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ISU / Communications / COMM 20888 / What does propostition of policy mean?

What does propostition of policy mean?

What does propostition of policy mean?

Description

.lst-kix_q9wc1qfcgr15-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_j5cfmtgvf389-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_q9wc1qfcgr15-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_j5cfmtgvf389-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_j5cfmtgvf389-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_j5cfmtgvf389-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_j5cfmtgvf389-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-7}ul.lst-kix_j5cfmtgvf389-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_j5cfmtgvf389-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_j5cfmtgvf389-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_j5cfmtgvf389-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_q9wc1qfcgr15-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_4s25lkhemxcr-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_q9wc1qfcgr15-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_4s25lkhemxcr-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_q9wc1qfcgr15-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_q9wc1qfcgr15-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_q9wc1qfcgr15-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_4s25lkhemxcr-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4s25lkhemxcr-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-4 0}.lst-kix_q9wc1qfcgr15-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_4s25lkhemxcr-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_ucfu2le3g0fh-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_4s25lkhemxcr-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_ucfu2le3g0fh-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_4s25lkhemxcr-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_ucfu2le3g0fh-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_4s25lkhemxcr-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_ucfu2le3g0fh-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ucfu2le3g0fh-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-5}.lst-kix_ucfu2le3g0fh-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ucfu2le3g0fh-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_4s25lkhemxcr-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_ucfu2le3g0fh-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ucfu2le3g0fh-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nsls52izb71n-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_nsls52izb71n-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_nsls52izb71n-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_177vfn39nk83-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_pnkury9iicqj-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pnkury9iicqj-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pnkury9iicqj-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pnkury9iicqj-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_177vfn39nk83-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_177vfn39nk83-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_pnkury9iicqj-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pnkury9iicqj-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pnkury9iicqj-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pnkury9iicqj-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_177vfn39nk83-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_pnkury9iicqj-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_yd567msjibps-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_yd567msjibps-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_yd567msjibps-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_yd567msjibps-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_yd567msjibps-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_yd567msjibps-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_177vfn39nk83-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_yd567msjibps-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_yd567msjibps-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_yd567msjibps-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_177vfn39nk83-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_177vfn39nk83-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_177vfn39nk83-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_177vfn39nk83-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_j5cfmtgvf389-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_j5cfmtgvf389-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_j5cfmtgvf389-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_h9dei2pxpfkm-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_h9dei2pxpfkm-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_rdd1bs92gskd-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_f7smz6p9walb-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_h9dei2pxpfkm-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_f7smz6p9walb-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_f7smz6p9walb-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_rdd1bs92gskd-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_rdd1bs92gskd-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_f7smz6p9walb-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_f7smz6p9walb-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_f7smz6p9walb-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_f7smz6p9walb-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_f7smz6p9walb-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_f7smz6p9walb-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_h9dei2pxpfkm-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_177vfn39nk83-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_f7smz6p9walb-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_177vfn39nk83-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-0 0}.lst-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-3}ul.lst-kix_177vfn39nk83-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_177vfn39nk83-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_177vfn39nk83-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_177vfn39nk83-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_sd81sk9hlgm2-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_pulravskgdbo-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_sd81sk9hlgm2-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_sd81sk9hlgm2-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_sd81sk9hlgm2-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_sd81sk9hlgm2-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_sd81sk9hlgm2-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_sd81sk9hlgm2-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_f7smz6p9walb-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_sd81sk9hlgm2-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_sd81sk9hlgm2-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_sd81sk9hlgm2-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_pulravskgdbo-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_sd81sk9hlgm2-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_pulravskgdbo-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_sd81sk9hlgm2-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_f7smz6p9walb-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_rdd1bs92gskd-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nsls52izb71n-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_177vfn39nk83-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_sd81sk9hlgm2-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_177vfn39nk83-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_177vfn39nk83-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_pulravskgdbo-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nsls52izb71n-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_sd81sk9hlgm2-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nsls52izb71n-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_suy50g8eem7a-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_suy50g8eem7a-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_suy50g8eem7a-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_suy50g8eem7a-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_suy50g8eem7a-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_suy50g8eem7a-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_suy50g8eem7a-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_suy50g8eem7a-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_suy50g8eem7a-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nsls52izb71n-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nsls52izb71n-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nsls52izb71n-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nsls52izb71n-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_yd567msjibps-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_pnkury9iicqj-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_q9wc1qfcgr15-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_yd567msjibps-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-4}ul.lst-kix_nsls52izb71n-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_j5cfmtgvf389-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_nsls52izb71n-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nsls52izb71n-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nsls52izb71n-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nsls52izb71n-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_h9dei2pxpfkm-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pulravskgdbo-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_h9dei2pxpfkm-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pulravskgdbo-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_h9dei2pxpfkm-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pulravskgdbo-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_17vj0mfbqn4r-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_17vj0mfbqn4r-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_pulravskgdbo-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-1 