances) Triple Entente The Central Powers The Spark Western front in France and Eastern front in Russia Results of WWI o Technology grew tremendously Tanks, guns, aircraft, communication Showed the US was a legitimate world power Was neutral the start of the war Treaty of Versailles Made Germany pay Fascist's felt threatened by communist Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations o Versailles was intended to punish Germany, and prevent them from ever gaining military power again o The League of Nations.. Principle mission was to maintain world peace Lacked authority and control: lots of issues Was later replaced by the United Nations (UN) World War II o Weapons of Mass destruction o Nuclear arms race between different countries o 85 million people were killed (1/4 were from Russia) Deadliest conflict in human history o Two sides Allies Axis o Started on Sept 1st 1939 Blitzkrieg : bombing from above o Aftermath: Decolonization of lands New countries were drawn Cold war and Nuclear War o 61 Countries involved
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