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Test 1 Study guide

by: aj

Test 1 Study guide PSB 2000

Intro to brain & behavior

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Intro to brain & behavior
Study Guide
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by aj on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSB 2000 at Florida State University taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 131 views. For similar materials see Intro to brain & behavior in Psychlogy at Florida State University.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
PSB2000 Exam 1 Lecture Summary C Robison Instructor Lecture 2 Genes and Behavior It is evident that a great deal of an animal s behavior including that of humans is dependent upon genetic factors This is because genes code for proteins which determine the function of cells The function of neurons in the CNS is what determines behavior Therefore genes in uence behavior but do not directly cause it Basic Genetics 0 Behavior is adaptive Behaviors persist because they helped our ancestors survive 0 Those ancestors passed on their genes to us 0 Those shared genes shape and otherwise in uence our brains Genes are stored as DNA in the nucleus of our cells 0 DNA is bundled into units called chromosomes 0 DNA codes for proteins complex quotworkhorsequot biomolecules inside our cells 0 The DNA must be transcribed into copies of RNA molecules which go outside of the nucleus 0 These RNA templates are then translated into proteins 0 You have two copies of each of your genes one from mom and one for dad 0 You get one copy of each chromosome from each parent If you have two copies of the same gene ie mom and dad both gave you the same gene you are homozygous If the gene copies are different you are heterozygous 0 Dominant traits are those that express in the heterozygous condition Ex if you have one gene copy for brown hair and one copy for blond hair you will have brown hair since the brown gene is dominant o Recessive traits are those that express only in the homozygous condition Ex if you have blue eyes you must have received a copy of the blueeyed gene from each parent because the blue gene is recessive When DNA is transcribed to RNA it is called gene expression 0 When RNA is translated to protein it is called protein expression Behavioral Genetics 0 You can tell if a behavioral trait is heritable passed on through genes by observing its expression in families 0 Twin studies are especially popular 0 Example Examine identical versus fraternal twins Page 1 of 16 PSBZOOO Exam 1 Lecture Summary C Robison Instructor Both identical and fraternal twins share the same environment But identical twins have 100 of the same gene but fraternal twins only have 50 Traits that are more correlated between identical twins probably have a genetic component 0 There are some confounding effects systematic problems in twin studies 0 Shared prenatal environment may account for some of the similarities o The multiplier effect may amplify small initial behavior differences 0 Some traits are sexlinked This means the gene for that trait is located on one of the sex chromosomes usually the X chromosome 0 One example is a form of redgreen colorblindness Its gene is located on the X chromosome Females have 2 X chromosomes so they are only colorblind if they have two copies on the gene one on each X Males have only one X chromosome so they are colorblind if they have one copy of the gene since they only get one copy via the X 0 Some genes are sexlimited These genes are present in both sexes but require something that is present in only one of the sexes o For example the genes for baldness can be present in both males and females 0 Baldness requires high circulating testosterone 0 Since females don39t have high testosterone they don39t develop baldness even if they have the gene Epigenetics Ultimately it is gene expression that determines the heritability of traits You can change gene expression by making DNA more or less accessible 0 This is called epigenetics One example is high licking and grooming HLG versus low licking and grooming LLG rats 0 HLG rats have pups that grow up to be HLG and LLG rats have LLG u s o lnyFou take a pup from an LLG mother and give it to an HLG mother she will grow up to be HLG But if you block epigenetics you block this change and she will be LLG just like her real mom Epigenetics is different from genetics since there is no actual change to the DNA only how the DNA is accessed by the cell Page 2 of 16 PSBZOOO Exam 1 Lecture Summary C Robison Instructor Lecture 3 Cells of the Nervous System Cells are the basic building blocks of all tissues of the body including the nervous system The cells of the nervous system can be broadly divided into two classes of cells neurons the main signaling units of the nervous system and glia the main support cells Introduction to Cells 