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U.S. History Study guide for Exam 1

by: Natalie Neugebauer

U.S. History Study guide for Exam 1 History 2110

Marketplace > Georgia State University > History > History 2110 > U S History Study guide for Exam 1
Natalie Neugebauer

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About this Document

Study guide on all key terms over materials for Exam 1.
Survey of U.S. History
Dr. Michael O'Connor
Study Guide
U.S. History, Studyguide, Exam 1, Keyterms
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Natalie Neugebauer on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to History 2110 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Michael O'Connor in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Survey of U.S. History in History at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 03/06/16
U.S. History - Study guide Exam 1 - Keyterms  Federalism is a system of government in which entities such as states or provinces share power with a national government.  Articles of Confederation (1777-1787) is the agreement made by the original 13 states in 1777 establishing a confederacy to be known as the United States of America.  Shays’ Rebellion (1786-87) is an uprising led by a former militia officer, Daniel Shays, which broke out in western Massachusetts in 1786. Shays’ followers protested the foreclosures of farms for debt and briefly succeeded in shutting down the court system.  U.S. Constitution (1787) is a document that embodies the fundamental laws and principles by which the United States is governed. It was drafted by the Constitutional Convention and later supplemented by the Bill of Rights and other amendments.  Federalists are supporters of federalism and the U.S. constitution.  Pro federal government  Anti-Federalists are opponents of federalism and supporters of the Articles of Confederation.  Pro states  The Federalist Papers (1787-88) is a series of eighty-five essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay in the late 1780s to persuade the voters of New York to adopt the Constitution.  “Publius” (Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay) is he pseudonym under which the series were published.  Jacksonian Era (1820-1840) lasted roughly from Jackson's 1828 election as president until the slavery issue became dominant after 1850 and the American Civil War dramatically reshaped American politics as the Third Party System emerged.  “Universal suffrage” is the extension of the right to vote to adult citizens.  Democracy in America (Tocqueville) (1835/40) was a piece written by the French sociologist and political theorist Alexis de Tocqueville (1805-1859) who traveled to the United States in 1831 to study its prisons and returned with a wealth of broader observations that he codified in “Democracy in America” (1835), one of the most influential books of the 19th century.  Andrew Jackson (1829-37) was the seventh President of the United States  Second Bank of the United States (1836) located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was the second federally authorized Hamiltonian National Bank in the United States during its 20-year charter from February 1816 to January 1836.  Indian Removal Act (1830) was passed by Congress on May 28, 1830, during the presidency of Andrew Jackson. The law authorized the president to negotiate with southern Indian tribes for their removal to federal territory west of the Mississippi River in exchange for their ancestral homelands.  “Trail of Tears” (1838-39) stands for the route along which the United States government forced several tribes of Native Americans, including the Cherokees, Seminoles, Chickasaws, Choctaws, and Creeks, to migrate to reservations west of the Mississippi River in the 1820s, 1830s, and 1840s.  Missouri Compromise (1820) was an effort by Congress to defuse the sectional and political rivalries triggered by the request of Missouri late in 1819 for admission as a state in which slavery would be permitted. At the time, the United States contained twenty-two states, evenly divided between slave and free.  Mexican War (1848) was a war fought between the United States and Mexico from 1846 to 1848. The United States won the war, encouraged by the feelings of many Americans that the country was accomplishing its manifest destiny of expansion.  Compromise of 1850 was a package of five separate bills passed by the United States Congress in September 1850, which defused a four-year political confrontation between slave and free states regarding the status of territories acquired during the Mexican– American War (1846–48).  Fugitive Slave Law (1850) was a law passed as part of the Compromise of 1850, which provided southern slaveholders with legal weapons to capture slaves who had escaped to the free states.  “Popular sovereignty” is the principle that the authority of a state and its government is created and sustained by the consent of its people, through their elected representatives (Rule by the People), who are the source of all political power.  “Bleeding Kansas” was a series of violent political confrontations in the United States involving anti-slavery Free-States and pro- slavery "Border Ruffian" elements in Kansas between 1854 and 1861.  Dred Scott decision (1857) was a controversial ruling made by the Supreme Court in 1857, shortly before the outbreak of the Civil War. Dred Scott, a slave, sought to be declared a free man on the basis that he had lived for a time in a “free” territory with his master.  John Brown (1859) was an abolitionist of the nineteenth century who sought to free the slaves by military force. After leading several attacks in Kansas, he planned to start an uprising among the slaves. In 1859, he and a small band of followers took over a federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, in Virginia.  Election of 1860 was the 19th quadrennial presidential election. The election was held on Tuesday, November 6, 1860, and served as the immediate impetus for the outbreak of the American Civil War.  Secession was the withdrawal from the United States of eleven southern states in 1860 and 1861. The seceding states formed a government, the Confederacy, in early 1861. Hostilities against the remaining United States, the Union, began in April 1861 (see Fort Sumter), and the Civil War followed.  Civil War (1861-1865) was the war fought in the United States between northern (Union) and southern (Confederate) states.  Confederate States of America (1861-1865) were the eleven Southern states (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia), which seceded from the United States in 1860-1, thus precipitating the American Civil War.  Jefferson Davis was a Mexican War hero, U.S. senator from Mississippi, U.S. secretary of war and president of the Confederate States of America for the duration of the American Civil War (1861- 1865).  Battle of Fort Sumter (SC) (1861) was the bombardment and surrender of Fort Sumter, near Charleston, South Carolina, that started the American Civil War. Following declarations of secession by seven Southern states, South Carolina demanded that the US Army abandon its facilities in Charleston Harbor.  Emancipation Proclamation (1863) was an executive order issued on January 1, 1863, by President Lincoln freeing slaves in all portions of the United States not then under Union control (that is, within the Confederacy).  Battle of Gettysburg (PA) (1863) The greatest battle of the Civil War, fought in south-central Pennsylvania in 1863. It ended in a major victory for the North and is usually considered the turning point of the war.  Ulysses S. Grant, “war of attrition” (1864) part of the American Civil War, when Ulysses S. Grant pushed the Confederate Army continually, in spite of losses, correctly predicted that the Union's supplies and manpower would overwhelm the Confederacy even if the casualty ratio were unfavorable.  Battle of Appomattox (VA) (1865) Court House, fought on the morning of April 9, 1865, was one of the last battles of the American Civil War. It was the final engagement of Confederate Army general Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia before it surrendered to the Union Army under Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant.  Reconstruction Era (1865-1877) The period after the Civil War in which the states formerly part of the Confederacy were brought back into the United States.  Thirteenth Amendment (1865) abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime.  Andrew Johnson (impeachment 1868) was the first president to be impeached in U.S. history.  Reconstruction Act (1867) The act applied to all the Ex- Confederate States in the South, except Tennessee who had already ratified the Fourteenth Amendment.  Ulysses S. Grant (1869-1877) was a general and political leader of the nineteenth century. Grant became commanding general of the Union army during the Civil War. He accepted the unconditional surrender of the commanding general of the main Confederate army, Robert E. Lee, at Appomattox Court House.  Fourteenth Amendment (1868) was one of the Reconstruction Amendments. The amendment addresses citizenship rights and equal protection of the laws, and was proposed in response to issues related to former slaves following the American Civil War.  Fifteenth Amendment (1870) prohibits the federal and state governments from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude."  Ku Klux Klan (1866) a secret organization of White Protestant Americans, mainly in the South, who use violence against Black people, Jewish people, and other minority groups.  Bargain of 1877, also called the Compromise of 1877, was a purported informal,   unwritten   deal   that   settled   the   intensely   disputed   1876   U.S. presidential election, pulled federal troops out of state politics in the South, and ended the Reconstruction Era.


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