Exam 3 Studyguide
Exam 3 Studyguide History 2110
Popular in Survey of U.S. History
Popular in History
This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Natalie Neugebauer on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to History 2110 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Michael O'Connor in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Survey of U.S. History in History at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
Study guide Exam 3: U.S. History Smith Act (1940): passed by the U.S. Congress as the Alien Registration Act of 1940. The act, which made it an offense to advocate or belong to a group that advocated the violent overthrow of the government, was the basis of later prosecutions of members of the Communist and Socialist Workers parties. Truman Loyalty Program (1947): President Harry S. Truman signed United States Executive Order 9835, sometimes known as the "Loyalty Order", on March 22, 1947. The order established the first general loyalty program in the United States, designed to root out communist influence in the U.S. federal government. House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) (1938-1975): of the U.S. House of Representatives, created to investigate disloyalty and subversive organizations. Its first chairman, Martin Dies, set the pattern for its anti-Communist investigations. Whittaker Chambers: Whittaker Chambers (April 1, 1901 – July 9, 1961), born Jay Vivian Chambers and also known as David Whittaker Chambers,  was an American writer and editor. After his early years as a Communist Party USA member and Soviet spy, he renounced communism, became an outspoken opponent, and testified at Alger Hiss's perjury and espionage trial. He described both events in his book Witness, published in 1952. Alger Hiss: was an American government official who was accused of being a Soviet spy in 1948 and convicted of perjury in connection with this charge in 1950. Before he was tried and convicted, he was involved in the establishment of the United Nations both as a U.S. State Department official and as a U.N. official. In later life he worked as a lecturer and author. Joseph McCarthy: Joseph Raymond "Joe" McCarthy (November 14, 1908 – May 2, 1957) was an American politician who served as a U.S. Senator from the state of Wisconsin from 1947 until his death in 1957. Beginning in 1950, McCarthy became the most visible public face of a period in which  Cold War tensions fueled fears of widespread Communist subversion. He was noted for making claims that there were large numbers of Communists and Soviet spies and sympathizers inside the United States federal government and elsewhere. Ultimately, his tactics and inability to substantiate his claims led him to be censured by the United States Senate. The term "McCarthyism": McCarthyism is the practice of making accusations of subversion or treason without proper regard for evidence. It also means "the practice of making unfair allegations or using unfair investigative techniques, especially in order to restrict dissent or political criticism."[ Army-McCarthy Hearings (1954): were a series of hearings held by the United States Senate's Subcommittee on Investigations between April 1954 and June 1954. The hearings were held for the purpose of investigating conflicting accusations between the United States Army and Senator Joseph McCarthy. The Army accused chief committee counsel Roy Cohn of pressuring the Army to give preferential treatment to G. David Schine, a former McCarthy aide and a friend of Cohn's. McCarthy counter- charged that this accusation was made in bad faith and in retaliation for his recent aggressive investigations of suspected Communists and security risks in the Army. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg (1953): Julius Rosenberg (May 12, 1918 – June 19, 1953) and Ethel Elizabeth Rosenberg (September 28, 1915 – June 19, 1953) were American citizens who spied for the Soviet Union and were executed for conspiracy to commit espionage and for passing information about the atomic bomb to the Soviets. J. Robert Oppenheimer (1954): father of atomic bomb Brown v. Board of Education (1954): case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional. Rosa Parks (1955): was an African American civil rights activist Martin Luther King, Jr.: was an American Baptist minister, activist, humanitarian, and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights using nonviolent civil disobedience based on his Christian beliefs. “sit-ins” (1960): February 1st, 1960, Greensboro NC. Four students from North Carolina A&T sit down at a "whites-only" Woolworth's lunch counter and ask to be served. Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (1960): “Freedom Rides” was one of the most important organizations of the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. [It emerged from a student meeting organized by Ella Baker held at Shaw University in April 1960. SNCC grew into a large organization with many supporters in the North who helped raise funds to support SNCC's work in the South, allowing full-time SNCC workers to have a $10 per week salary. Many unpaid volunteers also worked with SNCC on projects in Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Arkansas, and Maryland. SNCC played a major role in the sit-ins and freedom rides, a leading role in the 1963 March on Washington, Mississippi Freedom Summer, and the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party over the next few years. SNCC's major contribution was in its field work, organizing voter registration drives all over the South, especially in Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. Congress on Racial Equality (CORE): is a U.S. civil rights organization that played a pivotal role for African Americans in the Civil Rights Movement. Founded in 1942, CORE was one of the "Big Four" civil rights organizations, along with the SCLC, the SNCC, and the NAACP. Birmingham Campaign: was a movement organized in early 1963 by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) to bring attention to the integration efforts of African Americans in Birmingham, Alabama. Bull Connor: was an American politician who served as a Commissioner of Public Safety for the city of Birmingham, Alabama, during the American Civil Rights Movement. Connor's office, under the city commission government, gave him responsibility for administrative oversight of the Birmingham Fire Department and the Birmingham Police Department, which had their own chiefs (international symbol oft racism). Civil Rights Act of 1964: is a landmark piece of civil rights legislation in the  United States that outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.[6It ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools, at the workplace and by facilities that served the general public (known as "public accommodations"). “Bloody Sunday”@ Edmund Pettus Bridge: During January and February, 1965, King and SCLC led a series of demonstrations to the Dallas County Courthouse. On February 17, protester Jimmy Lee Jackson was fatally shot by an Alabama state trooper. In response, a protest march from Selma to Montgomery was scheduled for March 7. Six hundred marchers assembled in Selma on Sunday, March 7, and, led by John Lewis and other SNCC and SCLC activists, crossed the Edmund Pettus Bridge over the Alabama River en route to Montgomery. Just short of the bridge, they found their way blocked by Alabama State troopers and local police who ordered them to turn around. When the protesters refused, the officers shot teargas and waded into the crowd, beating the nonviolent protesters with billy clubs and ultimately hospitalizing over fifty people. Lyndon Johnson: 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after serving as the 37th Vice President of the United States under President John F. Kennedy, from 1961 to 1963. Voting Rights Act of 1965: signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson (1908-73) on August 6, 1965, aimed to overcome legal barriers at the state and local levels that prevented African Americans from exercising their right to vote under the 15th Amendment (1870) to the Constitution of the United States Civil Rights Act of 1968: is a landmark part of legislation in the United States that provided for equal housing opportunities regardless of race, creed, or national origin and made it a federal crime to “by force or by threat of force, injure, intimidate, or interfere with anyone … by reason of  their race, color, religion, or national origin.”The Act was signed into law during the King assassination riots by President Lyndon B. Johnson, who had previously signed the Civil Rights Act and Voting Rights Act into law. Coverture: the legal status of a married woman, considered to be under her husband's protection and authority. femme sole: a woman without a husband, especially one who is divorced. “separate spheres”: ideology that defines and prescribes separate spheres for women and men. Culturally located in Europe and North America, it emerged as a distinct ideology during the Industrial Revolution, although the basic idea of gendered separation of spheres is much older. Suffragism: any advocacy of the granting or extension of the suffrage to those now denied it, especially to women Seneca Falls conference (1848): first women's rights convention. It advertised itself as "a convention to discuss the social, civil, and religious condition and rights of woman". Held in Seneca Falls, New York, it spanned two days over July 19–20, 1848. Declaration of Sentiments (1848): also known as the Declaration of Rights and Sentiments, is a document signed in 1848 by 68 women and 32 men— 100 out of some 300 attendees at the first women's rights convention to be organized by women. Elizabeth Cady Stanton: American suffragist, social activist, abolitionist, and leading figure of the early women's rights movement. Her Declaration of Sentiments, presented at the Seneca Falls Convention held in 1848 in Seneca Falls, New York, is often credited with initiating the first organized  women's rights and women's suffrage movements in the United States. Stanton was president of the National Woman Suffrage Association from 1892 until 1900. Susan B. Anthony: American social reformer and feminist who played a pivotal role in the women's suffrage movement. Born into a Quaker family committed to social equality, she