0 All cells have several distinct internal structures called organelles The organelles include o The nucleus a membraneenclosed area where the DNA is located The DNA is what codes for most of a cell39s biochemical properties 0 The cell membrane which keeps the inside of the cell separate from the outside and controls the movement of molecules in and out o The mitochondria which act as the cell39s main fuel producers o The endoplasmic reticulum which regulates the production and transport of proteins 0 Each type of cells eg muscle neuron liver is distinct because the DNA in that cell expresses a certain subset of its genes 0 Different genes different tissue types 0 This causes different cell types to be shaped and behave differently The cell membrane controls the transport of ions 0 Only small chargeless molecules eg water and oxygen can pass the membrane without help 0 lons are charged and need the help of special ion channels in the cell membrane to cross Sodium Na Potassium K Chloride Cl and Calcium Ca2 ion movement is important to the function of all cells especialy neurons Neurons Neurons are the cells responsible for conducting signals and processing info in the nervous system NS 0 They receive signals from other cells process the info and relay their signals to other areas 0 There are many different subtypes of neurons 0 They are categorized by their size shape neurotransmitters and membrane receptors 0 Neurons connect into networks to perform complex calculations 0 In addition to the normal organelles neurons have several special features 0 Dendrites are long branchlike projections that get signals from other neurons Dendrite means quottreequot they are shaped like branches They receive signals from the axon terminals of other neurons 0 Signals pass through the main body of the cell called the soma The soma acts as the cell39s quotsupport systemquot Page 3 of 16 PSB2000 Exam 1 Lecture Summary C Robison Instructor 0 The axon hillock is where the quotdecisionquot to activate the neuron is made 0 The axon is a long projection that the neuron39s action potential signal travels down Some axons are insulated by a special substance called the myelin sheath This increases the speed of action potentials o The axon ends at the axon terminal which forms the rst part of the synapse This is the basic cycle of a neuron39s activity 0 Signals are received at the dendrite Current from those signals travels through the soma The decision to re is made at the axon hillock The action potential signal travels down the axon The action potential releases neurotransmitters into a synapse This sends a signal to the dendrites of another neuron OOOOO Glial Cells Glia glial cells are mostly the support cells for the nervous system There are three main types Astroglia provide nutrient support and maintain the bloodbrain barrier BBB 0 They are what let nutrients enter and wastes leave 0 Only watersoluble molecules can cross the BBB Microglia are small glial cells that act as the brain39s immune system Oligodendrocytes are special cells that form the myelin sheath around axons o Schwann Cells perform this task in the peripheral nervous system 0 Note The neuron doctrine was advanced by Santiago Ramon y Cajal This doctrine states that the brain is made out of individual cells called neurons and that they communicate chemically via synapses This theory is the basis for early modern neuroscience Page 4 of 16 PSBZOOO Exam 1 Lecture Summary C Robison Instructor Lecture 4 The Action Potential and the Cell Membrane An action potential AP is the electrochemical signal that travels down the axons of a neuron to send signals to another cell at the synapse The unique properties of the neuron39s cell membrane are what let this signal travel down the neuron An action potential is caused by the movement of small charged molecules called ions across the cell membrane Resting Potential and Ion Balance 0 In its resting inactive state neurons have a slightly negative voltage around 65 to 75 miivots o This means more negative charges are inside than outside 0 Positive charges quotwantquot to enter the cell to cancel out this charge difference 0 This slight negative charge is called the cell39s polarity o If the cell becomes more negative for instance if negative ions enter the cell it becomes more polarized or hyperpolarized o If the cell becomes less negative for instance if positive ions enter the cell it becomes less polarized or depolarized Chemicals want to move from areas of high to low concentration Charged particles ions want to move to regions of opposite charge opposite charges attract This is called the electrochemical gradient 0 At resting potential Sodium Na and Chloride Cl are high outside the cell and Potassium K is high inside the cell Ion Channels and the Membrane Potential 0 Ion channels are proteins that provide a passageway for speci c ions to pass through 