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Hist 307 Lecture Notes/Study Guide for Exam1/Midterm

by: Alexis Ward

Hist 307 Lecture Notes/Study Guide for Exam1/Midterm Hist 307

Marketplace > University of Louisiana at Lafayette > History > Hist 307 > Hist 307 Lecture Notes Study Guide for Exam1 Midterm
Alexis Ward
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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These notes cover up until Exam 1/the Midterm for LA History; include: lecture notes in study guide/outline format with additional things said/talked about in class.
History of Louisiana
Ms. Elizabeth Skilton
Study Guide
history, hist, 307, Louisiana, la
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexis Ward on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Hist 307 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Ms. Elizabeth Skilton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see History of Louisiana in History at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

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Date Created: 03/06/16
HIST 307 Lecture for Test 1  The story of Louisiana o Louisiana history, more than anything, is a story about great characters, corruption, & celebration. o In addition, only VA, SC, and TX have histories that might rival LA in importance in U.S. history.  Pre-History o Pre-history  history that happens before Columbus sailed the ocean blue in 1492 (before written record.) o For LA history, includes the formation from Ice Age through the discovery by Explorers.  A Pre-colonial world o 8,000-10,000 years ago, the first nomadic hunters arrive o Mostly hunter-gatherers, fish eaters, & have large trade networks. o Multiple theories on how they arrived (however, we do know they settle inland & move towards coastline with changes in sea level.  Native American lives o N.A. peoples grouped based on 6 linguistic areas. o Mostly hunters & fishermen o Atakapa = human flesh eaters  Poverty Point o Complex societies, intricate networks o Dates back to 12 centuries before the birth of Christ.  Age of Exploration o Stage 1 LA Explorers:  1492- Christopher Columbus  Alonso Alvarez de Pineda (first to spot LA coast)  1534- Jacques Cartier (Canada claimed for France) o Stage 2 LA Explorers:  1670s- Marquette & Joliet try to find the “mystery river.” River doesn’t run East to West… Oops. Start at Canada & end up at AK River junction & turn back. Scared of N.A. below. Map was oriented wrong way. o Stage 3 LA Explorers:  1682- Sets sail down MS River from Canadian settlement. Declares present day N.O. for France on April 9; leave to go back & secure more funding.  1684- La Salle attempts to sail up MS River via France (opposite way of Stage 2.) Land in Texas by accident, crew mutiny, & death.  Rene-Robert Cavalier (Sieur de La Salle) & Henri de Tonti (Iron Hand.)  Pass successfully due to Tonti’s hook hand scaring them off.  Tries again; La Salle eventually dies & rest of crew takes remaining ship, La Belle, & sink. Hurricane was severe & wrecked ship. Run-off & erosion strayed mouth of MS & made it harder to find. (La Belle is in a museum in Texas.)  A Colony or Outpost o The difference between settlement & colonization:  Settlement- keep land & trade routes open (rest stops)  Colonization- develop full community & separate body of power (fully staffed, place to stay) o France not keen, initially, to colonize LA  Fur & trade successful in Canada  Sugar colonies successful in Caribbean  Protect & Defend—forming a colony o D’Iberville (Pierre Le Moyne) chosen to lead colony organization (takes brother, Bienville, as 2 in command.) o Eventually end at Fort Maurepas in 1699 upriver to Baton Rouge/Red stick, celebrate first Mardi Gras at Point Mardi Gras along the way. o Iberville goes back and forth to France; dies o Bienville stays in LA  English Turn incident (they turn around because Bienville scares them off, by bluffing) & others  shifts French policy on colony  Jeane Baptiste Le Moyne De Bienville lives and became governor. *The whole idea of LA settlement was to affect shipping routes of Spanish. Founded because of revenge. Goal: establishing the Great Crescent.  Serious Growing Pains o Bienville takes over at 21 years old (because Iberville dies.) o King appoints business manager that causes tension o $$$ out, no $$$ back to France (colony doesn’t flourish) o Hard to convince people to move to swamp & un-cleared area (especially with other options.)  