Unit 1 Study Guide
Unit 1 Study Guide BIOL 121N
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dominick Ramos on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 121N at Old Dominion University taught by DOUGLAS J MILLS in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 124 views. For similar materials see GENERAL BIOLOGY I in Biological Sciences at Old Dominion University.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
General Biology Unit 1 Test Study Guide 4 types of biological molecules that interact to form all viruses singlecell species amp multicell species Carbohydrates Lipids Nucleic acids Proteins Carbohydratessugars amp polymers of sugars ose means molecule is a carbohydrate Monosacchari Disaccharides Polysaccharides Oligosaccharides des Molecula Transported Formed by 0 Made of 3 r across cell linking 20 building membrane many monosacch blocks Transported monosacch arides The in plants by arides Provide a small phloem together method of size tissue 0 Provide cellcell facilitate Formed by structural communicat 5 two support ion transpor monosacch 0 Joined by t arides by a glycosidic through glycosidic linkage out linkage Two types bloodstr covalent storage or earn and bond by building across dehydration material the cell reaction 0 Storage membra Ex maltose plants ne sucrosetabl starch 39 Ex e sugar animals glucose lactose glycogen galactos milk sugar 0 Building 9 material cellulosecel l walls of plants General Biology Unit 1 Test Study Guide Proteins polypeptides a biologically active molecule consisting of one or more polypeptides which can perform one or more biological functions Proteins are the most structurally sophisticated molecules Enzymes Most are proteins 0 Act as catalystschemicals used to speed chemical reactions Made from 20 different amino acids 0 Bond between amino acids is called a peptide bond covalent bond of amino acids 0 Polymers of amino acids are polypeptide Each has a unique R group or quotside chain 0 Hydrophobic water hating o Hydrophilicwaterloving o Electrically charged and hydrophilic our cells cannot synthesize the 8 essential amino acids Pellagra results from insuf cient tryptophan intake Denaturation process in which a protein loses its shape Can be affected by 0 pH 0 salt concentration 0 temperature FOLDING OF A PROTEIN IS EXTREMELY IMPORTANT SO THAT IT CAN BE BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE Structure determines the ability of a protein to interact with other biological molecules Chaperoninprotein responsible for folding proteins 0 Prioninfectious protein Consequences of improper folding o Sickle cell disease 0 Cystic brosis 0 Alzheimer s o Parkinson s disease Amino acids enter our cells by facilitated diffusion General Biology Unit 1 Test Study Guide Lipids molecules that cannot dissolve in water because they are nonpolar consist of fat phospholipids and steroids lipids have an equal electrical charge distribution while water molecules have an uneven electrical charge distribution which prevents lipids from forming temporary hydrogen bonds Mammals cannot synthesize the essential fatty acids omega 3 and omega 6 The Hydrophobic Effect 0 drives the structure of many biological molecules and the assembly of some biological structures lipid bilayer o measurable repulsion between lipid and water molecules 0 lipid and water molecules move to avoid interaction with one another Lipid soluble vitamins o A vision skin growth 0 D calcium absorption by the intestines E antioxidant a substance that reduces the loss of electrons which reduces biological molecule damage 0 K blood clotting Functions of Lipids Insulation Light interception in plants photosynthesis Physical protection 0 Waterproo ng Fatty acids long carbon skeletons 3 fatty acids join by an ester linkage by dehydration between hydroxyl and ca rboxyl groups to form triacylglycerolstriglycerides Store excess energy in animals and plants Stored in adipose fat tissue 0 Excess fat is stored in lipocytes Saturated fats packed more tighltly no double bonds 0 Butter lard Unsaturated fats one or more double bonds 0 oils General Biology Unit 1 Test Study Guide Phospholipids In the presence of water phospholipids interact to form the lipid bilayer foundation of all cellular membranes Steroids cholesterol contributes to cell membrane structure and function 0 calcium absorption by the intestines response to stress and regulation of the immune system Enzyme a protein or RNA molecule that increases the rate of a speci c chemical reaction o It is also a biological catalyst that is not consumed by the chemical reaction they perform 0 A substrate ie reactant or reagent is converted into a product in the active site which only recognizes speci c substrates Enzymes end in the suffix ASE Enzymes