0 They are normally closed but can be opened for example by a neurotransmitter signal Channels that are opened by other molecules are ligandgated Channels that are opened by changes in membrane potential are voltagegated You can change the cell39s polarity by opening selective ion channels 0 If you open Na channels Na molecules ood into the cell depolarizing it Na really wants to get into the cell 0 If you open Cl channels Cl molecules ood into the cell hyperpolarizing it o If you open K channels K molecules ood out of the cell hyperpolarizing it o A sequence of ion channels opening and closing is what causes an action potential The Action Potential Page 5 of 16 PSBZOOO Exam 1 Lecture Summary C Robison Instructor The axon hillock has a high concentration of voltagegated Sodium Na channels A signal from another neuron depolarizes the cell at the axon hillock o This initial depolarization used ligandgated Na channels This depolarization triggers voltagegated Na channels opening them 0 Na oods into the cell 0 The cell membrane rapidly depolarizes This rapid depolarization triggers voltagegated K channels opening them Meanwhile the Na channels shut o K oods out of the cell 0 The cell membrane rapidly hyperpolarizes The K channels shut and the membrane goes back to its resting state You can think of the action potential as two waves one following after the other 0 A wave of Na ooding into the cell depolarizing the axon and triggering voltagegated channels in the next section down the axon o A following wave of K ooding out of the cell hyperpolarizing the axon When the Na channels shut they need a moment to quotresetquot during which no APs can be red This is the refractory period More on the Action Potential You can measure the AP by sticking an electrode in the axon hillock You will see four distinct phases 0 A starting depolarizing hump caused by excitatory signals caused by ligandgated Na channels o If the hump is high enough the threshold for voltagegated Na channels is reached and the voltage spikes up rapidly 0 When the spike is high enough the threshodfor voltagegated K channels is reached and the voltage spikes down rapidly 0 During the refractory period something called the SodiumPotassium pump gradually returns the membrane to its original balance In myelinated axons the action potential jumps from node to node 0 The nodes ofRanvierare the spaces in between myelin bundles o Myelin insulation strengthens the signal so the depolarization of one node can trigger depolarization at the next node down 0 This is called salutatory conduction o This lets signals travel quickly over large distances Page 6 of 16 PSBZOOO Exam 1 Lecture Summary C Robison Instructor Lectures 5 7 Neuroanatomy Megablock Neuroanatomy is the study of the layout and general functions of different areas of the nervous system The nervous system consists of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system When discussing neuroanatomy it39s often useful to use anatomical directions Some Useful Terms Medial toward the midline of the body your spine is medial to your hands Lateral away from the midline of the body your shoulders are lateral to yourneck Anterior in front of your nose is anterior to your ears Posterior behind your ankles are posterior to your toes Dorsal toward the back your spine is dorsal to your stomach Ventral toward the front your sternum is ventral to your lungs Superior on top of your chin is superior to your belly button Inferior below your knees are inferior to your hips Protecting The Brain 0 The central nervous system CNS is protected by three layers of tissue called the meninges o The outermost layer is called the dura mater quottough motherquot It is tough and leathery o The middle layer is called the arachnoid mater quotspider motherquot It is formed out of many weblike laments and anchors the nervous system via the pia mater to the tough dura mater o The bottom layer is called the pia mater quotclose motherquot Blood vessels are anchored to the pia mater as are the arachnoid bers 0 All empty spaces in the brain are lled with cerebrospinal uid CSF o It is a mixture of salts nutrients and wastes o This is how food gets into the CNS and waste gets out o CSF also acts as a protective buffer for the brain The Peripheral Nervous System 0 The Peripheral NS can be divided into two main groups 0 Somatic nervous system all sensory eg touch sight etc and motor movement info goes in and out of the somatic system You are usually aware of this system 0 Autonomic nervous system quotautomaticquot nervous system activities Sympathetic nervous system SNS your quot ght or ightquot system responsible for making energy available and getting you outofdangen Activates a set of quotchain gangliaquot to activate many organ systems at once in times of stress Page 7 of 16 PSBZOOO Exam 1 Lecture Summary C Robison Instructor Parasympathetic nervous system PNS