Louisiana: “The French Thorn”  The Proprietary Model o Used by English o Grants LA to Antoine Crozat (AKA the Marquis de Chatel.)  Crozat:  Remained in France.  Had ability to import slaves, supervise N.A. & relations & receives return on materials  Appoint whomever to run it.  First Governor: Antoine do la Mothe Cadillac o Appointed Crozat o Founder of Detroit—accused of corruption o Prone to temper o Hated LA, but did most for it.  Cadillac’s LA o Introduction to LA Law in “Custom of Paris” o Recognition that trading & agriculture go hand-in-hand  Indigo & tobacco production  Trade routes with Spanish & English o Expansion of territory posts over TX & FL border  Natchitoches founded by Louis Juchereau de Saint-Denis as Spanish trade post. o Convincing people to settle in LA o Introduction of LA Law in “Custom of Paris” (copied laws) o Also recognizes that trading & agriculture go hand-in-hand  Slavery increase: o Were attempts to enslave N.A./fail due to numbers o African slavery already used in Caribbean o Crozat pushed Cadillac to popularize idea o Very small amount of slaves prior to 1716 going to grow slowly though Cadillac’s lead.  Cadillac’s epic failure o Bans alcohol at particular periods, first, then on weekdays, second. People should come to work sober, less violence on streets. People drink alcohol, because water in rivers is not drinkable. When he bans liquor, everyone gets angry. Love of liquor being expressed. o Fights with Bienville (wanted daughter to marry Bienville, Bienville stood her up— backed out); resigns from governor.  A Crisis of Confidence in the Colony o Reorganization: From Proprietor to Stock Company  With Cadillac’s exit, the Proprietor Crozat (financier) also leaves  Under Duke of Orleans (regent of France fir young Louis XV,) choose to make LA a Stock Company (relies on investors at multiple levels, instead of one major investor. Lots of people would get a cut of the profits if LA succeeds.) Company of the Indies.  Helps spread the word about LA o Huge influx of cash in early years of stock company = supplies, settlers & much-needed infrastructure.  Massive immigration: o European announcements of land to be purchased (misleading posters sent portraying a busy, bustling, thriving place.) It was swampy, gross, city not fully made. o Forced immigration—convicts, male & female, shipped out to fill out colony in addition to debtors, 2 sons, & prostitutes. o Religious Orders Arrive, so does Educational Systems & Art—Jesuits, Capuchins, & Ursaline (nuns) o The Cassette Girls & Other Imported French Populations—the Brides of LA (2 daughters. Promised that so few women in LA, the goods may be odd, but the odds may be good.) Called Cassette, because they would carry a small box with all of their belongings and were waited by men and stayed with Ursaline nuns until marriage.  Africans in LA o Company of Indies also promoted economic growth through slave trade o Dramatic increase of enslaved Africans during 1720s and on o 1724— first laws on the books regarding slavery  Code Noir  Baptisms, Catholicism, & manumission (a slave could receive freedom if owner provided it) all regulated  Rules on punishment, movement, and provisions (very different than American and Spanish slavery.) o 1720s—1500 slaves o Culturally, blend of West African coastline o Formed unique culture o Evolution of term “Creole”  Born in New World/ New France  Born with 1 drop of African blood/from descendents of Africa *Tough life from the beginning, but more flexibility under the Code Noir than American legal system.  Expansion of the State (1718-1722) o Natchitoches, Poste de Rapides/Alexandria, Baton Rouge, New Orleans  The Bubble Breaks: what to do with LA now? Give it to Bienville o The MS Bubble  John Law’s Great Economic Plan – leaves LA to rule itself—Bienville in charge. New Orleans is established. o Bienville Angers Commissary  pulled from LA after 25 years there! o As a result:  LA undergoes harsh N.A relations in 1720s starting with The Natchez War  Natchez attack, Governor responds  Massive criticism for slaughter of Natchez (extinct within 3 years)  What the Natchez War does: the Great Conspiracy—were the French too harsh?  What is known: causes food supply chain pushback, 2/3 of French troops in LA injured or sick at end, and Company of Indies loses $$$ and wants out of LA  LA, a Royal Colony o Take control back from Company of Indies o Appoint Bienville as Governor. Returns to New Orleans o English Turn story evolves o Finally, Governor Bienville  Serves several years  Tries to address N.A. problem—fails (Chickasaw Indian Conflicts)  Eventually asks to retire, but it takes 3 years to find a replacement.  