study guide test 1 CJ 220
study guide test 1 CJ 220 CJ 220
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Helen Hardin on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CJ 220 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Edmund Sexton in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 182 views. For similar materials see Law Enforcement in Criminal Justice at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
CJ 220 Study Guide Edmund Sexton CHAPTER 1 History from English Origins to the United States English and Colonial Of cers of the Law 0 Sheriff 0 Derived from shire reeve meaning county and agent of the king Job was to maintain law and order king s steward charged as being lazy and were later forbidden to act as justices declined in power 0 more popular in America 0 Constable 0 Alone pursued felons O Collected taxes supervised highways and served as a magistrate 0 Later limited to making arrests only with warrants issued by justice of O O O 0 peace 0 In 1856 parliament discarded the office 0 No pay 0 Coroner O Oversight of the interests of the crown conducted preliminary hearings determined cause of death and party responsible for it 0 At first elected for life 0 In the US limited to only determining cause of death 0 Justice of the Peace 0 Wealthy landholders 0 Issued warrants 0 buy your way into office Policing in Colonial America 0 Crime was low during seventeenth and eighteenth century America 0 The county sheriff was the most important law enforcement official 0 After the American Revolution in 1783 crime increased and it was evident that America needed a better system of policing as the English did earlier Legacies to Policing 0 1 Local policing 0 2 Republicanism power can be divided and it relied on local interests to promote the general welfare 0 3 Theory of crime prevention led to the emergence of modern police agencies 0 Henry Fielding was one of England s most acclaimed theorists in crime and punishment He argued that the English penal code needed to be more severe death penalty for a lot of different offenses Police Reform in England 0 Two trends brought changes urbanization and industrialization O A new policing system was much needed 0 Robert Peel introduced principles of policing arguing that the police should be military organized and under the governent s control 0 Crime prevention is as important as crime suppression Policing in the United States 0 Three eras of policing 1 Political Era a Politics and law b Broad social services c Decentralized d Intimate e Foot patrol f Citizen and political satisfaction 2 Reform Era a Law and professionalism b Crime control c Centralized and classical d Remote e Preventive patrol and rapid response 3 Community Era a Community support law and professionalism Broad provision of services Decentralized using task forces and matrices Foot patrol problem solving Public relations Quality of life and citizens rhSDFLPP CHAPTER 2 Preparing for the Street Recruiting 0 Extremely important part of hiring 0 However there are some problems 0 Gender bias 0 Sexual harassment Testing Hurdle Process 0 New recruits must complete this process 0 Written Examinations 0 General knowledge and psychological test 0 Reading skills 0 Best means a police agency can use 0 Physical Agility 0 Applicants must get to the problem climbing running jumping resolve the problem fight wrestle and remove the problem 0 Personal Interview 0 To assess aspects of the applicant such as appearance communication reason and poise 0 Character Investigation 0 Similar to a background check 0 Involves talking to friends family and previous employers O Polygraph Exam 0 Not used as much 0 Used to detect honesty 0 Medical Exam and Drug Screening 0 To make sure officers are in peak condition 0 Assessment Center 0 Includes interviews tests exercises discussions and role playing 0 More difficult logistically but well worth it Academy Training 0 States and jurisdictions have their own training requirements 0 Each state has commission on Peach Officers Standards and Training POST 0 Inservice training 0 Provided by employing agency 0 Academy training 0 New identity and system of discipline 0 Working personality 0 Demeanor swagger Suspicion Sixth Sense 0 Officers should be able to identify suspicion 0 Sense when something is wrong Postacademy Field Training 0 Field Training Officer Program FTO 0 Assignment to a veteran officer for field instruction 0 Four phases 1 Introductory phase 2 Training phase 3 Evaluation phase 4 Final phase 0 Police Training Officer Program PTO O Seeks to take the traditional FTO program to higher levels that embrace new officers 0 New Technology 0 Automated Daily Observation Report and Evaluation ADORE 39 Computerized notes while supervising I Reduces