Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide
Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide PSYC 1010
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Payton Chance on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1010 at University of Oklahoma taught by Jenel Cavazos in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 100 views. For similar materials see Elements of Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
PSYCHOLOGY EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 5 1. What is Consciousness? 2. Taking notes and learning examples is an example of what type of consciousness? 3. Typing and walking is an example of what type of consciousness 4. Sleeping and dreaming is an example of what type of awareness? 5. Being knocked out, passed out, or in a coma is what type of awareness? 6. What is a circadian rhythm? 7. What does the suprachiasmic nuclear do? 8. What function has to do with safety and energy conservation? 9. As stages of sleep become deeper, brain waves take on a _________ wave pattern. 10. How many stages of sleep are there? 11. What are sleep spindles? 12. Why do babies spend more time in REM sleep 13. What are some signs of REM sleep? 14. What is the rebound effect? 15. What is the sleep disturbance that is the difficulty falling or staying asleep? a. sleep apnea b. REM sleep disorder c. Insomnia d. Night terrors 16. What is the sleep disturbance that is the difficulty breathing during sleep a. sleep apnea b. Insomnia c. Narcolepsy d. Night terrors 17. What is the sleep disturbance is the lack of paralysis during the REM phase of sleep a. Sleep walking b. Sleep apnea c. Narcolepsy d. REM sleep disorder 18. What is stage of sleep does sleep walking occur in? 19. What is cataplexy? 20. What was Freud’s unconscious wish fulfillment theory? 21. Is the “disguised” meaning of dreams latent content or manifest content? 22. is the story line of dreams latent content or manifest content? 23. What theory states that dreams are subconscious cognitive processing such as memory, information processing, and thinking? 24. What theory states that dreams are random electrical energy that stimulates random memories? 25. What are Psychoactive Drugs? 26. Drugs can be __________ dependent and ______________ dependent 27. What receptors do almost all drugs act on? 28. What part of the brain do drugs override? 29. What are depressants? 30 Is alcohol a depressant or stimulant? 31. What are barbiturates? 32. What do tranquilizers do? 33. What are opiates? 34. What are stimulants? 35. What do amphetamines do? 36. What is an amphetamine that blocks the repute of dopamine? 37. What are hallucinogens? 38. ___________ drug dependence occurs when the user develops a drug tolerance in conjunction with unpleasant withdrawal symptoms, whereas ___________ drug dependence occurs when the user has a craving or irresistible urge for the drug’s pleasurable effects. CHAPTER 6 39. What is learning? 40. What is behaviorism? 41. What type of learning is making a connection or association between two events? 42. What type of learning is learning that takes place through the observation and imitation of another’s behavior? 43.What is classical conditioning? 44. What scientist came up with bell experiment? 45. What stimulus is the stimulus that, before conditioning, does not bring about the response of interest? a. Neutral Stimulus b. Conditioned Stimulus c. Unconditioned Stimulus 46. What stimulus is a stimulus that brings about a response without having been learned a. Neutral Stimulus b. Conditioned Stimulus c. Unconditioned Stimulus 47. What is a natural, innate response that is not associated with previous learning? a. Conditioned Response b. Unconditioned Response 48. What is the stimulus that is a natural stimulus that has been paired with a unconditioned stimulus to bring about a response formerly caused only by the unconditioned stimulus? a. Neutral Stimulus b. Conditioned Stimulus c. Unconditioned Stimulus 49. What is the response after conditioning follows a previously neutral stimulus? a. Conditioned Response b. Unconditioned Response 50. Gavin recently went deepsea fishing with some friends. Unfortunately, Gavin was extremely seasick the entire time he was on the boat, and now when he sees boats, he feels queasy. In this situation, the conditioned stimulus is the: 51. Irinia's dog loves to go for walks, and she always puts a leash on him when they go out. The dog used to wag his tail as soon as they got outside, but now he wags his tail when she picks up the leash. In this case, what is the unconditioned stimulus? 52. What is Operant Conditioning? 53. What is Thorndike’s law of effect? 54. What did the skinner box do? 55. What increases the probability of a behavior occurring again? Reinforcement 56. Innately satisfying ( no learning needed) is what type of reinforcer? 57. Reinforcing because of its association with a primary reinforcer is what type of reinforcer? 58. What decreases the probability of a behavior occurring again? 59. Any stimulus that is added to the environment. Is this positive or negative? 60. Any stimulus that is removed from the environment. Is this positive or negative? 61. A stimulus added that increases the likelihood of a behavior. Is this positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement? 62. A stimulus removed that increases the likelihood of a behavior. Is this positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement? 63. What are schedules of reinforcement? 64. Reinforcing a behavior every time it occurs. Is this Continuous reinforcement or partial reinforcement? 65. Reinforcing a behavior some of the time that it occurs. Is this continuous reinforcement or partial reinforcement? 66. Reinforcement is given after a specific number of responses. What type of schedule is this? a. Fixed ratio schedule b. Fixed interval schedule c. Variable ratio schedule d. Variable interval schedule 67. Reinforcement occurs after a varying number of responses. What type of schedule is this? a. Fixed ratio schedule b. Fixed interval schedule c. Variable ratio schedule d. Variable interval schedule 68. Reinforcement is given after a certain period of time. What type of schedule is this? a. Fixed ratio schedule b. Fixed interval schedule c. Variable ratio schedule d. Variable interval schedule 69. Reinforcement is given after a certain average time. What type of schedule is this? a. Fixed ratio schedule b. Fixed interval schedule c. Variable ratio schedule d. Variable interval schedule 70. A company pays its employees on Wednesdays. The manager has noticed that more people call out sick on Thursdays than on any other day of the week. What schedule of reinforcement is being used in this example? CHAPTER 7 71. What is the levels of processing theory? 