your quotrest and digestquot system responsible for storing energy and helping you rest 0 The SNS and PNS often work opposite to each other but not always There39s also an enteric nervous system in your gut to keep food moving on through c All nerve tissue outside the spinal cord brain and retina is peripheral nervous system The Spine and Cranial Nerves o Sensory signals enter the spinal cord at the back through the dorsal quotrootquot 0 Sensory cells live in a clump known as the dorsal root ganglion 0 They enter into the dorsal quothornquot of the spine 0 Motor movement cells live in the ventral quothornquot of the spinal cord 0 These cells send axons out the ventral quotrootquot to the muscles 0 When the sensory and motor bers converge outside of the spinal cord they form spinal nerves 0 The spine can make complex operations without the brain39s help 0 For example spinal re ex arcs that don39t require brain input To wit When you tap your knee a quotsensorquot in your leg muscle registers the stretch This sends a signal into your spinal cord via the dorsal root This synapses on a motor neuron in the spinal cord This sends a signal out of the spinal cord via the ventral root This makes the leg muscle contract to counter the stretch Re ex arcs with one synapse like this one are monosynaptic If more neurons are involved the arc is polysynaptic Signals travel up and down the spine in myelinated bundles of white matter Sensory signals that enter through the face and head eg vision hearing etc go directly to the brain So do motor signals that travel out to the facehead 0 These signals are sent through the cranial nerves The Primitive Brain 0 You should know what the following areas do and be able to identify them on a simpli ed picture of the CNS 0 Together the medulla pons and midbrain form the brainstem o Medulla oblongata right on top of the spinal cord Sensory and motor signals go through here on their way tofrom the brain Responsible for autonomic behaviors eg breathing heart rate 0 Fans the quotbridgequot between the medulla cerebellum and quothigherquot brain Page 8 of 16 PSBZOOO Exam 1 Lecture Summary C Robison Instructor Many bers decussate cross over from one side to the other in either the pons or medulla o Midbrain in the middle of the brain go gure Some sensory processing eg visual and auditory re exes happen here Important centers for reward and movement are located here 0 Cerebellum quotlittle brainquot the wrinkly bulge at the back of the brainstem It is important for motor coordination It compares what you quotwantquot to do with what you actually do and makes adjustments You can live without it though your coordination will always stink o Thalamus the quotrelay stationquot of the brain that sits atop the brainstem Sound vision and emotional processing Interacts with the hypothalamus Is an important part of quotmemory loopsquot with higher brain areas 0 Hypothalamus sits below the thalamus and controls the body s hormone systems Connects to higher brain areas especially emotional centers Connects to the pituitary gland where it releases hormones out into the blood stream to control glands Also controls the SNS and PNS responses Important for instinctual behaviors such as feeding sex and aggression Higher Brain Areas 0 You should know what the following areas do I will not ask you to nd them on a picture Note that many of these quotareasquot are actually overlapping systems 0 Basal Ganglia are wrapped around the thalamushypothalamus Important for ne control of movement and thinking Impaired in Parkinson39 and Huntington s diseases Contains reward and motivation systems Lots of connections with the thalamus and cortex 0 The Limbic System are a quotborderquot system right below the cortex at the brain39s surface Major memory and emotion systems of the brain 0 The hippocampus quotseahorsequot is important for storing and accessing many memories 0 Also important for spatial memory amp navigation 0 The amygdala quotalmondquot is a major fear and emotion center in the brain 0 The amygdala activates the cortex when you39re in an emotional state Page 9 of 16 PSBZOOO Exam 1 Lecture Summary C Robison Instructor 0 This is why you remember traumatic amp emotional events so well 0 The Cerebral Cortex is the big wrinkly expanse of tissue at the top of the brain I expect you to know the four main lobes The Cerebral Cortex It is a thin layer of tissue at the top of the brain 0 Since it is thin it is wrinkled in humans to increase surface area This gives us more cortical quotprocessing powerquot o It is divided by a central longitudinal ssure The two hemispheres halves communicate through a bundle of white matter axons called the corpus callosum There are four main lobes to the cortex You should know a bit about each and be able to locate them on a picture 0 Frontal Lobe At the front of the brain in front of the central sucus Contains the