collected anti-slavery petitions at the age of 17. In 1856, she became the New York state agent for the American Anti-Slavery Society. “second wave” feminism: period of feminist activity that first began in the early 1960s in the United States, and eventually spread throughout the Western world and beyond. In the United States the movement lasted through the early 1980s. “The Personal is Political” : political argument used as a rallying slogan of student movement and second-wave feminism from the late 1960s. It underscored the connections between personal experience and larger social and political structures. “consciousness raising”: is a form of activism, popularized by United States feminists in the late 1960s. It often takes the form of a group of people attempting to focus the attention of a wider group of people on some cause or condition. Betty Friedan & The Feminine Mystique (1963) & National Organization for Women (NOW) (1966): American writer, activist, and feminist. A leading figure in the women's movement in the United States, her 1963 book The Feminine Mystique is often credited with sparking the second wave of American feminism in the 20th century. In 1966, Friedan co-founded and was elected the first president of the National Organization for Women (NOW), which aimed to bring women "into the mainstream of American society now [in] fully equal partnership with men." Miss America Pageant protest (1969): The protest was attended by about 400 feminists and separately, by civil rights advocates. The feminist protest, organized by New York Radical Women, included tossing a collection of symbolic feminine products, pots, false eyelashes, mops, and other items into a "Freedom trash can" on the Atlantic City boardwalk. Roe v. Wade (1973): landmark case in granting a woman the right to abortions Equal Rights Amendment (ERA): proposed amendment to the United States Constitution designed to guarantee equal rights for women Pentagon Papers (1971): officially titled "Report of the Office of the Secretary of Defense Vietnam Task Force", was commissioned by Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara in 1967. In June of 1971, small portions of the report were leaked to the press and widely distributed. Richard Nixon (1974): resigns as first president, bc impeachment for involvement in watergate scandal “Watergate” (1972-74): major political scandal that occurred in the United States in the 1970s, following a break-in at the Democratic National Committee (DNC) headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C. and President Richard Nixon's administration's attempted cover-up of its involvement. When the conspiracy was discovered and investigated by the U.S. Congress, the Nixon administration's resistance to its probes led to a constitutional crisis.] Woodward and Bernstein: two of the most famous journalists in America and became forever identified as the reporters who broke the biggest story in American politics. Beginning with the investigation of a "third-rate burglary" of the Democratic National Committee headquarters in the Watergate complex, Woodward and Bernstein uncovered a system of political "dirty tricks" and crimes that eventually led to indictments of forty White House and administration officials, and ultimately to the resignation of President Richard Nixon. “Deep Throat”: Mark Felt, pseudonym given to the secret informant who provided information to Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein of The Washington Post in 1972 about the involvement of U.S. President Richard Nixon's administration in what came to be known as the Watergate scandal. “Saturday Night Massacre” (1973): efer to U.S. President Richard Nixon's dismissal of independent special prosecutor Archibald Cox, and the resignations of Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus United States v. Nixon (1974): andmark United States Supreme Court decision. It resulted in a unanimous 8–0 ruling against President Richard Nixon and was important to the late stages of the Watergate scandal. Gerald Ford’s pardon of Nixon (1974): pardons his predecessor for his involvement in the Watergate scandal. Conservatism: any political philosophy that favours tradition (in the sense of various religious, cultural, or nationally-defined beliefs and customs) in the face of external forces for change, and is critical of proposals for radical social change. The Road to Serfdom (1944) by Frederich Hayek: any political philosophy that favours tradition (in the sense of various religious, cultural, or nationally-defined beliefs and customs) in the face of external forces for change, and is critical of proposals for radical social change. National Review (1955): emi-monthly magazine founded by author William F. Buckley, Jr. in 1955. Ayn Rand &The Fountainhead (1943) & Atlas Shrugged (1957): Russian- born American novelist, philosopher, [2playwright, and screenwriter. She is known for her two best-selling novels, The Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged, and for developing a philosophical system she called Objectivism. Barry Goldwater (1964): American politician and businessman who was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–65, 1969–87) and the Republican Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 1964 election. Goldwater is the politician most often credited for sparking the resurgence of the American conservative political movement in the 1960s. He also had a substantial impact on the libertarian movement.  