LA, a Royal Colony Problem o The Grand Marquis  Next governor—Marquis de Vaudreuil  Known for lavish parties & putting party in LA  Applauded for LA growth — given governor position in Canada o Louis Billouart de Kerlerec  Not as well-lied as the Marquis  Managed to bribe N.A. with gifts to settle issues.  Going to steer LA until turned over to Spanish  However, imprisoned for corruption in France afterward, dies days after name is cleared.  Spanish LA o How does LA become a Spanish Colony?... The French just hand it over. A punishment that they had to give up LA. Because of the English—vvv o The Seven Years War A.K.A. the French & Indian War: The English went against the French & Indians (united.) Most all of US was considered LA, although there were small areas to TX, FL, British American colonies, and a disputed area between Great Britain and France. War is result of this area between MS river and mountains towards east side of US. England does win this war and French cedes territory to English. Kicks France completely out of territory, so only English and Spanish land, now. France wasn’t upset about losing LA, but were about losing Canada (because it was a major cash crop.) o Meanwhile, In Canada:  British kick out individuals from Acadia (the Great Expulsion)  Worry that they will band together with N.A. tribes again in region  Forced expulsion in 2 waves & to 4 places: Louisiana, the British (American) Colonies, the Caribbean, & France (culture still slightly different.) They did this to assimilate them. A punishment to Spanish to have to take LA over. Have to spend money, time, and effort on it. Lost FL in this process. Builds LA into a viable & highly producing region by introduction of sugar & cotton. Promotes high settlement of region.  Story of Evangeline: mystical princess figure who loves a man named Gabriel who lived in Acadian region of Canada. They are separated on two different boats. She ends up in Acadiana region and spends rest of her life looking for him, writing to all different places he would be. As a result, she continues to go to these places and eventually finds him on his death bed in Philadelphia. He says to her “I lived a very full life, had a wife and family.” She still mourns his loss. St. Martinville becomes known as her landing site, but she is a fictional story, though she has a grave site, tree, and statue there. St. Martinville won a competition and that’s why she is remembered there.  Drawbacks: slavery increase (1720s—1,500 slaves… 1763—10,000 slaves… 1803—28,000 slaves.) Coartation- self manumission or slave could purchase their own freedom making them legal and a full citizen. This was brought when Spanish added rules to black code. Free whites, free people of color, and enslaved individuals. Treatment under the Spanish rules also stated that you could take master to court if master was mistreating you and could appear in court and testify. Codigro Negro (black code—Spanish) allows them to enforce rules of the French.  Governor Antonio de Ulloa o Took 1 year to make N.O. after arriving in LA (Balize) o Hated so much by French people that he:  Could not fly Spanish flag (could not raise Spanish flag instead of French) in Jackson Square  Was eventually forced to flee LA by a mob during a rebellion shortly after taking over.  Insurrection of 1768: end result, Ulloa has to leave LA and go back to Spain. King has to send someone else to make sure they will follow policies.  Result: General Alejandro O’Reilly dispatched o Irish Roman Catholic, distinguished Spanish general o Executed by firing squad those involved in uprising (“Bloody O’Reilly”) o Marked firm establishment of Spanish rule—expelled British traders, encouraged Spanish port trade, firm rules, improved Indian relationships, and enacted new laws (“Code O’Reilly”) o Followed by other generals and leaders: Luis de Unzaga & Bernardo de Galvez o Drawbacks: slavery increase, hatred by France, never really wanted LA (give it up ASAP)  Governor Esteban Miro o “Defensive colonization” policy—need to fill out region or they will lose it o Practiced  Growths in Agriculture o Mexican Cotton/West Florida Cotton Plantations. Cotton takes off with invention of Cotton Gin, by Eli Whitney. o Antoine Bore (during Spanish period)- 1795 Sugar Refining Process. In order to harvest (sugar cane), had to go through and chop stalks, split open, scoop out sugar, dry it, heat it. Sugar will take off with the invention of Sugar Refining (Kettle) process: boil stalks, skin off, take granules. Much faster. Probably invented by one of his slaves/workers, though. Plantation located in Audubon Park.  