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SPC1017 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 1 Communication any process in which people through the use of symbols verbally andor nonverbally consciously or not consciously intentionally or unintentionally generate meanings information ideas feelings and perceptions within and across various contexts cultures channels and media Elements of Communication Sender Receivers people both sending and receiving messages at the same time Message made up of ideas and feelings that senderreceivers want to share There is no message at all if there aren t common symbols Symbols something that stands for something else 1 Verbal words in a language that stand for particular things or ideas 2 Concrete symbol that represents and object 3 Abstract stands for ideas 4 Nonverbal without using wordsinclude facial expressions gestures posture vocal tones and appearance Channel the route traveled by a message it is the means a message uses to reach the senderreceivers Primary channels sound and sight I radio TV CD s newspapers Nonverbal channels touch sight sound l appropriate clothing rm handshake respectful voice Feedback the response of the receiver senders to each other Sensory Acuity paying attention to all elements in the communication environment Noise interference that keeps a message from being understood or accurately interpreted 1 External Physica comes from the environment and keeps the message from being heard or understood 2 Internal Psychologica occurs in the minds of the sender receivers when their thoughts or feelings are focused on something other than the communication at hand 3 Semantic caused by people s emotional reactions to words ex foreign country Setting the environment in which the communication occurs The InternetModel of Communication Synchronous Communication talk that occurs at the same time with no time delay ex one to one one to a few one to many Asynchronous Communication does not occur at the same time ex email IM or seeking information from websites Communication is a Transaction Transactional Communication involves 3 principles 1 Participation is continuous and simultaneous whether or not you are actually talking in a communication situation you are actively involved in sending and receiving messages 2 All communications have a past present and a future you respond to every situation from your own experience your own moods and your own expectations 3 All communicators play roles parts you play or ways you behave with others De ned by society and affected by individual relationships roles control everything from word choice to body language Types of Communication lntrapersonal Communication language use andor thought that occurs within you the communicator daydreaming talking to oneself reading aloud It involves your active internal involvement in the symbolic processing of messages Interpersonal Communication occurs when you communicate on a onetoone basis usually in an informal unstructured setting all elements of the communication process ex interview Small Group Communication occurs when a small number of people meet to solve a problem 57 ppl Messages are more structured in small groups because the group is meeting for a speci c purpose Public Communication the sender receiver the speaker sends a message the speech to an audience The setting is usually formal Intercultural Communication a mix of all contexts 2 or more people from different cultures interact Culture the everchanging values traditions social and political relationships and worldview created and shared by a group of people bound together by a combination of factors CoCulture people who are part of a larger culture but also belong to a smaller group that has some different values attitudes or beliefs Communication Competence Competent Communication the ability to communicate in a personally effective and socially appropriate manner 3 Components 1 Knowedge recognize what communication practice is appropriate 2 Ski the ability to perform that practice 3 Motivation the want to communicate in an effective manner Needed Elements for Competency Respect communicators must be courteous polite and civil Empathy identifying with sharing the feelings of or being on same wave as other people Tolerance communicators must be open minded understanding and patient Fexibiity must be willing to adjustcompromise Interactive Management how they participate or involve themselves in any communication situation posture comfort appropriate role and willingness to disclose Strategic Flexibility SF lused in feedbacks expanding your communication repertoire your collection or stock of communication behaviors that can readily be brought into use to enable you to use the best skill or behavior available for a particular situation 6 Steps 1 Anticipate potential situations and needsrequirements arise from them 2 Assess factors elements and conditions of situation involved in 3 Evaluate value and worth of factors elements and conditions of all involved 4 Select choose from collection of available skills and behaviors Appy according to factorstheir relevance Reassess and Reevauate for every action ta ken there is likely to be feedback as well as actions taken by others as a direct result of those taken by you nuI Active OpenMindedness AOM a tool that they can apply exibly that will help them digest master and use knowledge Communicating Effectively understanding process of communication you can understand why or why it doesn t work Ethical Communication a component of each of the six types of communication is communication that is honest fair and considerate of others rights CHAPTER 2 Self Concept accumulation of messages you received throughout your life things said to you things let go things you believe in how you think and feel about yourself Perception how you look at others and the world around you Re ected Appraisals messages you get about yourself from others Most come from things people say about you found more in females generalization Script given speci c lines to speak ex quotsay thank you to the nice womenquot SelfFul lling Prophecies events or actions that occur because you and other people have expected them Social Comparisons when you compare yourself with others