72. Physical and perceptual features are analyzed such as the lines, angles, and counter that make the physical appearance of an object. What type of processing is this? a. Elaboration b. Intermediate Processing c. Deep Processing d. Shallow Processing 73. Stimulus is recognized and labeled. What type of processing is this? a. Elaboration b. Intermediate Processing c. Deep Processing d. Shallow Processing 74. Semantic, meaningful, symbolic characteristics are used such as an association connected with a car brought to mind. What type of processing is this? a. Elaboration b. Intermediate Processing c. Deep Processing d. Elaboration 75. Difference connections that are made around a stimulus. What type of processing is this? a. Elaboration b. Intermediate Processing c. Deep Processing d. Elaboration 76. Charles has just learned about elaborative rehearsal as a way of improving memory. He wants to use this method in studying for an upcoming exam. Which of the following methods would fit the criteria for this kind of rehearsal? 77. A snapshot system that stores sensory information with high precision for every brief seconds. What storage system is this? a. Short Term Memory b. Sensory Memory c. Working Memory d. Long Term Memory 78. Information is given meaning and the information is held for 1525 seconds. What storage system is this? a. ShortTerm Memory b. Sensory Memory c. Working Memory d. LongTerm Memory 79. What is a chunk? 80. A mental scratchpad that allows us to hold information temporarily as we perform cognitive tasks. What storage system is this? a. ShortTerm Memory b. Sensory Memory c. Working Memory d. LongTerm Memory 81. What is a phonological loop? 82. What is visuospatial working memory? 83. What is the central executive? 84. Permanent memory storage system that has unlimited capacity for information. What storage system is this? a. ShortTerm Memory b. LongTerm Memory c. Working Memory d. Sensory Memory 85. Conscious memory for specific facts and information. Is this explicit memory or implicit? 86. Memory affected by previous experience without a conscious recollection of that experience. Is this explicit memory or implicit memory? 87. World knowledge is what type of explicit memory? 88. Biographical life experiences is what type of explicit memory? 89. Memory for skills such as driving a car is what type of implicit memory? 90. Activation of stored information such as suggestions is what type of implicit memory? 91. Tori remembers how to drive a car with a manual transmission, but when asked how she does it, she just says, "I don't know—it's automatic." This is an example of her _______. 92. What part of the brain consolidates memories and is the initial encoding of memories? 93. What part of the brain is the emotional component of the memory? ANSWER KEY: 1. Subjective understanding of the environment around us and our private internal world, unobservable to outsiders. 2. Controlled consciousness 3. Automatic consciousness 4. Subconsciousness Awareness 5. No Awareness 6. sleep/wake cycle and body temperature 7. Receives information about light from retina and distributes info to hypothalamus and reticular formation. 8. Adaptive Evolutionary Function 9. slower wave pattern 10. 5, 4 of them are non REM sleep and the last stage is REM 11. Spikes in the waves in stage 2 of sleeping 12. because their brains are developing a lot faster 13. Rapid Eye Movement, Increased and irregular heat rate, increase in blood pressure, increase in breathing rate, erections in males, usually accompanied by dreams, person’s body is typically “paralyzed” 14. spending more time in REM sleep after deprivation 15. Insomnia 16. sleep apnea 17. REM sleep disorder 18. stage 34 19. lose of muscle tone, weakness 20. dreams represent unconscious wishes and hold symbolic meaning 21. latent content 22. manifest content 23. Cognitive Theory 24. Activation Synthesis Theory 25. Drugs that influence a person’s emotions, perceptions, and behaviors 26. Physically depended and psychological dependent 27. dopamine receptors 28. Frontal lobe control 29. drugs that work by slowing dow the nervous system 30. depressant 31. common in older sleeping pills ex: Nembutol, seconal 32. reduces anxiety and increase senses of calm ex: xanax, valium 33. pain medication (narcotics) ex: Morphine, oxycodone, hydrocodone 34. drugs that affect the nervous system by causing a rise in blood pressure, heart rate, and muscular tension 35. stimulants used to boost energy, stay awake, or lose weight 36. cocaine 37. drugs that are capable of producing hallucinations 38. physical dependence, psychological dependence 39. A relatively permanent change in behavior that is brought about by experience 40. theory of learning that focuses exclusively on observable behaviors 41. Associative 42. Observational 43. A type of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to bring about a response after it is paired with a stimulus 44. Ivan Pavlov 45. A 46. C 47. B 48. B 49. A 50. Boat 51. going for a walk 52. Learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened depending on its favorable or unfavorable consequences 53. Responses that lead to more satisfying consequences are more likely to be repeated 54. Demonstrated that animals learn to obtain food by manipulation their environment within the box. 55. Reinforcement 56. Primary 57. Secondary 58. Punishment 59. positive 60. negative 61. positive reinforcement 62. negative reinforcement 63. difference patterns of frequency and timing of reinforcement following desired behavior 64. Continuous reinforcement 65. partial reinforcement 66. Fixed ratio schedule 67. Variable ratio schedule 68. Fixed interval schedule 69. Variable interval schedule 70. Fixed interval 71. the degree to which new material is mentally analyzed 72. D, Shallow Processing 73. B, Intermediate Processing 74. C, Deep Processing 75. A, Elaboration 76. coming up with as many related images, ideas, and examples as he could of the concepts he is trying to remember 77. B, Sensory Memory 78. A, Short Term Memory 79. meaningful grouping of stimuli that can be stored as a unit 80. C, Working Memory 81. speechbased information about language sounds 82. Visual and spatial information 83. integrates information and communicates with longterm memory 84. B, Longterm memory 85. Explicit 86. Implicit 87. Semantic 88. Episodic 89. Procedural 90. Priming 91. Implicit Memory 92. Hippocampus 93. Amygdala
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