The American Revolution o An unofficial Participant  Spain stays out in beginning  However, ships supplies to British colonies: Gunpowder, weapons, blankets, uniforms, medicines (secretly sends)  Provides Trans-Appalachian manpower in West Florida region. o Spain Enters the War (1779)  Governor Bernardo de Galvez organizes attack on British West Florida  Baton Rouge is the central goal  Attacks fort at present day LSU  Is successful at gaining territory back!  Then goes after Mobile and into Pensacola.  What they gain, besides territory: highly-producing area of land (for cotton) and a massive influx of people (official residents of Florida Parishes, Allegiance to Spanish crown for trade purposes ((Andrew Jackson.))  5x the growth during the Spanish period. - 1769 Census: 14,000 LA residents, 3,500 in NOLA - 1784 Census: 25,000 LA residents, 5,000 in NOLA - 1800 Census: 50,000 LA residents, 10,000 in NOLA  Economy & Labor o Population & cash crop development largest changes here, prior to, largely subsistence farming. o Also, see the introduction of cattle industry (via TX. Upriver because they had to keep them alive to get to wherever they were going to then be slaughtered—no refrigeration or trucks.) o Monocrop (one crop) system. Was more affordable.  Racial Relationships o Number of slaves grow with economic increase o Unique blended slave culture emerges during Spanish period o Spanish administration issues own lave codes based on earlier French laws o Two unique occurrences during Spanish period o Tri-partide system- Free, Free people of color, and slaves  Pointe Coupee Rebellion (slave revolt 1795) o Haitian Revolution  Part of Age of Revolutions  Revolt ends in establishment of free republic  Scares slave owners worldwide o April 1795  A plot is discovered  Takes place on plantation of Julian Poydras  60 arrested-- 57 slaves convicted, 3 whites  23 go to scaffold to be hanged in front of the plantation. Heads are chopped off and placed on spikes and placed on MS River to rot. Warn people. Any slave doing anything related to this would see spikes and remember the potential result.  Others sent for long prison sentences (flogging ((beating)) and gang labor)  Act very fiercely, because they heard of the Haitian Revolution  Was effective, because another slave rebellion doesn’t take place until a couple years after American rule.  Free People of Color Culture o Haitian Revolution also results in Large Free People of Color Population o ½ of population women o 42% gained freedom through concubinage of placage relationships (live as though they were married, but was only a mistress for a period of time and could eventually gain freedom for herself and children she had with owner. Was a sexual relationship between white man and black woman, or free black man and black woman.) o Vivid culture  Quadroon Ball  City life was safer o Conflict on the horizon  DD1: What was life like in LA for: o Native Americans o French settlers o Spanish settlers o Women o Slaves o Free people of color o Immigrants o Review everyday lives, economic concerns, political power, and known problems. Come up with general thesis statement to present to the class. Use specifics from reading. Be creative!  Now that LA is flourishing, France wants it back o Governor Manuel de Salcedo  Takes over after last governor dies in office in 1798  Not popular, hates the Anglo-LA’s  Revokes/cuts-off trade policies affecting the MS River & Ohio Valley. LA’s are angry and want to be rid of Spain, but not be independent. So they want to go back to being French. France wants LA back. o As a Result: LA Residents petition for France to take them back!  Change up in France—French Revolution  Sets off conflict between Spanish and French  Napoleon Bonaparte comes to power. Spain knew LA hated them. Napoleon is gaining terrritoy—signs Treaty of San Ildefonso on October 1, 1800 stating that LA would become French again—going to try to keep it a secret, do not raise flag even when took over, because Americans might try to come in and take the territory! FAIL. Americans knew something was going on and that France was taking over. Americans had to do something or Napoleon would be in charge of LA and everything east of the MS. o The LA Purchase  U.S. President Thomas Jefferson sends James Monroe to work with French ambassador Robert R. Livingston to purchase N.O. in Paris, 1803. Their job was to talk to Napoleon and get him to agree to sell them N.O., nothing else, because it’s the port to everything.  