motor cortex to perform conscious movements ls important for logic working memory personality The prefrontal cortex is large and advanced in humans o It is the last area of the brain to develop and is important for decision making 0 Parietal Lobe Just behind the frontal lobe at the top of the brain Contains the somatosensory cortex where all touch sensation is processed Also important for vision and sound processing 0 Temporal Lobe At the side of the brain just inferior to the parietal lobe Contains the auditory cortex for hearing and language Important for memory storage too 0 Occipital Lobe The smallest lobe at the very back of the brain The main visual center of the brain Vision is processed here 0 The cortex has six tissue layers 0 Each layer receives input andor sends output to a different area of the brain 0 Info is processed up and down across these layers in a column 0 Some cortical functions are Iateralized 0 Language is the most obvious example It is usually processed by the left hemisphere only Sound is still processed by both hemispheres but only one does language 0 This is possible because lots of info is sent between each hemisphere through the corpus callosum Each sense gets its own area of cortex for processing called a sensory cortex 0 This info is combined in the association cortices Page 10 of 16 PSBZOOO Exam 1 Lecture Summary C Robison Instructor Page 11 of 16 PSBZOOO Exam 1 Lecture Summary C Robison Instructor Lecture 8 The Synapse The synapse is where the real magic of the brain happens It is how neurons send signals to each other The strengthening and weakening of synapses over short or long periods of time are how memories are formed ad maintained Synapse Structure Synapses are formed by the junction of an axon terminal and a dendrite 0 Many dendrites have little quotspinesquot knobby projections that jut out toward the axon terminal 0 The space between the axon and the dendrite is called the synaptic cleft The axon terminal is part of the presynaptic cell 0 The dendritic spine is part of the postsynaptic cell c The transmission of a signal from a presynaptic cell to a postsynaptic ce happens when the presynaptic cell releases neurotransmitters 0 These neurotransmitters are stored in little bubbles of membrane called synaptic vesicles Receptors in the membrane of the postsynaptic cell receive the neurotransmitters Excitatory and Inhibitory Synapses Most synapses 95 are either excitatory or inhibitory o Excitatory synapses are where neurotransmitters make ligandgated Sodium Na channels open The in ux of Na depolarizes the membrane 0 Inhibitory synapses are where neurotransmitters make ligandgated Chloride Cl channels open The in ux of Cl hyperpolarizes the membrane 0 The membrane depolarization that happens at the postsynaptic cell is called a postsynaptic potential PS P o This is different from an action potential because it does not happen on the axon and doesn t involve voltagegated potassium channels 0 Excitatory postsynaptic potentials are called EPSPs o Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials are called IPSPs Excitatory and inhibitory signals add up at the axon hillock where the cell quotdecidesquot whether to re These decisions are computed by spatial or temporal summation 0 Spatial summation is where many axons projecting to different parts of the postsynaptic neuron send their signals at the same time 0 Temporal summation is when one axon sends many fast signals to the postsynaptic neuron so the PSPs overlap adding together 0 Thousands of signals may be ooding into a neuron every second The grand sum of these signals at the axon hillock determines the activity of the neuron Page 12 of 16 PSBZOOO Exam 1 Lecture Summary C Robison Instructor 0 If a neuron is already ring EPSPs will make it speed up and IPSPs will make it slow down The Neurotransmitter Cycle Neurotransmitters are packaged in vesicles that are docked to almost touching the cell membrane of the axon terminal 0 An action potential AP makes the vesicles empty neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft Neurotransmitter binds to receptors on the postsynaptic cell c This causes an EPSP IPSP or metabotropic effect depending on the receptor type 0 Metabotropic effects are where receptors cause sow cellwide effects instead of acting as ion channels Neurotransmitter unbinds from the receptor 0 Special transporters pump it back into the presynaptic cell 0 Sometimes enzymes degrade the neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft instead Neurotransmitter is repackaged in vesicles to the circle of neurotransmitter life can begin anew Learning and Memory 0 Learning happens when our synapses get stronger or weaker in response to signals o It can also happen with the formation of new synapses synaptogenesis quotCells that re together wire togetherquot 0 If the presynaptic ce makes the postsynaptic ce re the