to see how you measure up found more in males Upward taking a psychological risk ex comparing grades in class when you studied hard and still didn t do as well as someone who didn t study Downward trying to nd people that did worse Self Perception they way you see yourself occurs more at an older age Gender Sex and Self Concept Men vs Women bear on selfdevelopment and selfconcept Men give importance to social comparisons Women give importance to re ected appraisals Gender is important because it helps us organize the world into hishers Hyperpersonal Internet relationships quotare more intimate than romances or friendships would be if partners were physically togetherquot Opportunity for users to makesustain positive impressions by writing about their more attractive traits SelfAwareness knowledge of and trust in your own motives emotions preferences and abilities Map is not the Territory The personal mental territory is the actual external reality people experience Contrasts the subjective internal experience vs objective external reality Your perception of reality is not reality but only your version of it The more accurate your maps are the better equipped you are to function within society ex it your maps tell you music is pleasant you will think that it is No two people have the same mapsl problems occur in communication when you try to impose your map on others Personal change requires change in maps We become comfortable with our old maps Your maps are not Who you are they are simply a tool to navigate through Psychological Sets expectations about incoming information and how to prepare for it Type of perceptual lter 3 Steps to the Perceptual Process 1 Selecting lnformation information you select Which cues you choose to pay attention to 2 Organize arrangerearrange patterns until cue s info becomes clear 3 lnterpreting drawing conclusions orjudging depending on past experience Cognitive Schemata guidelines that help us to see what the whole picture should be Cognitive Dissonance people seek info that supports their beliefs and ignore information that doesn t Deletions blotting out erasing or cancelling information only focusing on information important to survive Distortions twistingbending information out of shape to make information t your beliefs Generalizations drawing conclusions from particular information or facts used for survival all future experience is ltered through beliefs information that contradicts belief is deleted and distort other information to support the belief Implicit Personality Theory occurs when you construct a picture theory of what people s personalities are based on qualities or characteristics revealed by their behaviors Attribution occurs when you devise explanations theories about other people s behavior so that you can understand whatever is taking place Perceptual Filters limitations that result form the narrowed lens through which you view the world Objective Reality the actual territory or external reality everyone expedences Subjective View your personal mental maps of the world CHAPTER 9 Intercultural Important in Communicating Effectively Determines how well individuals organizations industries and nations do in acquiring and applying knowledge better the communication the greater the likelihood of success Knowledge Class new class supported by participation in new information Intercultural Important in Strategic Flexibility direct and noticeable effect on each step of strategic exibility 5 Steps 1 Anticipate new way to think about potential communication situations 2 Assess factors elements and conditions of situations in which you nd yourself becoming different 3 Evaluate more accurately able to determine value and worth of the factors elements and conditions and how they bear on your own abilities 4 Select because of more information you are more likely to select those more likely to affect the situation 5 Appy take greater careconcern and attention to facts that are likely to be affected Culture the everchanging values traditions social and political relationships and worldview created and shared by a group of people bound together by a combination of factors which can include a common history geographic location language social class andor religion Worldview an allencompassing set of moral ethical and philosophical principles and beliefs that govern the way people live their lives and interact with others Cultural ldentity the degree to which you identify with your culture and it is determined by the values support it is a learned concept CoCulture represents those in lower classes who have speci c patterns of behavior that set them off from other groups within a culture Intercultural Communication when a message is created by a member of one culture and this message needs to be processed by a member of another culture Why do we study Intercultural Identity Understand own identity Enhancing personal and social interactions Solves misunderstanding miscommunications and mistrust Enhances and enriches the quality of civilization Becomes effective citizens of our communities National Communities cocultural groupings within the country Intercultural Communication and the Communication Model In uences SendersReceivers we will create different responses Messages and Feedbacks the way a message is communicated is different in different cultures Settings individualism femininity gender and culture in uence how we can communicate or your own position in the conversation Studying Cultural Differences they in uence behavior including choices of symbols Power Distance the way of contrasting a group of cultures to another group of cultures by measuring social inequality in each see authority as high power Individualism vs Collectivism the degree of integration and orientation of individuals within groups lndividuaism self expression Colectivism unquestioning loyalty to authority Femininity vs Masculinity a way of contrasting a group of cultures to another group of cultures that looks at the division of rules between men and women High feminine cultures l believe women should be nurture concerned for quality of life and reveal sympathy for the unfortunate High masculine culturesl believe men should be concerned about wealth achievement challenge ambition promotion