To Napoleon’s surprise: he says to take it all. He wanted to sell N.O. with everything else, the whole territory, but only a one-time deal.  Monroe and Livingston act alone and agree to buy it for a good deal. $15 million for land + $5 million for shipping debts= $20 million = 3 cents an acre. (Congress was upset that they didn’t really ask or no one voted.)  Why did Napoleon do it?: He realized that LA was useless without N.O. He wanted $$$ for war in Europe (his empire.) He was concerned he would lose LA anyways to someone (Spanish or Americans.) He did not have enough support (physically) in region. This really irritates that Spanish, because part of the Treaty was that it was kept a secret and that France promised he would not give it to the Americans, but he did. The Louisianans wanted to be French again, and are upset, they are rejected. They have just been sold to the Americans.  The Territorial Period (1803-1812)—the adjustment period o Reaction to the LA Purchase  On the American side: Jefferson is shocked, sends Lewis and Clark on an expedition to take the MS river and tributaries to map it out. Fanfare & Celebration: The Great Prize (“under my wings, everything prospers.”) How great this new land was, how much there was to offer. LA hasn’t prospered, yet, but will under American rule.  On the Louisianan’s side: its an ultimate dislike. (“An incredible impudent lie.”) There has to be another way to become French and be our own country, did not want to be American. Sets them back—take so long to become an actual state instead of just a territory of the U.S.  LA becomes a territory—classified as “unorganized territory” which was irritating. Massive changes start with new governors—General James Wilkinson & W.C.C. Claiborne. He hates LA’s, at first, as well as they do him.  The Americanization of LA: split LA into two separate sections—contemporary LA is what is known as  Legal adjustment: replace Spanish/French laws with common law (English origin)—incudes due process, voting, and legislatures. LA was not technologically advanced—relied on agriculture. Language was slower and more laxed. Claiborne worries the “ancienne population” of LA would never adjust. Jefferson says it might take 25+ years before LA can become U.S. state.  Political adjustment: Louisianans not used to voting, or electing members—used to King’s rule and Governor. Claiborne has to take a firm role in new territory almost as a dictator.  1803: LA Purchase  1804: (CHANGE 1) US Congress closes international slave trade in LA. Illegal trade picks up (Jean Lafitte- ran a sort of black market smuggling illegal things in the swamps and wetlands. Slaves, for example. Gov. Claiborne despised him) and Domestic trade grows in demand. 1806: (CHANGE 2) New slave code—Black Codes of 1806. Removes self- purchase option for slaves, slaves no longer have the ability to complain about treatment, slave legal proceedings can bypass usual restrictions on freedoms. Also, puts limit on Free People of Color: have to defer to white people (as they are above free people of color), no matter what class. Cannot presume equality to whites and cannot insult white people. Needed all of this paperwork to prove you were free. Had to be someone who was part of legal system that could vouch for you. If father was free and mother was enslaved, you were enslaved. 1808: Organized territory 1811: Slave Revolt—largest ever seen in U.S. Over 500 participate and it is stopped by U.S. Army General. There was very little harm caused, because they were not armed properly/plot was foiled. Participants were slaughtered, gallows on own plantations, spikes along German coast, and bodies were left out to rot. This instigated/fueled the acceptance of the American slave codes. 1812: Statehood—needed to accept laws, have census of 60,000 people, and agree to rule in “American Style.” Agreeing to three bodies of power, a constitution approved by U.S. Congress. The organized territory—recognized by 1808 with Civil Code passed and accepted (Claiborne successful at Americanizing LA.) (Has to do with Burr Conspiracy and LA rejection.) Census of 1810—puts territory of Orleans at 76,000 people (when 60,000 was required for statehood.) Constitutional Convention—adopt the KY Constitution with minimal changes. Major changes have to do with keeping certain majority in power and making it hard to replace. The major result was that those in power were allowed to stay. They also had to have $5,000 in the bank and be a LA resident for 6 years to be able to vote, run, or serve. This excludes slaves and the free people of color and Americans. They limited it to former LA residents, basically. This meant that 51% of LA could not vote and only about 20% actually ever did. th th April 30 of 1812: LA becomes the 18 state. War of 1812: congress declares war in June and LA’s ask, “do we really have to? We just became part of the states.” Gets tied up in mess, because it has a port. LA’s hate Great Britain a lot, because they are responsible for them not being French.  