Popular in World History, Ancient-1500
Popular in History
This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah Friedrichsen on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 170 at Colorado State University taught by Derek Everett in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see World History, Ancient-1500 in History at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
Egyptian Civilizations from 3000 BC to 700 BC: Year 2667 BC: o Djoser holds power in Egypt. o He rules for 17 years. o In those 17 years of rule he had an architect named Imhoter, who built his tombs. o Djoser’s tomb was built in Saqqara and it had hieroglyphics on the walls. It was also twenty stories tall. Year 2613 BC: o Snefru holds power in Egypt. o He marries his halfsister to keep the royal bloodline as pure as possible. o He is obsessed with engineering excellence. o His first tomb would be built in Meydum, the second tomb in Dashur, and the last tomb would be the Red Pyramid. o His last pyramid would be built with extremely large stones that took twenty men to drag. o He ruled until 2589 BC. Year 1864 BC: o This is considered the Middle Kingdom Period. o During this time Nubia was a source of gold. o In power at this time is Sesostris III; he was a war leader that cared for only his own people. o He took a different approach to his civilizations and built superforts. o Each superfort housed 1,000 troops at a time. o He would end up reining for 39 years. Year 1479 BC: o Hatshepsut takes over after her late husband. o She is the next heir to the thrown because her son is too young to rule. o Senenmut serves as both her architect and her lover. He took 15 years to build her temple o In order to keep her rule she would tell her subjects that she was a direct descendent of the gods. Year 1459 BC: o Senenmut the architect goes missing or disappears. o A year later Hatshepsut perishes. o Her son then takes over and destroys all of her statues and anything that pointed out that she had once ruled. Year 1352 BC: o Amonhotep IV is in power in Egypt. o He will change his name to Akhenaten after one of the Egyptian sun gods. o He then moves the capitol to Akhetaten or Amarna and builds the capitol like the rays of a sun. o He had four palaces in this city. o He would die in 1336 BC o After his death his people destroyed all of his pictures and statues. o His son would then take over and move all of the people back to Theibes. o The son is known as King Tut. o He would die unexpectedly in 1279 BC. Year 1279 BC: o Ramesses II takes over the power in Egypt. o He would father approx. 200 children. o His Queen was Nefritary who he depicted as equal to him through his statues. o His temple would begin being built in 1269 BC. Nile River’s Role: o Rivers played a large role in transportation and exportation. o They also provided a consistent water source. o In the Egyptian culture there were gods that dictated the river and how high it was, therefore the river also played a part in their religious beliefs. Great Engineering Feats: o Djoser’s tomb stood 20 stories tall and had two underground tombs, one for his organs and one for his body. Photo Credit: http://www.gettyimages.co.uk/detail/photo/pyramidofneferirkarakakaiabusir highresstockphotography/479638169 Snefru builds 3 tombs and almost bankrupts the city by doing so. o His second tomb in Dashur is referred to as the bent pyramid, but it was thought that it had possible structural problems. o Photo Credit: http://www.guardians.net/egypt/cyberjourney/dahshur/bentpyramid/be nt1.htm o His last tomb was built with much larger blocks. o o Photo Credit: https://historyarchaeology.wordpress.com/2013/02/05/the pyramidsofsneferu/ Hatshepsut’s tomb took 15 years and had garden inside of it. It is built very differently from the previous tombs. Photo Credit: http://www.travelsandphotos.com /africa/egypt.htm Hellenic’s and Persian from 400’s to 200’s BC: Year 404 BC: o Athens is captured by Sparta, meanwhile Sparta is receiving help and supplies from Persia. o Persia then switches sides and starts sending supplies to Athens instead. Year 370 BC: o A peace conference is called between the Hellenic Region and in this meeting it is decided that no one will take help from Persia anymore. o Thebes doesn’t care about the new rule of not creating allies with Persia and thus becomes allies with Persia. Year 330’s BC: o A neighboring country to Greece/the Hellenic Region invades and forces all the little citystates to get along. o These invaders were the Macedonians. o Back to the year 350 BC: o Philip II is sent, from neighboring country, into the Hellenic Region to create relations. o In that time, he joins a bunch of different militaries. o Year 338 BC: o Philip II creates the Hellenic League (Like the UN of the BC’s). o In this time Athens and Thebes are against the new rule and fight back. This leads to the Chaeronea War were Athens and Thebes are defeated. o Sparta on the other hand is left alone, but because of the lack of resources they now don’t receive they slowly wither away. o Year 336 BC: o Philip II is assassinated in hopes that Greece will no longer be united. o This doesn’t happen though because Philip II’s son, Alexander III, takes other. o Alexander III will be the person we now know as Alexander the Great. o Thebes then decides to turn on the new king with the help of from Persia and Alexander whips out all of Thebes, only leaving one house standing. This asserts his new authority. o Year 335 BC: o Alexander the Great creates an army of 30,000 infantries and 5,000 cavalries. Persia’s army is much larger than this: serval 100,000 soldiers. o Year 334 BC o This is the year of the first attack on Persia. o The battle of Granicus River occurs and Alexander the Great wins. o Year 331 BC: o They attack the heart of Persia at Gaugamela. o Alexander’s army is now up to 100,000 men strong because he takes soldiers as he concurs their cities. o Year 326 BC: o Alexander’s army has taken over almost all of Persia and now his troops would like to turn back and go home. o Alexander reluctantly does what his troops want. o Alexander’s Empire has stretched out to India at this point. o Year 323 BC: o Alexander dies at the age of 33 and the royal family now feuds over who will take the thrown. There are two options: Philip III or his unborn child. o Year 310 BC: o The last heir to Alexander the Great’s thrown, his son, is assassinated. o The Empire is then broken into pieces and given to Alexander’s top generals. o Ptolemy is given the most successful piece of land because it doesn’t revolt against him. This land is Egypt and the Mediterranean area. o His family will rule here for 300 years, of which Cleopatra is his last successor. Year 226 BC: o Earthquakes strike and take out major roads and a statue blocks the harbor. Roman Republic: o There are four positions in the Roman government: o Quaster: handles city finances and collects taxes. o Aedile: Chooses how to spend the money. o Praetor: is the Judge and chooses how to inforce the laws. o Consul: there are 2 consuls and they are the leaders of everything. o The people are divided into two types of people: o Patricians: land owners and the wealthy o Plebeians: all the other people o Only Patricians can be part of the government. o Each government position is only served for one year and you must serve them in order of Quaster, Aedile, Praetor, then Consul. o You can only be in a position once and then you are allowed to move up to the next position. o Once you have served in every position you become part of the senate that is made up of senex (old men). o Lastly, there is a dictator the comes into rule during great times of need and then resigns from their position once the time of need is over. o In 494 BC the plebeians go on strike because they don’t like that they don’t have a say in the government. o This is resolved by them getting the Plebian Assembly, where one of the members is a tribune and can listen in on the senate conversations. o In 450 BC the plebeians go on strike again because there is no written law. o Thus the 12 laws are made and written on tables that are placed in plazas.
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