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Saturday, March 5, 2016 8:35 AM Chem Exam 2
Equilibrium: Chemical ='m has a balance between E in bonds and its dispersion - Dispersion of Energy graph
○ X-axis: Extent of reaction
○ Y-axis: dispersion (increasing down axis)
- @ ='m there are measureable amounts of reactants and products Equilibrium Constant
- Kc/Kp : Concentration vs. partial pressures
- aA + bB ↔ cC + dD
- Qc/Qp : reaction Quotient --> where the reaction is currently, Determined same as Keq○ Qc > Kc --> Rxn goes left
○ Qc < Kc --> Rxn goes right
○ Qc = Kc --> Rxn is @ ='m
Heterogeneous ='m : Mixture of phases
- Only (g) and (aq) are included in Keq
∆G˚ = RT ln Keq
Keq >> 1
Keq = 1
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∆ "-" ∆ "+"
∆ = 0
- ∆G˚ expresse how far the ='m lies from the standard states (for ='m processes) ∆G˚=∑n ∆G˚ products - ∑n ∆G˚ reactants
∆G = ∆G˚ + RT ln Q When K = Q ∆G = -RT lnK + RT lnQ ∆G = 0 Stress
Le Chatelieut's Principle: When a rxn is subject to external stress the ='m will shift to minimize stressTypes of Stress
1. ∆ Products, ∆ Reactants (∆ Concentration)
↑ concentration of products rxn will go left
↑ Concentration of reactants rxn will go right
2. ∆ V, ∆ P
↑ V ='m shifts to maximizes # of moles of gas
↓ V ='m shits to minimize # of moles of gas
3. ∆ T
↑ T --> ∆ G "-" --> rxn goes right
↓ T --> ∆ G "+" --> rxn goes left
Manipulating ='m constant
Rxn Coefficients double
Rxn coefficients 1/2
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Acids and Bases
Econ Page 1
Acids and Bases
↑[H+] in H2O
↑[OH-] in H2O
Accepts pair e-
Donates pair e-
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Ka (Acid dissociation Constant) is large w/ strong acids Kb (base dissociation constant) is large w/ strong bases Kw= Ka * Kb
**Stronger the acid the weaker the base and vice versa** Conjugate acids and bases
Acid strength and Molecular Structure
An increase in Atomic Radius leads to longer bond length and the easier the acid will dissociate. Which means the stronger the acid. (also the BDE is lower the stronger the acid, less energy needed to break the bond) If you want to learn more check out What were the development during the second industrial revolution?
The highest change in Electronegativity creates the most polar bonds which are the strongest acids
3. The more negative the charge the weaker the acid 4. An increase in the oxidation state of the central atom increases the strength of the atom5. We also discuss several other topics like What does cocktail party effect entail?
More res structures means the "-" charge of the conjugate base becomes more stable and increases the dissociation of the acid
Amphoteric species: both bronsted acid and base
i.e. water Kw (Auto ionization constant of water) = 1*10^-14 Salt hydrolysis
Econ Page 2