CCJ415–Spring2016–FirstExamReview.pdf CCJ 415 - 001
Popular in Prevention: Crime & Delnqncy
Popular in Criminology and Criminal Justice
This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hertis Mcclanahan on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CCJ 415 - 001 at Southern Illinois University Carbondale taught by Cindy L. Hart in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 103 views. For similar materials see Prevention: Crime & Delnqncy in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Southern Illinois University Carbondale.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
CCJ415 – Spring 2016 – First Exam Review KEYWORDS – CHAPTER 1 Fear An emotional response of dread or anxiety to crime or symbols that a person’s associates with crime Fearing Subject Functional Fear Motivation to be aware of surroundings Gatekeepers Police Incivility Physical and social factors involved in disorder and community decline NCVS National crime victimization survey Panel Survey Group of people surveyed over a long period of time Part I Crimes Murder, arson, rape, aggravated robbery, larceny Part II Crimes Any other crimes Uniform Crime The most widely used and cited official measures of crime in the united states Reports Vicarious Live by the victim Victimization Victimization Surveys KEYWORDS – CHAPTER 2 Assize of Arms Call for men to have weapons Chicago Area Sought to have a sense of pride and community Project Constable An unpaid position responsible for coordinating the watch and ward system and overseeing other aspects of the law Crime Control Maintenance of a given or existing level and the management of that amount of behavior Crime Prevention To reduce the actual level of crime and/or the perceived fear of crime Crime Science Application of the methods of science to crime and disorder Developmental Prevention Hue and Cry Watcher who raised the alarm and call for help Lex talionis An eye for an eye Micro, meso and Micro- individual macro-level crime Meso- larger communities or neighborhoods prevention Macro- large communities or society as a whole Parens Patriae Which argue that youths needed help and that processing in adult court was geared toward punishment rather than prevention Parochial police Hired by the wealthy to protect their homes and businesses Primary prevention Identifies conditions of the physical and social environment that provide opportunities for or precipitate criminal acts. Public Health Classifies prevention as primary, secondary, or tertiary Model Secondary The ability to correctly identify and predict problem people and situations Prevention Situational Crime Identify existing problems at the micro level and institute interventions that are developed Prevention specifically for the given problem Social Prevention Status Offenses Curfew, smoking, playing in the street under 18 Tertiary Prevention Deals with actual offenders and involves intervention Thief Takers Bounty hunters Vigilante Like hue and cry Movement Watch and Ward Rotated responsibility for keeping watch over the town or area KEYWORDS – CHAPTER 3 Context Which a program or intervention operates Cost-Benefit Seeks to assess whether the costs of an intervention are justified by the benefits or outcomes Evaluation that accrue from it Evaluation Investigating the usefulness of some exercise or phenomenon Generalizability Would be applicable in other places, settings, and times Gold Standard Impact Evaluation Focus on what changes occur after the intro of the policy, intervention, or program Maryland Scale of The bulk of the evidence on prevention activities suggests that there are relatively few effective Scientific Methods programs or interventions Mechanism What process does an intervention impact an outcome measure such as crime or fear of crime Process Evaluation Consider the implementation of a program or initiative and involve determining the procedures used to implement a specific program Realistic Evaluation Evaluation needs to observe the phenomenon its entirety Threats to External Place attributes, victim attributes, offender attributes, dosage, crime options Validity Threats to Internal Factors that could cause the results other than the measures that were implemented Validity KEYWORDS – CHAPTER 4 Access Control The ability to regulate who comes and goes from area or building Activity Support Functions that assist and enhance interaction between citizens and other legitimate users in the community Alley Gating Closed-Circuit Surveillance Television (CCTV) CRAVED Concealable, removable, available, valuable, enjoyable, disposable Crime and Disorder Act Crime Prevention Efforts to alter the physical design of an area or location to impact crime Through Environmental Design (CPTED) Defensible Space A model which inhibits crime by creating a physical expression of a social fabric which defends itself Escape Formal or Use of guards or employees specifically tasked with watching for offenders Organized Surveillance Hot Products Image A neighborhood having the appearance that it is not isolated and is cared for, and that residents will take action Incivility Physical and social indicators Mechanical Utilizes cameras or other devices to observe activities, or lights to simply increase the ability of Surveillance people to see what is taking place Milieu The placement of a home, building, or community in a large area characterized by low crime Motivation “same as activity support” Reinforcement Natural The ability to observe activity, whether inside or outside, without the aid of special devices Surveillance Operation Identification OTREP Permeability Prospect The ability of individuals to see an area Real Territoriality Reducing Burglary Initiative Refuge Deals with the presence or absence of concealment Secured by Design Influence the building of new structures or the redesign of existing sites Smart Guns Symbolic Territoriality Target Hardening Actions that increase the effort by offenders in committing a crime Territoriality The ability and desire of legitimate users of an area to lay claim to the area KEYWORDS - CHAPTER 5 Citizen Patrols Have more eyes on the street- key neighborhood watch element Community Anti- Same as neighborhood watch but for drugs Drug Programs Guardian Angels Citizen patrol group Kirkholt Burglary Prevention Project National Night Out Started in 1981 and consists of educational programs, neighborhood organizing, social events, and anti-drug and anti-crime activities Neighborhood Sets out to identify problems before they occur Watch Parochial Control Broadens the sources of control to include neighborhood networks and institutions, such as schools, churches, or businesses Private Control Interpersonal relationship among family members, friends, and close associates. Public Control Reflects the ability to marshal input, support, and resources from public agencies Routine Activities Argues that the normal movement and activities of both potential offenders and victims plays a Theory role in the occurrence of crime Safer Cities Program Street Block Homes on either side of a single block that is between two cross-streets Super Controllers The people, organizations and institutions that create incentives for controllers to prevent crime Whistle Stop Blow whistle if they see something happening out of the ordinary KEYWORDS – CHAPTER 6 Benign Suggests that changes from displacement may benefit society Displacement Cognitive Map Construct images of the environment as they move about the community CRAVED Concealable, removable, available, valuable, enjoyable, disposable Crime Attractors Areas to which potential offenders and others are drawn, such as drug markets, adult clubs Crime Represents change in crime due to the preventive actions of the individual or society Displacement Crime Fuse Area where crime is allowed to operate without bothering the rest of society until it explodes in the area Crime Generator By drawing potential victims to the area Crime Pattern Proposes that crime and criminal behavior fits patterns that can be identified and understood Theory when viewed in terms of where and when they occur Diffusion of Benefits Distance Decay Commission of crime decreases as the distance from the offender’s home increases Edges Prime spots for deviant behavior Environmental The social, economic, cultural, and physical conditions within which people operate Backcloth Euclidean Distance Measures in a straight line from the start to the end point Functional The offender stops committing one offense and shifts to another Displacement Google Street View Hot Products Items that attract thieves Journey to Crime Criminals will travel to commit a crime Malign Leads to undesirable outcomes Displacement Manhattan Measures distance as people follow roadways, generally selecting those that reduce both Distance distance and travel time Nodes Locations of activity Paths Transit routes between the nodes Perpetrator One offender ceases activity only to be replaced by another offender Displacement Rational Choice Offenders make rational choices about when and where to offend Theory Routine Activities Argues that the normal movement and activities of both potential offenders and victims plays a Theory role in the occurrence of crime Social/Crime Outlines expectations of what will happen at certain times and places, given certain behavior by Template the individual Soft Determinism Tactical Changing the methods used in the commission of a crime Displacement Target Choosing a different victim within the same area. Displacement Temporal A shift in offending from one tim to s different time, such as day to night Displacement Territorial Movement of crime from one area to another Displacement
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