paperwork O Pursuit simulation 0 Simulates a pursuit of buses trucks cars skateboarders etc What makes a good cop 0 Enthusiasm 0 Good communications skills Good judgment Sense of humor Creativity Selfmotivation 0 Knowing the job and system 0 Ego 0 Courage 0 Discretion 0 Tenacity Thirst for knowledge Roles Functions and Styles of Policing 0 Four basic policing functions 1 Enforcing the law 2 Performing services 3 Preventing crime 4 Protecting the innocent 0 Three policing styles 1 Watchman style 2 Legalistic style 3 Service style Women and Minorities 0 Women police officers has increased over the years 0 Advantages to having women in service 0 Female officers are proven to be as competent as male counterparts Less likely to use excessive force Implement communityoriented policing Will improve law enforcement s response to violence against women Increasing women officers reduces problems of sex discrimination and harassment within agency 0 Minorities as officers 0 Citizens will naturally feel more secure seeing their own race in uniform in their community 0 National Organization of Black Law Enforcement Executives NOBLE helps unify AfricanAmerican officers to deal with specific issues CHAPTER 3 O O O 0 On Patrol Methods and Menaces Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment 0 Study of patrol efficiency 0 Looked at 3 patrol techniques 0 No preventive patrol 0 Increased patrol O Usual level of service 0 Study challenged assumptions about patrol Team Policing 0 Key differences from conventional patrol 0 Permanent team assignment to neighborhood 0 Officers tended to be generalists I Investigate crimes and attend to all problems in their area 0 Maximized communication coordination Other Attempts to Increase Patrol Productivity 0 Directed patrol O Spitforce patrol O Renewed interest Response Time 0 Key assumption police response time affected ability to arrest perpetrators 0 Kansas City Study 1977 found response time was unrelated to the probability of making an arrest or locating witnesses 0 Major determining factor 0 The time it takes to report the crime Purpose and Nature of Patrol 0 Officers today engage in problem solving activities and random preventive patrol when not handling calls for service 0 Patrol officer deployment needs to consider wherewhen crimes occure Patrol Work as a Function of Shift Assignment 0 Day Shift 8am4pm 0 Greatest contact with citizens 0 Most errandsnon police duties 0 Most major crimes 0 SwingEvening Shift 4pm12pm In uence of Assigned Beat 0 Beats vary in terms of structure and demographic character 0 cops rules of the beat culture I don t get in another officer s sector I don t leave work for the next duty shift I don t slack off Occupational Hazards of Patrol 0 officers never know if citizens they confront are armed high plan suicide by cop etc 0 recent spike in fatal ambushes of officers Suicide by Cop O Extent of phenomenon unknown 0 Lack of clear definition and established reporting principles 0 Immediate move to mental health arena HR 218 0 Law Enforcement Officers Safety Act of 2004 O Exempts qualified police officers from state laws prohibiting the carrying of concealed weapons 0 Allows retired officers with at least 15 years of service to carry a firearm Rolling Office 0 Patrol vehicle as sanctuary 0 Contains vital equipment 0 Symbol of authority Discretionary Use of Police Authority 0 Myth of full enforcement 0 Do not have the resources or desire to enforce all laws 0 Not all laws are enforced impartially 0 Political and legal reasons for denying the use of discretion 0 Cannot have patrol Without the discretionary use of police authority 0 Criminal law has 2 sides 0 The formality I Found in statute book 0 The reality 0 Many factors in uence officers decision to take stern approach or be lenient 0 Law 0 Officer s attitude 0 Citizen s attitude 0 Citizen s social class sex age race etc 0 Possible discriminations CHAPTER 4 Community Oriented Policing and Problem Solving Traditional Policing 0 00000000 Police are a government agency responsible for law enforcement Focuses on solving crime Efficiency is measured by detection and arrest rates Highest priorities are crimes that are high value Violence Police deal With incidents Effectiveness is determined by response time Crime intelligence is most important Headquarters provides the necessary rules and policy directives Prosecutions are an important goal Community Policing 0 0000000 Police are the public Role is to take a broader problem solving approach Efficiency is measured by absence of crime and disorder Highest priorities are Whatever is disturbing the community most Police deal With citizen s problems and concerns Effectiveness determined by public cooperation Headquarters preach organizational