Test 1 Study Guide
Test 1 Study Guide WMST 4600
Popular in Psychology of Women 4600
Popular in Psychlogy
This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bridget Ochuko on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to WMST 4600 at University of Georgia taught by Malissa A. Clark in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Women 4600 in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
WMST Test 1 Study Guide 09122015 Chapter 1 Sex and Gender biological characteristics related to reproduction hormones etc o Intersex is possible during birth the genitalia are neither male nor female 0 Gender determines masculinity from femininity man and woman psychology characteristics and social categories that human culture creates 0 Transgender someone whose internal gender identity doesn t match with what someone is assigned to at birth Gender identity differs from sexual orientation Cisgende your gender identity matches with the sex you were assigned at birth opposite of transgender 0 quotDoing Genderquot acting out characteristics that are associated with your particular gender Cultures with Multiple GendersGender Views 0 Native American cultures 0 Man 0 Woman 0 Womanman man who is biologically male but adopts many of the characteristics of a female 0 Manwoman viceversa o The Agta Negrito 0 Society in the Philippines that challenges the ides of males as breadwinners and females as hunters o Tahiti o The roles of men and women are the same 0 An androgynous culture lntersectionaity looking at the intersections between different minorities to examine their individual oppression or discrimination Each intersection makes every individuals experiences different Feminism The Fword Feminist Approaches 0 Liberal Feminism emphasizes the goal of gender equality giving women and men the same rights and opportunities argue that people can achieve this goal by passing laws that guarantee equal rights for women Cultural Feminism emphasizes the positive qualities that are presumed to be stronger in women than in men nurturing and caretaking Focuses on gender differences that value women rather than on the gender similarities of liberal feminism Argue that that society should be reconstructed to emphasize cooperation rather than aggression Radical Feminism argue that the basic cause of women s oppression lies deep in the entire sex and gender system rather than in some super cial society emphasize that sexism permeates our society often argue that our society needs to dramatically change its policies on sexuality and on violence against women WomenofColor Feminism emphasize that feminism must pay attention to other human dimensions such as ethnicity and social class Psychological Approaches Approaches to gender similarity and difference 0 The Similarities Perspective even though men and women are the same the difference comes from social constructionsm society determines how men and women should act 0 The Differences Perspective men and women are very different from one another socially and intellectually essentialism this cannot be changed they are innate differences valuing the differences men and women have Women and Ethnicity The WhitePrivilege Concept the idea that people who are Caucasian often take for granted their unearned advantage invisible advantages WhiteasNormative Concept white is the standard race in our culture but others are de ned by their races USCentered Nationalism the idea that America is taking an egocentric standpoint and comparing everyone else to us Potential Problems and Biases in Current Research The Scienti c Method 0 Identify and state the problem 0 Design a research study 0 Measure the variables Constructs things that are not observable on the surface a Example judging people s happiness levels 0 Analysis of the data 0 Conclusions from research The scienti c method is a very objective way to obtain the truth we assume that it is not in uenced by the scientist s beliefs values etc o It is known that most studies are not ideal Formulating the Hypothesis 0 Using a biased theory 0 Formulating a hypothesis on the basis of unrelated research 0 Asking questions only from certain content areas Designing the Study 0 Selecting the operational definitions the researcher must gure out how to measure the construct 0 Choosing the participants 0 Choosing the researcher 0 Including confounding variables Performing the Study 0 In uencing the outcome through researcher expectancy o In uencing the outcome through participants expectancies Stereotype threat the idea that you are nervous about essentially con rming a stereotype that your group is known for o Interpreting the Data 0 Emphasizing statistical signi cance rather than practical signi cance determining whether the results are true results or results gained just by chance The more people you have in your study the closer you ll get to a statistical signi cance 0 Ignoring alternate explanations o Misinterpreting correlational data Correlation is not causation just because two things are related doesn t mean one caused the other 0 Making inappropriate generalizations A Dangerous Assumption 0 If we nd a quotsex difference in something that means all men are one way and all women are another way 0 Statistically when we nd a difference between the two groups it s much smaller than people assume it to be 0 Communicating the Findings 0 Leaving out analyses that show gender similarities 0 Choosing a title that focuses on gender differences 0 Journal editors rejecting studies that show gender similarities Journals want a signi cant result differences 0 Secondary sources emphasizing gender differences instead of gender similarities Critical Thinking and the Psychology of Women 0 Ask thoughtful questions about what you see or hear a Look for potential biases at each step of the research process 0 Determine whether conclusions