Psychology Exam 2 Review
Psychology Exam 2 Review PSY 1113
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elsa Finley-Combs on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 1113 at University of Oklahoma taught by Jenel Cavazos in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Elements of Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
Psychology 1113, Test 2 Review Chapter 5 1. What is Narcolepsy? 2. Define “stream of consciousness”. 3. There are multiple things that can cause altered states of consciousness. Name two. 4. Somnambulism, a condition that usually occurs within stages 3 and 4 of sleep, is the scientific term for what occurrence? 5. Explain the difference between physical and psychological drug addiction. 6. Define “incubation” in the context of thought processing. 7. What is the difference between manifest and latent content in the context of dreams? 8. Which are involved in daily circadian rhythms? a. Body temperature b. Sleep/wake cycle c. Blood sugar levels d. All of the above 9. Which stage of sleep is characterized by “sleep spindles”? a. Stage 1 b. Stage 2 c. Stage 3 d. Stage 4 10. What is the other name for Stage 5 of sleep, characterized by vivid dreams? 11. Explain the difference between nightmares and night terrors. 12. Explain the cognitive theory of dreaming. 13. Name the most widely used psychoactive drug. 14. What drug type is commonly used for weight loss and to increase energy levels and awakeness? 15. Name 3 conditions that hypnosis has been used to treat. Chapter 6 1 Define “behaviorism” in the context of learning. 9. Name the two types of conditioning in the context of associative learning. 10. Explain the difference between these two types of conditioning. 11. Ivan Pavolv’s experiments with dogs illustrated what psychological principal? 12. What is the term for a stimulus that produces an innate response without prior learning? a. Conditioned Stimulus b. Neutral Stimulus c. Unconditioned Response d. Unconditioned Stimulus 6. Explain the difference between “contiguity” and “contingency” in classical conditioning. 7. Explain “generalization” and “discrimination” in the context of classical conditioning. 8. What is the term for “undoing” classical conditioning? 9. Explain “spontaneous recovery”. 10. Briefly explain John B. Watson’s rat experiment with “Little Albert”, and the psychological principle it is known for. 11. Explain the difference between “counterconditioning” and “aversive conditioning”. 12. Explain how the “placebo effect” relates to classical conditioning. 13. Give an example of how taste aversion learning can occur. 14. Explain “drug habituation” in the context of classical conditioning. 15. Operant conditioning is better than classical conditioning at explaining what kinds of behaviors? 16. State “Thorndike’s Law of Effect”. 17. Positive reinforcement is a. The addition of something undesirable b. The removal of something undesirable c. The addition of something desirable d. The removal of something desirable 18. Avoidance learning happens in response to what sort of reinforcement? 19. Is money classified as a secondary or primary reinforcer? 20. Define the 4 main schedules of partial reinforcement. 21. Which type of punishment, immediate or delayed, is more successful with decreasing the occurrence of a behavior? 22. Explain applied behavior analysis/behavior modification. 23. Explain “instinctive drift”. 24. Explain “preparedness”. 25. What are the two mindsets that affect the way humans learn and set goals, and what is the difference between the two? 26. What is “latent learning?” 27. What is “shaping”? Chapter 7 1 Name the three stages of memory and give a brief definition of each. 13. Recognizing that a round, red fruit is an apple falls under what level of processing? 14. What part of deep processing creates a “spider web” of associations around one specific object? 15. Allen Paivio holds that memory can be stored in two possible ways. What are those two ways? 16. The theory that there are three separate memory storage systems are part of what theory? 17. Which of these three memory storage system lasts for the shortest amount of time? 18. Define “echoic” and “iconic” memory and explain which of the 3 memory systems they fall under. 19. What is the range of items the shortterm memory can hold? 20. What is the other name for shortterm memory? 21. Which part of the working memory integrates learned information with the long term memory? 22. Which part of the memory has the unlimited capacity to store information permanently? 23. Label and give a brief explanation of the subcategories of both explicit and implicit memory. 24. Classical conditioning falls which of the two previous categories? 25. Which part of the brain initially consolidates and encodes memories? 15. What sort of information is stored in the explicit memory? 16. What are the two subcategories of explicit memory, and what sort of information do they store? 17. What are the subcategories of implicit memory, and what sort of information do they store? 18. Which category does classical conditioning fall under, implicit or explicit, and why? 19. What is a schema? 20. Name the different parts of the brain that primarily function in explicit and implicit memory. 21. Define the serial position affect. 22. Explain the difference between recall and recognition. 23. Define the “reminiscence bump” and explain where if falls within the memory systems. 24. Define a flashbulb memory and give an example. 25. What is the difference between encoding faliure and retrieval failure in terms of memory? 26. Explain the difference between anterograde amnesia and retrograde amnesia. 27. Name one tip for encoding information. 28. Name one tip for retrieving information.
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