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GWU / Chemistry / CHEM 1112 / How do you find the equilibrium constant?

How do you find the equilibrium constant? Description

Description: This is a summation of all of the notes for the second exam.
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Saturday, March 5, 2016 8:35 AM Chem Exam 2

How do you find the equilibrium constant?

Equilibrium: Chemical ='m has a balance between E in bonds and its dispersion - Dispersion of Energy graph

○ X-axis: Extent of reaction

○ Y-axis: dispersion (increasing down axis)

- @ ='m there are measureable amounts of reactants and products Equilibrium Constant

- Kc/Kp : Concentration vs. partial pressures

- aA + bB ↔ cC + dD

-

How do you determine the molecular structure?

- Qc/Qp : reaction Quotient --> where the reaction is currently, Determined same as Keq○ Qc > Kc --> Rxn goes left

○ Qc < Kc --> Rxn goes right

○ Qc = Kc --> Rxn is @ ='m

Heterogeneous ='m : Mixture of phases

- Only (g) and (aq) are included in Keq

Free Energy

∆G˚ = RT ln Keq

Keq >> 1

Keq<<1

Keq = 1

How does le chatelier's principle work?

We also discuss several other topics like Where did the rule of law first emerge?

∆ "-"  ∆ "+"

∆ = 0

- ∆G˚ expresse how far the ='m lies from the standard states (for ='m processes) ∆G˚=∑n ∆G˚ products - ∑n ∆G˚ reactants

∆G = ∆G˚ + RT ln Q When K = Q ∆G = -RT lnK + RT lnQ ∆G = 0 Stress

Le Chatelieut's Principle: When a rxn is subject to external stress the ='m will shift to minimize stressTypes of Stress

1. ∆ Products, ∆ Reactants (∆ Concentration)

↑ concentration of products rxn will go left

↑ Concentration of reactants rxn will go right

2. ∆ V, ∆ P

↑ V ='m shifts to maximizes # of moles of gas

↓ V ='m shits to minimize # of moles of gas

3. ∆ T

↑ T --> ∆ G "-" --> rxn goes right

↓ T --> ∆ G "+" --> rxn goes left

Manipulating ='m constant

Rxn inversed

c=1/kc

Rxn Coefficients double

c2

Rxn coefficients 1/2

√kc

If you want to learn more check out What are the distinct features of melon and squash?
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Acids and Bases

k

k

Econ Page 1

Acids and Bases

Acids

Bases

Bronsted-lowry

H+ donor

H+ acceptor

Arrheinus

↑[H+] in H2O

↑[OH-] in H2O

Lewis

Accepts pair e-

Donates pair e-

Don't forget about the age old question of Why did 23rd february 1917 come to be known as international women's day?

Ka (Acid dissociation Constant) is large w/ strong acids Kb (base dissociation constant) is large w/ strong bases Kw= Ka * Kb

**Stronger the acid the weaker the base and vice versa** Conjugate acids and bases

HNO3

NO3-

Acid

-

Conjugate base

Acid strength and Molecular Structure

1.

An increase in Atomic Radius leads to longer bond length and the easier the acid will dissociate.  Which means the stronger the acid. (also the BDE is lower the stronger the acid, less energy  needed to break the bond) If you want to learn more check out What were the development during the second industrial revolution?

2.

The highest change in Electronegativity creates the most polar bonds which are the strongest  acids

3. The more negative the charge the weaker the acid 4. An increase in the oxidation state of the central atom increases the strength of the atom5. We also discuss several other topics like What does cocktail party effect entail?

More res structures means the "-" charge of the conjugate base becomes more stable and  increases the dissociation of the acid

Amphoteric species: both bronsted acid and base

i.e. water Kw (Auto ionization constant of water) = 1*10^-14 Salt hydrolysis

NaCl

-->

Na+

+ Cl-

NaF

-->

Na+

+

F- -

Econ Page 2

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