and that they should be assertive and competitive Uncertainty Avoidance compares tolerance for the unknown when contrasting a group of cultures to another group of cultures Low uncertainty avoidance cultures dislike uncertain situations and change Long Term Orientation measures the tradeoff between longterm and shortterm grati cation needs ex admire status thriftiness having a sense of shame that emphasizes care for others and being loyal and trustworthy Short Term Orientation people value personal steadiness and stability but do not have as much respect for tradition because it prevents innovann Context the entire process and eld of experience High Context when most of the meaning of the message is either implied by physical settings or presumed to be part of individuals beliefs values and norms implied by gestures third world cultures In person Low Context when most of the information is in the code or message say it in the actual communication Barriers of Intercultural Communication Ethnocentrism the belief that one s own cultural group s behaviors norms ways of thinking and ways of being are superior to all other cultural groups and thus are the right ones Prejudice the negative attitude toward a cultural group based on little or no experience Discrimination the overt actions one takes to exclude avoid or distance oneself from other groups Dominant Culture includes white people from a European background Nondominant Culture includes people of color women gays lesbians and bisexuals and those whose socioeconomic background is lower than middle class 3 Ways to Overcome Barriers 1 Assimilation 2 Accommodation 3 Separation Assimilation when nondominants drop cultural differences and distinctive characteristics that would identify them with nondominant group Assimilation Strategies 1 Nonassertive they emphasize what they have in common with the dominant group and sometimes censor themselves to t in Stay positive and don t want to offend dominant group 2 Assertive carefully prepare for an encounter with the dominant group Manipulate stereotype and may overcompensate by trying to be twice as smart twice as witty and so forth 3 Aggressive minority group members want to t in at any cost They are eager to be part of the group that they might ridicule their own culture Accommodation tries to get dominant group to reinvent rules to include nondominant groups Accommodation Strategies 1 Nonassertive attempt to nicely change dominant groups stereotypes 2 Assertive try to balance members of the dominant and nondominant group by showing things in common educate about the nondominant culture 3 Aggressive remind dominant group members of being oppressors and confront dominant members Separation when the nondominant groups don t want to form common bonds with the dominant culture instead they separate into a group that includes only people like them Separation Strategies used to get the dominant culture to reinventchange rules 1 Nonassertive nondominant group avoids dominant group 2 Assertive form groups that separate from dominant group against any messages that say dominant is superior and remind them of oppression 3 Aggressive expect all nondominant groups to separate with them Assumption taking for granted that something is a fact Generalization turn sour when you use them to assume about another culture stereotyping Transpection empathizing across different cultures How can we improve on intercultural communication P 244 CHAPTER 12 Personal lnventory an assessment of your own resources Selecting a Purpose 3 Stages 1 Selecting the General Purpose whether you intend to inform or persuade 2 Selecting the Speci c Purpose a single phrase that indicates precisely what you expect to achieve in your speech quotto inform my audience ofquot 3 Stating the Central ldea establishes the main thrust of the speech It contains the information you want the audience to remember in a persuasive speech it tells the audience what you want them to do Informative Speech generally concentrates on explaining Persuasive Speech the speaker takes a particular position and tries to get the audience to accept and support that position Audience Analysis nding out what your audience members know about your subject what they might be interested in and what their attitudes and beliefs are 2 Important Bene ts 1 Improve your effectiveness since your presentation will be created and delivered with the listeners speci c needs in mind 2 When you focus on what matters most to your listeners it will help you accomplish your objectives Target Audience a subgroup of the whole audience that you must reach to accomplish your goal Attitudes beliefs that cause people to respond in some way to a particular object or situation Beliefs statements of knowledge opinion and faith convictions about what one thinks is right and wrong or true and false Demographic Analysis reveals data about the characteristics of a group of people including such things as age gender education occupation racenationalityethnic group geographic location and group affiliation Analyzing the Occasion Time time frame of the speech time of day and the length of time of yourspeech Time frame events leading up to a speech event and the relationship it has to your speech Time ofday audiences are less alert at certain times of the day Length ofspeech stick to a time limit Place refers to the physical state for the speech and the interaction with the audience Channel the route traveled by a message the means it uses to reach the senderreceivers Creativity the ability both to have new thoughts and to rearrange old ideas in a new way Computer Databases collections of information organized for easy access via the computer Supporting Material information that backs up your main point and provides the essential content of your speech Comparisons point out the similarities between two or more things Contrasts point out the differences between two or more things Definition a brief explanation of what a word or phrase means Example short illustration that clari es a point Hypothetical Example examples that are made up quotimagine yourselfquot Statistics facts in numerical form have many uses in a speech Testimony using another person s statements or actions to give authority to what you are saying