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MSU / Human Development and Family Science / HDFS 2813 / What is unique about make-believe play in early childhood?

What is unique about make-believe play in early childhood?

What is unique about make-believe play in early childhood?


School: Mississippi State University
Department: Human Development and Family Science
Course: Child Development
Professor: Angel fason
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: child development, Child Life, MSU, Child, Human Sciences, Life Sciences, Family Studies, cognitive development, brain, development, Motor Skills, Gross, Fine, Language, Test 2, and review
Cost: 50
Name: Test 2 Study Guide
Description: Study Guide for Test 2 on March 9th.
Uploaded: 03/06/2016
5 Pages 76 Views 4 Unlocks

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HS 2813 Child Development

What is unique about make-believe play in early childhood?

Exam 2 Study Guide

Childhood Obesity 

∙ Be familiar with information on childhood obesity 

o Obesity affects all domains of child development

1. Physical

2. Cognitive

3. Social

4. Emotional/psychological

o In the last 25 years, number of children in US who are overweight has  doubled.

o Links between childhood obesity and obesity in adulthood.

o Measured using sex­specific BMI­for­age growth charts.

o Calculated using child’s weight and height.

o Underweight: 5th percentile

o Normal weight: 5th to 85th percentile

What stage of piaget’s theory of cognitive development is associated with early childhood?

o Overweight: 85th percentile

o Obese: 95th percentile 

o Children ages 2­5 in the US:

o 22.6% were “at risk for overweight or overweight”

o 40% in Mississippi 

o Greater obesity in the south

∙ Be able to discuss why obesity is a major concern and suggest solutions for this issue o High blood pressure

o Type 2 diabetes  

o Breathing problems

o Social and psychological problems

o Low screen time (kids should be active, not idol)

o 90% of child in the US under 2 are regular TV watchers (4 hours  of TV)

What is unique about vygotsky’s socio-cultural theory of cognitive development?

o Early prevention (breast feeding)

o Nutrition education  

o Health care in child care programs  

o Advertisement If you want to learn more check out What happened in the judgement of paris?

o Time management  

o NICHQ’s 5 point childhood obesity prevention model

o B: Breastfeeding

o B: body mass index

o 2: fewer than 2 hours of screen time (and no TV in rooms where  children sleep)

o 1: greater than 1 hour of physical activity If you want to learn more check out How do you name a compound?

o 0: no sugar sweetened beverages  

Cognitive development in early childhood 


∙ Be able to name Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development and the ages associated with each stage.  

o Cognitive development: changes in the way children think and  process information. If you want to learn more check out Has anyone ever used humor to put you down?

1. Sensorimotor (birth-2)

2. Preoperational (2-7)

3. Concrete operational (7-11)

4. Formal operational (adolescence - adulthood)

∙ Know what stage of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development is  associated with early childhood.

o The children we are studying about are in the preoperational  stage (2-7)

∙ Be able to define the preoperational stage of cognitive development o This means before the ability to think logically about issues and  problems and solve problems in their heads.

o Gains mental representation

o Make-believe play

o Dual representation

o Sensorimotor activity leads to internal images of experience,  which children then label with words.

∙    Be familiar with the new cognitive abilities associated with the  preoperational stage: use of symbols, mental representation,  imagination/make-believe play, and dual representation. Understand  what each of these abilities mean.  If you want to learn more check out What is opsonization?

o Mental representation: ability to think about something without  having it right in front of them.

o Mental symbols: the behaviors that occur at the beginning of the preoperational stage, including speech, imitation and using one  object to represent something else.  

o Make believe: with age, make believe gradually becomes: o More detached from real-life conditions

o Less self-centered

o More complex/ socio-dramatic play Don't forget about the age old question of What is griffith?

o Benefits of make believe play:

o During the social period, interactions last longer, show  more involvement, and draw more children into the  


o Many studies show that make-believe strengthens a  

variety of mental abilities, including sustained attention,  logic, memory, reasoning, and creativity.  