reduce activation energy EA Activation energy 0 amount of energy that a substrate must absorb to initiate a speci c chemical reaction 0 energy required for a substrate to enter the transition state 0 intermediate energyrich unstable phase that is ready to react to form product The active site of each enzyme reduces the activation energL required for a speci c chemical reaction to occur Cells use enzymes to coordinate thousands of chemical reactions simultaneously 0 each chemical reaction must occur in the proper location at the proper time and generate the proper amount of product 0 each enzyme is localized to a speci c cellular or extracurricular location where its product is required Cells rapidly and reversibly regulate enzyme activity 0 an enzyme is rapidly activated when its product is required 0 an enzyme is rapidly inhibited when its product is not required Allosteric regulation occurs when a regulator binds to one site of an enzyme and changes its activity at the active site Kinase and Phosphatase enzymes kinase adds a phosphate group to an enzyme General Biology Unit 1 Test Study Guide phosphatase removes a phosphate group from an enzyme 0 the addition or removal of a phosphate group from an enzyme changes its structure and adjusts its activity Negative feedback regulation regulates many biological processes including enzyme activity 0 occurs when the product of the process shuts down the process 0 negative feedback control occurs when a product molecule binds to an enzyme involved in its synthesis and reduces the activity of this enzyme Enzymes also require cofactors B vitamins are cofactors required for monosaccharide metabolism 0 Minerals like calcium cobalt copper iron magnesium molybdenum selenium and zinc are cofactors for some enzymes DNA All singlecellmulticell species and some viruses store and transmit their genetic instructions in DNA The human genome 0 Both the nucleus and mitochondrion contain DNA Nucleus contains two sets of chromosomes 0 One from mother 0 One from father Mitochondrion has 210 copies of on circular DNA molecule 0 Some organelles are specialized to make and maintain DNA 0 The nucleus contains the enzymes and proteins that 0 Make DNA DNA polymerases 0 Make 4 types of DNA nucleotides 0 Identify mutations in DNA 0 Repair mutations in DNA DNA is a polymer or quotpolynucleotide 0 DNA polymerase is the enzyme that links the 4 types of DNA nucleotides together to form DNA molecules 0 Adenine A is a purine o Guanine G is a purine o Cytosine C is a pyrimidine o Thymine T is a pyrimidine Basic structure of each DNA nucleotide General Biology Unit 1 Test Study Guide 0 One deoxyribose molecule more stable than ribose One phosphate group with a negative electrical charge 0 One nitrogencontaining base 0 Adenine amp Guanine purines o Cytosine ampThymine IDYrimidines 0 Th ymine increases stability in DNA enabling it to store genetic info more effectively If you cannot remember the structure of DNA effectively use this song to remember it The DNA Song to the tune of quotRow Row Row your Boat quotWe love DNA made of nucleotides Sugar phosphate and a base bonded down one side Adenine and thymine make a lovely pair cytosine Without guanine would feel very bare OOOh deoxy ribonuceic acid makes up DN DNA is a double strand molecule AKA Double helix or Duplex 0 Each end 5 and 3 of a single strand has a different structure and thus different chemical properties 0 Both strands must be in opposite orientation 5 3 amp 3 5 in order for them to interact through complementary base pairing and form the double helix Hydrogen bonding occurs between complementary base pairs 0 Hydrogen bonding temporary chemical bond that occurs between partially positivelycharged hydrogen atoms and partially negatively charged atoms h 0 These bonds do form great stability within the double helix Van Der Waals interactions 0 Van Dern Waals interaction weak temporary bonds that occur between the adjacent stacked base pairs in the double helix Additional bene ts of complementary base pairing Complementary base pairing makes it easy for cells to General Biology Unit 1 Test Study Guide 0 Replicate DNA ef ciently 0 Repair DNA effectively DNA Synthesis requires Folic Acid 0 Folic Acid 812 is necessary to make thymine which is necessary to making DNA Folic Acid de ciencies before and during pregnancy increase the risk of birth defects Some Viruses store genetic info in RNA 0 Human immunode ciency virus HIV 1 amp HIV 2 cause AIDS 0 Human Tcell lymphotropic virus HTLV cause Tcell leukemia amp some lymphomas In uenza virus causes the u Tobacco mosaic viruses reduces crop yield Viroids are pathogenic DNA molecules Viroids circular single strand RNA molecules that cause infectious disease
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