Why the U.S. goes to war: trade restrictions, forced conscription of sailors, and warfare with N.A. on Canada border (potential English instigators.)  Meanwhile in LA: Claiborne becomes LA Governor after new state elections (they loved him now!) LA feels tension over trade restrictions and knows that N.O.’s could become a central feature in the war. This is because: the position on the river, ability to damage US, and American Revolution retribution (we won American Revolution due to aid by Spanish and getting supplies up MS river. British would want to go to LA to form an attack.)  First steps toward War: Britain places warships in Gulf to block entrance to MS River—stalls trade. Baratarians and Jean Lafitte become thorn in Claiborne’s side, because the black market is flourishing when trade is cut off. Jean Lafitte puts wanted poster for 15,000 and makes him look like worst governor ever. Yet, LA residents (Creoles) prefer to “sit it out”. Claiborne cannot get them to sign up for service. British troops head to US when they win against Napoleon at Waterloo.—Claiborne panics as situation heats up and calls for reinforcement. Best general, Andrew Jackson, comes to the rescue. The British send their best general Edward Pakenham. Both would not back down and battle would be a riot.  Jackson’s Plan: Defend the city—Sets up guns at entrances, blocks off sections, even fills in waterways (Bayou Manchec) Major Question: How to deal with LA’s—place them uner Martial law (places himself above all other ruling, forces people to participate in military and in curfews, etc.), accepts Everyone who wanted to serve (F.P.C., N.A., and immigrants), and reached out to Jean Lafitte and Baratarians (offers Lafitte and men full pardon for past crimes and serves a crucial role in bringing supplies.)  The Battle of New Orleans: o The British Attack (1 battle):  First at sea—win  Next on land—come through small ships to plantation of Jacques Villere  Son, Major Gabriel Villere, escapes to warn Jackson that they are only miles from the city (Chalmette) o Jackson Attacks:  Proactively attack before British can gather all their supplies and men— December 23, 1814  British were confused by attack—thought soldiers were N.A. tribe due to weapons  British retreat and hold—Americans do not fear the fight o Retreat buys Jackson some time (2 battle):  Able to build earthworks/barriers. Had hay and line markers where he would know how close they were to shoot. Built ditches to have British fall/trip in.  Allow troops from KY and TN to arrive  Receive support from LA creoles (finally) rd o December 28 – January 1 (3 battle):  Dec. 28—British General Pakenham does reconnaissance on American earthworks, pushed back with massive losses  New Year’s Day—attempts to blow a hole in the American wall; unsuccessful  Probably should have just gone home at this point… (PRIDE) o January 8 – Battle of New Orleans (4 battle):  Pakenham orders full attack.  End result: Pakenham dies, British suffer HEAVY losses  2,000 missing/wounded/killed Roughly 1 in 3 soldiers dead  Americans only suffer 71 casualties, 7 reported as killed  Most LOPSIDED victory in American History. o What actually came weeks before:  Ghent Peace Treaty—signed December 24, 1814! The news hadn’t arrived yet, to LA. British do not leave Gulf of Mexico until they receive news in March 1815. o Why the Battle of N.O. matters:  “Creole”—while it meant many things, at this time definitely was used to refer to native LA’s (whether black or white)  The “American” Battle—Battle of N.O. linked LA identity with American identity  LA spin on Commemoration—re-live glory of war, commemorative items, film later on. Massive celebration and memorial for soldiers EXCEPT Jackson (angry at martial law.) Eventually came to terms with Jackson 30 years later by renaming Place d’Armes in Jackson Square.  