∙ Understand what is unique about make-believe play in early childhood. How is it different from earlier make-believe play? Be able to discuss  the aspects of make-believe play in early childhood as well as answer  questions related to it. We also discuss several other topics like What is low viscosity?

o Make-believe play isn’t so literal

o Play becomes self-centered


o Play becomes more complex (socio-dramatic play)

∙ Understand that the preoperational stage of cognitive development is  associated with new abilities, but also with some cognitive limitations.  Be familiar with these limitations: egocentrism and precausal  reasoning. Be able to describe the limitations of precausal reasoning,  especially the conservation task.  

o Cognitive Limitations:

o Egocentrism: children can only understand the world from their  point of view. (Lack of spatial perspective)

o Pre-causal reasoning: inability to think about cause and effect in  a logical way. (Piaget’s conversion task with water and different  sized containers)

o Transitivity: inability to seriate, order according to height and  size

o Classification and class inclusion: children ages 2-3 typically  cannot group objects that belong together, but sometimes  between 4-6 that can classify objects on basis of attributes o Gains mental representation

o Make-believe play

o Dual representation  

o Imagination  

o Animistic thinking: belief that inanimate objects have  lifelike qualities and feelings

∙ Be familiar with a couple of ways that Piaget’s theory of cognitive  development has impacted early childhood education.  

o Children do seem to think qualitatively different with age o Children are developing the ability to use logic

o Underestimated preschoolers

o Discovery learning

o Sensitivity to children’s readiness to learn

o Developmentally appropriate

o Acceptance of individual differences  

∙ Be able to describe what is unique about Vygotsky’s Socio-cultural  theory of cognitive development. What makes this theory different  from Piaget’s?  

o Innate development + tools (language/social interaction) =  ideal cognitive development  

o Stresses the social context of cognitive development  o Child and social environment collaborate to mold cognition in  culturally adaptive ways

o Language is the driving force to enhance cognitive development ∙ Understand the role of social dialogues and private speech in cognitive  development from Vygotsky’s sociocultural perspective (in other  words, understand the role that language is thought to play in  cognitive development/learning)

o Private speech: Vygotsky viewed as foundation for all higher  cognitive processes.

o Helps guide behavior

o Gradually becomes more silent

o Piaget called this “egocentric speech”


o Socio-cultural theory:

o Adult directs child through speech

o Child directs self through speech

o Child directs self through inner speech

∙ Be able to describe the concept of the zone of proximal development.  How can this be used in a preschool/early childhood education setting? What is scaffolding?

o Proximal development: range of tasks that child cannot yet  handle alone but can accomplish with the help of more skilled  partners

o Teacher aided activities (guided assisted discovery)

o Peer collaboration

o Scaffolding: a process to enhance zone proximal development is: o Adjusting support offered during a teaching session to fit  a child’s current level of understanding  

∙ Understand the general framework of information processing theory.  Be familiar with the role of attention and memory in this view of  cognitive development/learning.  

o Mental strategies that children use to transform stimuli flowing  into their mental systems (take in and store new information) o During early childhood, advances in representation and in  children’s ability to guide their own behavior

o Attention

o Memory (working, short and long term)

o Problem solving

∙ Be familiar with the influence of the home environment on cognitive  development/IQ (what kinds of things help children score higher on  cognitive measures)

o Home environment is a predictor of IQ

o Quality of interactions  

o Provide rich opportunities

∙ Be able to answer questions about each of the issues in cognitive  development


∙ Be familiar with the influence of educational TV on cognitive  development/learning. What advice would you give parents about TV  viewing during early childhood?

o Limit screen time

o More than an hour playing outside and being active

∙ Be familiar with what makes up a high quality/developmentally  appropriate preschool program.

∙ Be familiar with the multiple intelligences theory

o Howard Gardner

o The ability to solve problems or create a product that is valued  by one’s culture or community  


o Proposes that there are many different kinds of minds that  individuals learn, remember, understand and perform in many  different ways

o At least 7 different intelligences  

1. Interpersonal

2. Intrapersonal

3. Linguistic

4. Logical-mathematical

5. Naturalistic

6. Spatial

7. Bodily kinesthetic

8. Musical

∙ Be able to answer questions about recognition and recall memory in  children

o Memory  

o Increases in recognition and recall (short and long)

o Ability to use memory strategies  

o Recognition

o Better than recall

o Recall

o Remembering the absence of perceptual support

o Limited by working memory

∙ Be able to answer questions about the theory of mind and false belief  idea

o The ability to attribute mental states and understands that  others can have different viewpoints.


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