are supported by the evidence that has been presented 0 Suggest alternative interpretations of the evidence Chapter 2 Biased Representations of Women and Men Stereotypes beliefsassumptions about a groups characteristics can be positive or negative generalize a characteristic about every single person in that group Prejudice an emotional reaction or attitude towards a group Discrimination biased behavior towards a group 0 Hopkins v Price Waterhouse 1987 only woman among 88 candidates up for partner she had a very good interview and everyone thought she would get it but she didn t the reason she didn t get the job was because she quotwasn t feminine enoughquot Hopkins won the case Invisibility of Women in Historical Accounts history on women didn t exist until the 60 s research shows in history women are just ignored and invisible 0 Due to the fact that many women s place was in the home in history 0 Textbooks in schools all across the country showed there was more representation of men than women in history books through writing and pictures Philosophers Representation of Women philosophers that have the most recognition depicted women as inferior to men Gender Biases in Religion and Mythology women seen as a piece of man Adam and Eve another example is the sanctity of women Greek goddesses Mary Gender Biases in Language male as the normative referent female being a subset of that 0 Example Dr vs Female Dr quotyou guysquot Gender Bias in the Media Sarah Palin being described as the quotsexy candidatequot Women being portrayed in a violent way Princesses in Disney movies Gender Bias in Media 0 Women are often underrepresented and if they are present they are often inaudible 0 Women are more often shown doing work in the house rather than outside the house 0 Men are often treated more seriously than women especially in politics 0 Women s bodies are used differently than men s bodies 0 Women of color are underrepresented and when shown often in a very biased and stereotypical way Black women are shown more often than other women of color 0 Lower class social women are underrepresented and shown in a very biased way 0 STEM Science Technology Engineering and Math 0 There are very few women in this line of work because at a certain age it is not socially acceptable People s Beliefs About Women and Men 0 The Content of Stereotypes o Communion Communal emphasizes a relationship between you and other people Terms associated with this being gentlewarm Stereotypically feminine 0 Agency Agentic a concern for your own self interest Terms associated with this selfcon dent competitive Stereotypically masculine Often times the stereotypes are implicitbiases that you don t overtly demonstrate in your actions but you hold them in the back of your mind Descriptive vs Prescriptive Stereotypes Descriptive describes what people to be on average men vs women Prescriptive includes standards of behavior describing speci c traits that are desirable v undesirable 0 Women being too domineering and arrogant 0 Men weak and emotionally yielding The Complexity of Contemporary Sexism 0 Double bind for women a tightrope women walk between acting stereotypically feminine and wanting to be viewed as a leader not seen as persuasive women acting too masculineassertive seen as quotbossyquot or a bitch Hostile sexism blatant sexism based on the idea that women should be subservient to men and know their face involves feelings of hostility towards women Benevolent sexism subtle sexism idea that women have a niceness and purity that needs to be protected Chapter 3 Infancy and Childhood some of Chapter 4 Gender Development 0 Ideas at birth are already well formed this idea of socialization of genders starts very early 0 Social construction5m people constructinvent their own versions of reality based on prior expectations or their beliefs Theories of Gender Development a Social Learning Approach Children learn gender related behaviors from other people 0 Children are rewarded for gender appropriate behavior and punished for gender inappropriate behavior 0 Children watch and imitate the behavior of other people of their own gender modeling a The Cognitive Development Approach really centered on thoughts children are very active thinkers that take in all the information they hear 0 Children develop powerful gender schemas general concepts that we use to organize our thoughts 0 Children use gender schemas to evaluate themselves other people and other things children determining what their gender identity is begins very early in age 0 These are reinforces through gender typed activities 0 Chores 0 Toys Factors that Shape Gender Typing parents have the least in uence on children as opposed to media and peers Conversations about emotions parents talk to daughters about other people and their emotions parents don t talk to their sons as much Attitudes about aggression created by society Attitudes about independence mixed research on whether parents foster this these differences are getting smaller with time less in uenced by gender more in uenced by birth order Peers 0 Rejection of nontraditional behavior by adults forcing this on children 0 Gender segregation boys play with boys and girls play with girls 0 Gender prejudice associating with people that are similar to you 0 Differential treatment one example is how girls are judged and treated based on their quotlevel of attractivenessquot School 0 Teachers are more likely to call on boys and give them praise for correct answers rather than girls 0 Raceethnicity and social class play a role in teachers shaping stereotypes The media 0 Marketing of toys 0 Marketing of clothing a Television and video games The more TV watching the more stereotypical someone s beliefs will be 0 Books main characters in books tend to be boys rather than girls 21
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