0}ul.lst-kix_pulravskgdbo-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pulravskgdbo-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pulravskgdbo-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_17vj0mfbqn4r-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_17vj0mfbqn4r-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_rdd1bs92gskd-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ucfu2le3g0fh-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-8,lower-roman) ". "}ul.lst-kix_rdd1bs92gskd-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ucfu2le3g0fh-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ucfu2le3g0fh-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_17vj0mfbqn4r-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_17vj0mfbqn4r-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_ucfu2le3g0fh-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_suy50g8eem7a-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_pnkury9iicqj-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_rdd1bs92gskd-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4kcu9egf86dt-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_ucfu2le3g0fh-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-7,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_rdd1bs92gskd-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ucfu2le3g0fh-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_pnkury9iicqj-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_rdd1bs92gskd-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4kcu9egf86dt-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_ucfu2le3g0fh-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pulravskgdbo-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rdd1bs92gskd-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_17vj0mfbqn4r-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_ucfu2le3g0fh-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pulravskgdbo-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_suy50g8eem7a-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_pnkury9iicqj-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_rdd1bs92gskd-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rdd1bs92gskd-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rdd1bs92gskd-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4s25lkhemxcr-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_suy50g8eem7a-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_suy50g8eem7a-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_yd567msjibps-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_pnkury9iicqj-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_pnkury9iicqj-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_ucfu2le3g0fh-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_17vj0mfbqn4r-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_suy50g8eem7a-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_suy50g8eem7a-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_yd567msjibps-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_4s25lkhemxcr-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4s25lkhemxcr-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4s25lkhemxcr-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4s25lkhemxcr-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_yd567msjibps-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_pnkury9iicqj-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_4s25lkhemxcr-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4s25lkhemxcr-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_pnkury9iicqj-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_4s25lkhemxcr-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-6}ul.lst-kix_4s25lkhemxcr-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_suy50g8eem7a-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_yd567msjibps-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-7 0}.lst-kix_4kcu9egf86dt-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_suy50g8eem7a-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_4kcu9egf86dt-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_suy50g8eem7a-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_4kcu9egf86dt-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_4kcu9egf86dt-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_4kcu9egf86dt-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-8}ul.lst-kix_q9wc1qfcgr15-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_q9wc1qfcgr15-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_q9wc1qfcgr15-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_q9wc1qfcgr15-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_q9wc1qfcgr15-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4kcu9egf86dt-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_q9wc1qfcgr15-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_q9wc1qfcgr15-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4kcu9egf86dt-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_q9wc1qfcgr15-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_17vj0mfbqn4r-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_gjnt8qnxqp7r-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_gjnt8qnxqp7r-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_gjnt8qnxqp7r-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_gjnt8qnxqp7r-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_gjnt8qnxqp7r-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_gjnt8qnxqp7r-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_gjnt8qnxqp7r-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_gjnt8qnxqp7r-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_f7smz6p9walb-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_f7smz6p9walb-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_siuox4bx2x39-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_f7smz6p9walb-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_siuox4bx2x39-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_gjnt8qnxqp7r-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_siuox4bx2x39-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_4kcu9egf86dt-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4kcu9egf86dt-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_siuox4bx2x39-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_4kcu9egf86dt-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-2 0}ul.lst-kix_4kcu9egf86dt-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4kcu9egf86dt-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4kcu9egf86dt-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_siuox4bx2x39-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_4kcu9egf86dt-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4kcu9egf86dt-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_siuox4bx2x39-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_4kcu9egf86dt-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_siuox4bx2x39-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_siuox4bx2x39-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-8 0}ul.lst-kix_h9dei2pxpfkm-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_h9dei2pxpfkm-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_h9dei2pxpfkm-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_h9dei2pxpfkm-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_siuox4bx2x39-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_h9dei2pxpfkm-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_h9dei2pxpfkm-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_j5cfmtgvf389-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_h9dei2pxpfkm-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_h9dei2pxpfkm-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_j5cfmtgvf389-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_j5cfmtgvf389-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_rdd1bs92gskd-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_h9dei2pxpfkm-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_h9dei2pxpfkm-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_h9dei2pxpfkm-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-2}.lst-kix_rdd1bs92gskd-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_rdd1bs92gskd-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_rdd1bs92gskd-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-0}.lst-kix_f7smz6p9walb-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_f7smz6p9walb-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_pulravskgdbo-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_f7smz6p9walb-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_pulravskgdbo-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_sd81sk9hlgm2-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_sd81sk9hlgm2-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_pulravskgdbo-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_pulravskgdbo-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_b4sy2o31jg5j-3 0}.lst-kix_sd81sk9hlgm2-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_pulravskgdbo-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_rdd1bs92gskd-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nsls52izb71n-5 > li:before{content:"■ 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Introduction to Argument We also discuss several other topics like What are the steps used in multiplication hardware?