experts are the best sources Polls surveys of people s attitudes beliefs and behavior CHAPTER 13 Main Points broad general ideas and information that support your central idea Minor Points speci c ideas and information that support the main points Patterns of Organization Body the main part of the speech Time Order used to show development over time works well when you want to use a historical approach Spatial Order refer to a physical or geographical layout to help your audience see how the parts make up the whole stages CauseandEffect Order divides a speech into two major parts cause why something is happening and effect what impact it is having ProblemSolution Order divides a speech into two sections one part the problem the second part the solution Topical Order whenever subjects can be grouped logically into subtopics Preparing an Outline Outline a way of organizing material so you can see all the parts and how they relate to the whole FullSentence Outline complete map of what the speech will look like Keyword Outlines gives only the important words and phrases their main function is to remind the speaker of his or her ideas when delivering the speech The Speech Introduction Introduction the opening statement of your speech It gives the audience members their rst impression of you it introduces them to the topic and it motivates them to listen Techniques for In troductions Get attention Announce your topic Preview your central idea and main points Initial Partition preview your main points at the outset Establish your credibility The Speech Conclusion Conclusion ties a speech together and gives the audience the feeling that the speech is complete It should not introduce any new ideas A Conclusion Should Signal the end of your speech Summarize your main points Make a memorable nal statement Transitions comments that lead from one point to another to tell your audience where you have been and where you are going Reference List all the materials that were used and only that which were used in preparing the speech CHAPTER 14 Public Speaking Anxiety a disturbance of mind regarding a forthcoming public speaking event for which you are the speaker Often triggered by stress and some are more vulnerable to it than others TimeTested Ways for Dealing with Nervousness Be positive Be prepared Visualize positive mental imaging can signi cantly increase your performance Anticipate nervousness role playing and anticipating something less than perfection Focus Gain Experience Characteristics of Good Delivery 4 1 Conversational Quality talk to the audience in much the same way that you talk when you are having a conversation with another person talk with the audience not at the audience 2 Attentiveness focusing on the moment being aware of and responding to your listeners needs pick a topic important to you prepare individualize audience members focus on audience rather than yourself 3 lmmediacy occurs when the communicator is completely focused on the communication situation 4 Directness being natural and straightforward ex no big words Types of Delivery Impromptu Speaking giving a speech on the spur of the moment Speaking from a manuscript involves writing out the entire speech and reading it to the audience Speaking from memory writing out the entire speech and then committing it to memory word for word Extemporaneous Speaking speaker delivers a speech from notes How You Sound Pace how fast or how slowly a person speaks ln ection the change in pitch used to emphasize certain words and phrases Monotone a person who never varies his or her speaking voice Enunciation made up of articulation and pronunciation Articulation the ability to pronounce the letters in a word correctly Pronunciation the ability to pronounce the whole word Using Visual Support Visual Support includes devices such as charts graphs slides and computergenerated images that help illustrate the key points in a speech 4 Functions 1 Holds the attention of listeners 2 Provides information in the visual channel 3 Helps audience members remember what speakers have said 4 Gives the speaker a chance to move around and add an attention grasping element Models replica of an actual object that is used when the object itself is too large to be displayed a building too small to be seen a cell or inaccessible to the eye the human heart Organizational Chart shows the relationships among the elements of an organization such as the departments of a company the branches of federal or state government or the committees of the student government Flip Chart series of pictures words diagrams and so forth ComputerGenerated Graphics any images created or manipulated via computer art drawings representations of objects and pictures Multimedia various media sound graphics and animation as well as text used to deliver information CHAPTER 15 Informative Speech one that de nes clari es instructs and explains is a common phenomenon in our society Types of Informative Speeches Objects about things people places animals and products Processesl Demonstration Speech teaches people how to perform a process Events focuses on things that happened are happening or will happen Concepts deal with theories ideas beliefs and other abstract principles De nition an explanation of the meaning of a word or phrase can often make a critical difference in whether your audience understands yourspeech Etymology the study of the origin and development of words can be used as a basis for de nition Composition a description of the makeup of a thing can be a useful part of description Anecdote a short interesting story based on your own or someone ese s experience useful in the body of your speech because they can get audience attention back if it is wandering Rhetorical Questions questions audience member s answer mentally rather than out loud Presentation created to communicate ideas in a compelling and graphic manner informative or persuasive and emphasize on visual support Natural Delivery the collection of speech and actions that best represents your true sef free form arti ciality affectation and constraint Requires an extemporaneous style carefully preparing your thoughts but not deciding on your words in advance or reading a script
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