Antebellum (Pre-civil war) Period of LA—1815-1861: o Population changes—puts pressure on political system for how it is represented and how it counts  Post-War of 1812—consistent political conflict between Creoles and Anglo- Saxon/Pro-Mainstreaming Americans over how to run LA. Fueled by:  West Florida Rebellion of 1810: West Florida rebels against Spanish. West Florida declares itself independent; Spanish withdraw from WF, but write to U.S. to be annexed.  Long-term effects: brings influx of Anglo-American settlers into LA politics. LA natives irritated by new Protestant/foreign group. Do own land, resent that they cannot vote/get elected. Put political system in question (representation), specifically demanding a new state Constitution.  A Boom in Industry: Trade restrictions lifted; more trade than EVER. Brief set- back in 1820s with massive rains, broken levees and floods in addition to financial depression in U.S. But by the 1830s—complete turn-around.  As a result, domestic slave trade increases dramatically: and with more slaves, come a discussion of merits of slavery, and how they are counted in population. Slave women would have about 25 children in child-bearing years.  A Boom in Immigration: most-notable—Irish immigration. 3 Primary waves— 1790s (Early colonial period where they are welcomed), 1820s-30s (also welcomed—first St. Patrick’s Day), and 1845 (changes—potato famine, go to N.O. because it was the only one of 3 ports where there was no quarantine. Coming in massive numbers and at a point where LA is just establishing a system. They will take jobs and were drunks/partied. LA goes through many epidemics.)  Disease: yellow fever epidemics (spread by mosquitoes, develop jaundice, die eventually), hookworm (gotten by walking barefoot on feces), smallpox (large pustules and suffocate you to death), cholera (gotten by drinking bad water, get “the runs,” keep drinking more water to replace fluids, and eventually die), malaria (spread by mosquitoes.)  1812—about 80,000 people, 35,000 slaves 1830-1845: LA grows by 14 more parishes. 1860—700,000 people, 331,000 slaves. o Shifting ideas regarding slavery—dependent on slavery, how to define, defend, and is there an alternative option. Defend slavery at all costs  The Defense of Slavery— Colonial Era: Apathetic Condition—slavery has always existed as Post-Revolution/Spanish Territory Period—“Yeah, we know it’s bad but we need it” to grow the economy/our region. Really pushed by Spanish (Growth of LA)\ *****1820s: Intersection of LA thought with American thought. “WE are doing a service” by enslaving them. Ideas of potentially setting slaves free still do exist— after they are “reformed.” 1830s-1850s: Belief that enslaved individuals need to be “taught” how to be civilized. Also, that It was duty of slave owner (paternalistic) 1850s: Creation of field of ethnology, theories of scientific racism & “Natural Order” come into play. Believed that enslaved populations are  Rise in Abolitionist Sentiment: slavery was bad and needed to be done away with. LA targeted where slavery is so bad, because we are the central hub/port and producers of it. Books/cases come out about it. 12 Years a Slave, Madame LaLaurie case (what she did to them and how she tried to rationalize it,) Uncle Tom’s Cabin. This sentiment causes absolute fury and introduction of new laws to protect slave system: 1854: “Fugitive Slave Law” adopted (can bring run away back and enslave again” 1857: Dred Scott Supreme Court Decision: no longer have to recognize black rights (no matter the status) & Illegal to set slaves free, now. 1859: Free people of color could “opt into” slavery, choose their master. o Growth in sectionalism (growth of two different party) in LA—  Post War of 1812 (1830s-40s): New or Pro-Jackson (Jacksonian Democrats, cotton planters/northern and western LA) VS. Old or No-Jackson (the Whigs, sugar cane planters/New Orleanians.) Push for creation of new state Constitution by 1845 with universal suffrage. –(king cotton, queen sugar, princess rice)  Jacksonian Democrats most upset by:  New Constitution: win for Jacksonian Democrats; new policies on when people can vote, moving capital upriver and eventually to Baton Rouge (to get away from the N.O.’s), also includes things related to population growth and governmental concern, new Lieutenant Governor Position. Also, abolished all property and tax-paying qualifications (do not have to pay voting tax) for voting (universal white adult male suffrage, after 2 year residency requirement, and slaves do not count.) If slaves do not count, though, how is the slave system represented?