values Prosecutions are one tool among many Problem Solving Process SARA Scanning Analysis Response Assessment 0 Scanning 0 Problem identification 0 Officers look for a pattern 0 Incidents may be similar in various ways Behaviors Locations People Time Events 0 Purpose is to conduct a preliminary inquiry to determine Whether a problem exists or not 0 Analysis 0 Heat of problem solving 0 Crime analysis has been effective 0 Several methods Community Surveys The problem analysis triangle 0 Offender victim place Mapping and offense reports 0 Computerized crime mapping that assists With crime analysis 0 Not to be overlooked in analysis Principle Components of Implementation 0 Leadership and Administration 0 Must adopt four practices as part of plan 1 2 3 4 Communicate to all department members the vital role of community policing Provide incentives to members to engage in community policing Reduce the barriers to community policing Show officers how to address problems 0 Human resources 0 Field operations 0 External relations CompStat 0 New crime management tool used in problem solving process 0 Comparative or computer statistics 0 Designed for the collection and feedback of information on crime and rlated quality of life issues 0 Revolutionizing strategy 0 Key elements Specific objectives Accurate and timely intelligence Effective tactics Rapid deployment of personnel and resources Relentless follow up and assessment OOOOO Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design 0 CPTED 0 Proper design and effective use of the environment that can lead to a reduction in the fear and incidence of crime and an improvement in life 0 Three principles 1 Natural access control 2 Natural surveillance 3 Territorial reinforcement a Crimeanalysis information b Demographics c Land use information d Observations e Resident information Smart Policing 0 Emerging paradigm O Emphasized the use of data and analytics Intelligence Led Policing O Originated in Great Britain 0 They believed a small percentage of people were responsible for a large amount of crime 0 Levels of intelligence 0 Level 1 highest level agencies produce tactical and strategic intelligence products that benefit their own department as well as other agencies 0 Level 2 includes police agencies that produce tactical and strategic intelligence for internal consumption 0 Level 3 most common level includes law enforcement agencies with anywhere from dozens to hundreds of sown employees 0 Level 4 comprises most agencies in the US Predictive Policing 0 Systematic knowledge of where crimes will occur 0 Approaches such as crime analysis technology intelligence led policing and more forward thinking CHAPTER 5 Criminal Investigation 0 Forensic science 0 Answers legal questions 0 Examination evaluation explanation of evidence 0 Pathology toxicology anthropology odontology documents serology tools ballistics etc 0 Criminalistics 0 Branch of forensic science 0 Study of physical evidence in crime 0 Physical evidence provides 0 Information on corpus delicti body of crime Information on modus operandi method of operation Linking of suspect with victim Linking of person to crime scene Disproving or supporting witness testimony 0 ID of suspect O O O O 0 Crime scene 0 Should be protected 0 Properly preserve and collect evidence ID 0 Two systems 0 Dactylography fingerprint ID 0 Anthropometry system that didn t work as well I Bertillon system I Theory that humans differ in measurements Locard s exchange principle 0 Locard s theory 0 when any person comes in contact with someone or something else a cross transfer occurs 0 ex hairs fibers fingerprints August Vollmer 0 led to development of criminalistics and investigations Investigative stages 0 preliminary investigation 0 continuing investigation 0 reconstruction of crime 0 focus of investigation Detectives 0 detective position is well established 0 myths are not true 0 homicide investigation is the most difficult Problems with undercover role 0 changes in value system 0 increase risk of danger 0 less officer accountability 0 lower adherence to due process 0 lower confidence in law 0 awkward transition back to patrol Medical examiners and coroner39s 0 medical examiner O physicians or pathologists O appointed 0 coroner O lay individuals 0 elected to fixed term 0 may not be trained in medical sciences Polygraph 0 determines truth 0 not fully reliable but still useable 0 used in sentencing decisions sometimes DNA 0 CODIS Combined DNA Index System 0 Exchanges and compares DNA electronically 0 Post conViction testing 0 Testing is fast 0 Inmates want immediate results and all want a test CSI Effect 0 TeleVisions in uence people about how crime investigation works 0 A nuisance
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