synapse gets stronger This is called LongTerm Potentiation LTP o If the presynaptic ce repeatedly fails to make the postsynaptic ce re the synapse gets weaker This is called LongTerm Depression LTD 0 There are a few ways that a synapse can get stronger or weaker if reversed o The presynaptic ce releases more neurotransmitter o The connection between the two cells gets biggercloser o The postsynaptic ce gets more or more active receptors 0 If a synapse is strengthened the postsynaptic cell has bigger PSPs in response to the presynaptic ce it quotlearnsquot to respond Receptors Receptors are proteins embedded in the membrane of usually the postsynaptic cell 0 When neurotransmitter binds to the receptor it causes a conformational change Page 13 of 16 PSBZOOO Exam 1 Lecture Summary C Robison Instructor 0 This makes ion channels open or causes some other chemical reaction inside the cell Neurotransmitter receptors usually on the postsynaptic cell are what determine the effect of neurotransmitter release 0 For example Na in ux will always be excitatory Many drugs work by blocking or activating ligandgated ion channels Page 14 of 16 PSBZOOO Exam 1 Lecture Summary C Robison Instructor Lecture 9 Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters NTs are the chemical messengers that let one neuron talk to another There are six major neurotransmitters that I39d like you to be familiar with as well as three general classes of neurotransmitter Types of Neurotransmitter Small molecule neurotransmitters are small molecules duh derived from common molecules found in the cell 0 They are often amino acids eg glutamate or derived from amino acids eg serotonin They are produced locally at the axon terminal 0 They are packaged into vesicles at the axon terminal 0 They may act by either ligandgated ion channels or metabotropic receptors 0 They are often taken back up into the presynaptic cell by transporters Peptide neurotransmitters are long strings of amino acids similar to proteins and may be quite large 0 They are made in the cell soma They are packaged into large vesicles in the soma The vesicles are transported down to the axon terminal They act only on metabotropic slowacting receptors After release they are broken down in the synaptic cleft They have wideranging effects such as neuron growth social behavior etc Gaseous neurotransmitters are small gas molecules that zip around after creation and can39t be packaged in vesicles All neurons release at least one small molecule NT Many of them release both a small molecule and one or more peptide or gaseous NTs 0 00000 The Six Small Molecule Neurotransmitters NTs Glutamate is the most common NT found in more than half of all synapses o It is excitatory it opens ligandgated Na channels o It is an amino acid found in all cells in the body GABA is the main inhibitory NT found in more than a quarter of all synapses o It is inhibitory it opens ligandgated Cl channels o It is made from glutamate l and is found everywhere in the brain Acetylcholine Ach is an excitatory NT o It is the neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junction that makes muscles contract o It opens ligandgated Na channels nicotinic receptors Serotonin 5HT is made from the amino acid tryptophan o It is important for mood and is disrupted in depression 0 Its major nuclei centers are in the brainstem Dopamine is made from the amino acid tyrosine Page 15 of 16 PSBZOOO Exam 1 Lecture Summary C Robison Instructor 0 It is associated with reward and movement and is disrupted in Parkinson39s disease 0 Its major centers are in the midbrain Norepinephrine is made from dopamine o It is involved in mood and stress 0 It is also the major hormone of the SNS stress response 0 Note Only glutamate GABA and ACh act through ion channels 0 They also act through metabotropic receptors 0 All other neurotransmitters are metabotropic only Hormones Hormones share many similarities with neurotransmitters 0 They are signaling molecules released by cells 0 They act via receptors 0 They can be small molecules or peptides They are also different in some ways 0 They act via far distances usually by circulating through the blood 0 They usually come from endocrine glands outside the NS 0 There are several major classes of hormone o Steroid hormones eg testosterone estrogen and corticosterone These are made from cholesterol Important roles for sexual behavior fertility and stress 0 Small molecule hormones eg norepinephrine These are usually double as neurotransmitters eg norepinephrine o Peptide hormones are large molecules with a variety of functions Oxytocin LH and insulin are all peptide hormones A single molecule of hormone can affect the response of an entire cell by undergoing a quotcascadequot reaction 0 Each step of the reaction activates more molecules than in the previous step Page 16 of 16


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