—3/5ths rule counts each slave as 3/5ths of a person. o The 1860 Election Fallout: To Secede or not to Secede—what’s going on in the nation o The War of Southern Honor—over slavery, over state’s rights?  Post 1845—1852 Constitution Additions: A concern over slavery, constitution additions—12-month residency requirement, otherwise voters needed to be free white me of 21 or older. Population of slaves counted 1:1 ratio; not 3/5. (Population growth, slaves more important because they represent money and power, and governmental concern.) Sectionalism splits LA politics even more—Rise of the “Know-Nothing Party” (very secretive, anti-Catholic, anti-immigrant, with the Whigs.) Rise of the Republican Party (Abolitionists dedicated to promoting free states. MO Compromise 1820 (who was going to enter as a slave state and as a free state. Agreement made was that some states can enter as slave and others to enter as free. Drew a line to bottom half of MO and anything below was slave, anything above was free. Everybody would have equal representation.) KS-NE Act 1854: (“Bloody Kansas” over whether it would become free or slave state. Allowed people of these states, Kansas and Nebraska, to decide for themselves whether they would have slaves or not within their borders.)  Election of 1860: John Breckenridge (D), Abraham Lincoln (R), Stephen Douglas (D), John Bell (D). To defend our Honor-- Lincoln is elected and country is divided. Secession was part of discussion, just a matter of when. Immediate Secessionists—wanted LA to secede immediately and act as own sovereign state. Cooperationists-- wanted to cooperate with other Southern states to demand changes from union. Maybe prevent secession or use it as a last resource. A Decision of Great Importance (Dec. 1860): Governor Monroe gives fiery speech at Legislature urging succession. (Jan 1861): Vote on delegates to convention on secession. ****Results: 80 Immediate  DD2: The End of Antebellum Period: what challenges did LA face during the Antebellum period? Pick one and discuss how it affected the population, politics, and perception of LA during this time period. -agricultural boom: 2 factions (J.D. cotton, Whigs sugar cane) & king cotton, queen sugar, princess rice -population growth: increased -disease: -rise of abolitionism: -growth of sectionalism: a state divided  The Civil War in LA (the war over honor & the port): battles along the river, along major cities (N.O., B.R….), more towards the western part of LA; moving up river to control trade, go to west to red river which leads into N.O. and rivers that drain into it from up above. Thus squeezing all around, getting N.O., winning war. “The Great Snake” surround all ports and cuts off all resources and men by constricting further and further. Entirely successful. South loses the war. Go from mouth of river, directly through N.O., lets N.O. fall on its own and let Union take over (1862).  New Orleans does not fall easily—General Benjamin Butler’s reign (unruly LA behavior—would throw things at the troops.) Made “Woman’s Order”, any woman caught insulting/assaulting would be caught and treated as a “lady of the night”/prostitute. Would be locked up and not allowed to participate as a lady of society. Women don’t care and continue to insult soldiers and, when caught, were proud.  A win for the south—one of rare victories in early years where Confederates push union back and inspires south to continue fighting and inspire the union to look for other ways to go about it. Going towards Vicksburg. War is going on in everyone’s backyards. Women & children, immigrants, and slaves left on plantations. Economy, food supply, everything “gets messed up.” o Gordon, and escaped slave, July 4 1863, Harper’s Bazaar  Used to increase anger in the north  Runaway who had eluded capture (80 mile chase by dogs to BR)  Stories of him fighting bravely in war in May at Port Hudson and reignites interest. Is successful at taking over BR.  It is an example of the Deep South and how it needs to fall. Inspiration for Abraham Lincoln’s “Emancipation Proclamation” which said “no more slavery.” o LA at the end of War (1864-65):  25% of eligible male pop. Were dead at end of war (50,000)  Landscape destruction—crops, levees, roads, bridges, and railways were ripped/blown up.  Emancipation Proclamation and the question of Freed Men-- $500 million (in that day in age) lost in property (in terms of how much each of the slaves were at that time; not including land or crops.) The state in crisis.


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