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HS 2813 Child Development
Exam 2 Study Guide
∙ Be familiar with information on childhood obesity
o Obesity affects all domains of child development
o In the last 25 years, number of children in US who are overweight has doubled.
o Links between childhood obesity and obesity in adulthood.
o Measured using sexspecific BMIforage growth charts.
o Calculated using child’s weight and height.
o Underweight: 5th percentile
o Normal weight: 5th to 85th percentile
o Overweight: 85th percentile
o Obese: 95th percentile
o Children ages 25 in the US:
o 22.6% were “at risk for overweight or overweight”
o 40% in Mississippi
o Greater obesity in the south
∙ Be able to discuss why obesity is a major concern and suggest solutions for this issue o High blood pressure
o Type 2 diabetes
o Breathing problems
o Social and psychological problems
o Low screen time (kids should be active, not idol)
o 90% of child in the US under 2 are regular TV watchers (4 hours of TV)
o Early prevention (breast feeding)
o Nutrition education
o Health care in child care programs
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o Time management
o NICHQ’s 5 point childhood obesity prevention model
o B: Breastfeeding
o B: body mass index
o 2: fewer than 2 hours of screen time (and no TV in rooms where children sleep)
o 1: greater than 1 hour of physical activity If you want to learn more check out How do you name a compound?
o 0: no sugar sweetened beverages
Cognitive development in early childhood
∙ Be able to name Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development and the ages associated with each stage.
o Cognitive development: changes in the way children think and process information. If you want to learn more check out Has anyone ever used humor to put you down?
1. Sensorimotor (birth-2)
2. Preoperational (2-7)
3. Concrete operational (7-11)
4. Formal operational (adolescence - adulthood)
∙ Know what stage of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development is associated with early childhood.
o The children we are studying about are in the preoperational stage (2-7)
∙ Be able to define the preoperational stage of cognitive development o This means before the ability to think logically about issues and problems and solve problems in their heads.
o Gains mental representation
o Make-believe play
o Dual representation
o Sensorimotor activity leads to internal images of experience, which children then label with words.
∙ Be familiar with the new cognitive abilities associated with the preoperational stage: use of symbols, mental representation, imagination/make-believe play, and dual representation. Understand what each of these abilities mean. If you want to learn more check out What is opsonization?
o Mental representation: ability to think about something without having it right in front of them.
o Mental symbols: the behaviors that occur at the beginning of the preoperational stage, including speech, imitation and using one object to represent something else.
o Make believe: with age, make believe gradually becomes: o More detached from real-life conditions
o Less self-centered
o More complex/ socio-dramatic play Don't forget about the age old question of What is griffith?
o Benefits of make believe play:
o During the social period, interactions last longer, show more involvement, and draw more children into the
o Many studies show that make-believe strengthens a
variety of mental abilities, including sustained attention, logic, memory, reasoning, and creativity.
∙ Understand what is unique about make-believe play in early childhood. How is it different from earlier make-believe play? Be able to discuss the aspects of make-believe play in early childhood as well as answer questions related to it. We also discuss several other topics like What is low viscosity?
o Make-believe play isn’t so literal
o Play becomes self-centered
o Play becomes more complex (socio-dramatic play)
∙ Understand that the preoperational stage of cognitive development is associated with new abilities, but also with some cognitive limitations. Be familiar with these limitations: egocentrism and precausal reasoning. Be able to describe the limitations of precausal reasoning, especially the conservation task.
o Cognitive Limitations:
o Egocentrism: children can only understand the world from their point of view. (Lack of spatial perspective)
o Pre-causal reasoning: inability to think about cause and effect in a logical way. (Piaget’s conversion task with water and different sized containers)
o Transitivity: inability to seriate, order according to height and size
o Classification and class inclusion: children ages 2-3 typically cannot group objects that belong together, but sometimes between 4-6 that can classify objects on basis of attributes o Gains mental representation
o Make-believe play
o Dual representation
o Animistic thinking: belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities and feelings
∙ Be familiar with a couple of ways that Piaget’s theory of cognitive development has impacted early childhood education.
o Children do seem to think qualitatively different with age o Children are developing the ability to use logic
o Underestimated preschoolers
o Discovery learning
o Sensitivity to children’s readiness to learn
o Developmentally appropriate
o Acceptance of individual differences
∙ Be able to describe what is unique about Vygotsky’s Socio-cultural theory of cognitive development. What makes this theory different from Piaget’s?
o Innate development + tools (language/social interaction) = ideal cognitive development
o Stresses the social context of cognitive development o Child and social environment collaborate to mold cognition in culturally adaptive ways
o Language is the driving force to enhance cognitive development ∙ Understand the role of social dialogues and private speech in cognitive development from Vygotsky’s sociocultural perspective (in other words, understand the role that language is thought to play in cognitive development/learning)
o Private speech: Vygotsky viewed as foundation for all higher cognitive processes.
o Helps guide behavior
o Gradually becomes more silent
o Piaget called this “egocentric speech”
o Socio-cultural theory:
o Adult directs child through speech
o Child directs self through speech
o Child directs self through inner speech
∙ Be able to describe the concept of the zone of proximal development. How can this be used in a preschool/early childhood education setting? What is scaffolding?
o Proximal development: range of tasks that child cannot yet handle alone but can accomplish with the help of more skilled partners
o Teacher aided activities (guided assisted discovery)
o Peer collaboration
o Scaffolding: a process to enhance zone proximal development is: o Adjusting support offered during a teaching session to fit a child’s current level of understanding
∙ Understand the general framework of information processing theory. Be familiar with the role of attention and memory in this view of cognitive development/learning.
o Mental strategies that children use to transform stimuli flowing into their mental systems (take in and store new information) o During early childhood, advances in representation and in children’s ability to guide their own behavior
o Memory (working, short and long term)
o Problem solving
∙ Be familiar with the influence of the home environment on cognitive development/IQ (what kinds of things help children score higher on cognitive measures)
o Home environment is a predictor of IQ
o Quality of interactions
o Provide rich opportunities
∙ Be able to answer questions about each of the issues in cognitive development
∙ Be familiar with the influence of educational TV on cognitive development/learning. What advice would you give parents about TV viewing during early childhood?
o Limit screen time
o More than an hour playing outside and being active
∙ Be familiar with what makes up a high quality/developmentally appropriate preschool program.
∙ Be familiar with the multiple intelligences theory
o Howard Gardner
o The ability to solve problems or create a product that is valued by one’s culture or community
o Proposes that there are many different kinds of minds that individuals learn, remember, understand and perform in many different ways
o At least 7 different intelligences
7. Bodily kinesthetic
∙ Be able to answer questions about recognition and recall memory in children
o Increases in recognition and recall (short and long)
o Ability to use memory strategies
o Better than recall
o Remembering the absence of perceptual support
o Limited by working memory
∙ Be able to answer questions about the theory of mind and false belief idea
o The ability to attribute mental states and understands that others can have different viewpoints.