Goldwater rejected the legacy of the New Deal and fought through the conservative coalition against the New Deal coalition. The Conscience of a Conservative (1960): It reignited the American conservative movement, made Goldwater a political star, and has influenced countless conservatives in the United States, helping to lay the foundation for the Reagan Revolution of the 1980s. Ronald Reagan (1981-1989): 40 president of U.S. “A Time for Choosing” (1964): also known as The Speech, was a speech presented during the 1964 U.S. presidential election campaign by future president Ronald Reagan on behalf of Republican candidate Barry Goldwater. “Southern Strategy”: refers to a strategy by Republican Party candidates of gaining political support in the Southern United States by appealing to disaffected white Democratic voters. “supply-side economics” “tear down this wall” (1987): line from a speech made by US President Ronald Reagan in West Berlin on June 12, 1987, calling for the leader of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev, to open up the barrier which had divided West and East Berlin since 1961.  rise economic inequality (1970s-present): has increased significantly since the 1970s after several decades of stability, meaning the share of the nation's income received by higher income households has increased. Deregulation: process of removing or reducing state regulations, typically in the economic sphere. It is the undoing or repeal of governmental regulation of the economy. “Government is the problem.” (1981) savings and loan crisis: was the failure of 1,043 out of the 3,234 savings and loan associations in the United States from 1986 to 1995: the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation (FSLIC) closed or otherwise resolved 296 institutions from 1986 to 1989 and the Resolution Trust Corporation (RTC) closed or otherwise resolved 747 institutions from 1989  to 1995. PATCO (1981): more than 12,000 members of the Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization walked off the job, setting off a chain of events that would redefine labor relations in America. Iran-Contra Affair (1985-86): political scandal in the United States that occurred during the second term of the Reagan Administration. Senior administration officials secretly facilitated the sale of arms to Iran, which was the subject of an arms embargo. [3They hoped thereby to secure the release of several U.S. hostages and to fund the Contras in Nicaragua. Under the Boland Amendment, further funding of the Contras by the government had been prohibited by Congress. Clinton impeachment (1994): on two charges, one of perjury and one of obstruction of justice, on December 19, 1998. The charges stemmed from his extra marital affair with former White House Intern Monica Lewinsky and his testimony about the affair during a sexual harassment lawsuit filed against him by Paula Jones. Bush v. Gore (2000): resolved the dispute surrounding the 2000 presidential election. Three days earlier, the Court had preliminarily halted the Florida recount that was occurring. Eight days earlier, the Court unanimously decided the closely related case of Bush v. Palm Beach County Canvassing Board “too big to fail” (2008): hat certain corporations, and particularly financial institutions, are so large and so interconnected that their failure would be disastrous to the greater economic system, and that they therefore must be supported by government when they face potential failure. TARP (2008): program of the United States government to purchase assets and equity from financial institutions to strengthen its financial sector that was signed into law by U.S. President George W. Bush on October 3, 2008. George W. Bush (2001-2009): 43 president of U.S. “global war on terror” : GW Bush declared this after 9/11  al Queda: militant Sunni Islamist global organization founded in 1988 by  Osama bin Laden, Abdullah Azzam, and several other Arab volunteers who fought against the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in the 1980s. Afghanistan War (2001-2014): period in which the United States invaded Afghanistan after the September 11 attacks. [ Osama bin Laden Saddam Hussein: fifth President of Iraq Iraq War (203-2011): a protracted armed conflict that began with the 2003 invasion of Iraq by a United States-led coalition. The invasion regime toppled the government of Saddam Hussein. Barack Obama (2009-2017) Guantanamo Bay Detention Camp Abu Ghraib: Sunni Arab city in the Baghdad Governorate of Iraq, located just west of Baghdad's city center, or northwest of Baghdad International Airport. “enhanced interrogation techniques” Patriot Act (2001) Edward Snowden (2013) USA FREEDOM ACT (2015): .S. law enacted on June 2, 2015 that restored in modified form several provisions of the Patriot Act, which had expired the day before.
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