What is argument?

  • discussion in which reasons are advarred for and against some proposition
  • reason giving
  • not quarreling and squabbles

We also discuss several other topics like Intraplate earthquakes may be linked to what?
If you want to learn more check out What is risk loving?

Advantages of Argument

  • helps us find best conclusion
  • helps us understand why we believe something
  • know why others believe
  • open-mindness

If you want to learn more check out Define risk averse.

Types of Propositions Fact

  • Propositions of Fact
  • You can argue facts
  • Something is or is not
  • Ex: coffee is good for you
  • create informative speeches

  • Propositions of Value
  • Valuta
  • morally right /wrong
  • Ex war is more immoral than peace
  • Difficult to argue (discuss value & case)

  • Propositions of Policy
  • someone should take action
  • Ex: Govt should legalize marijuana 
  • focus on Somebody bigger than an individual

Don't forget about the age old question of How do we implement FIR filters?

Parts of an Argument

  • A-R-E
  • A= Assertion (clear-concise statement of your claim)
  • R= reasoning (the “because" Clause which explains what makes you think so’)
  • E= Evidence (the support from qualified sources that support and demonstrate your reasoning)
  • The assertion is stated as a Deductive Claim
  • The Evidence is the inductive reasoning

Example

  • A: Capital punishment should be abolished because it is discriminatory
  • R: Capital punishment is a pranishment .More often given to racial minorities
  • E: law profession Lary Jenks explains “ insert quotation from Jenks."
  • In addition, Statistics support this point  “insert stat from the Dep of Justice”

Requirements of an Argument

  • Clearly state the proposition
  • Finding point of stasis / clash
  • Do this in 2nd step of Introduction
  • Understand presumption and burden of proof
  • Archbishop Richard Whately
  • Helps establish basic ground rules for an argument

We also discuss several other topics like What require substantial expense and effort to create and operate?

Presumption

  • Inherent - advantage in opposing change
  • Supporting a change from the way things are will lose if nothing is done
  • Does not assume currency is good or bad, just that they are
  • Thus, advantage given those who suggest that the status quo is fine

Purpose of Presumption

  • Helps us gauge an argument
  • Ex: keep driving my car until I come up with a good reason to not
  • Inertia

Burden of Proof

  • Opposite of presumption
  • Something should change
  • Need a reason / sufficient evidence to support that change

Purpose of Burden of Proof

  • Helps prevent irresponsible changes
  • Always lies with advocate of change
  • Provide reasons and evidence
  • How?: strong reasoning
  • Inductive and deductive arguments
  • Strong refutation
  • Opposing side

Inductive Reasoning “Logos”

Induction

  • Moves from particular observations to the formulation of general principles
  • Always involves a leap based on probability
  • Requires you to extend beyond what is provided
  • Extrapolation → chart                 *Probable conclusion

Advantages/Disadvantages of Induction

  • All is more or less “probable”
  • Induction requires multiple examples and sources to show probability
  • Several kinds of induction to show enough induction

Types of Induction

  • Example
  • Analogy
  • Causal correlation
  • Authority
  • Statistics

Induction: Example

  • Argument looks at one or more cases within specific class
  • Marcus is good at physics. His brother Aaron is good at physics. His sister Emma is good at physics. Those people are good at physics!

Test Example

  1. Sufficient number of examples? Depends on total amount
  2. Are examples typical of the category the arguer is generalizing to?
  3. Are negative examples sufficiently accounted for?
  4. Are examples relevant to the claim?

Induction: Analogy

  • Look at similarities between cases and compare their basic features
  • Argument by analogy looks at two different cases x and y
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