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Chapter 1 Developmental Psych Notes

by: Alex Huh

Chapter 1 Developmental Psych Notes PSYC 2013

Alex Huh

GPA 3.0

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About this Document

Basically all of chapter 1 notes that I took for Prof. Sigelman's first exam (which included more than chapter 1 notes on other uploads)
Developmental Psychology
Professor Sigelman
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alex Huh on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 2013 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Professor Sigelman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.


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Date Created: 03/06/16
Chapter 1 Dev. Psych Notes Aging involves more than biological aging: it refers to PHYSICAL, COGNITIVE, and PSYCHOSOCIAL changes, positive and negative, in the mature organism. Development involves gains, losses, neutral change,s and continuities in each phase of the life span, growth and aging are part of it. PERIODS OF THE LIFE SPAN: 1) Prenatal period (conception to birth) 2) Infancy (first two years) 3) Preschool period (2-5) 4) Middle childhood (6-10) 5)Adolescence (10-18) 6) Emerging adulthood (18-25) 7) Early adulthood (25-40) 8) Middle adulthood (40-65) 9) Late adulthood (65+) Emerging adults explore their identities, lead unstable lives, are self-focused, feel in between adulthood and adolescence, and believe they have limitless possibilities ahead. Age grade: assigned different statuses, roles, privileges, and responsibilities. Social clock: person’s sense of when things should be done and when he or she is ahead of or behind the schedule dictated by age norms. *We must view development in its historical, cultural, and subcultural context* Review: nature-nurture issue. Goals driving study of life-span development: -describing -characterize the functioning of humans of different ages and trace how it changes with age. describe both normal development and individual differences in development. -predicting -seek to identify factors that predict development and establish that these factors actually cause humans to develop as they typically do or cause some individuals to develop differently than others -ex: relationship between whether or not an adolescent’s friends use drugs and whether or not the adolescent does allows for prediction of whether adolescent uses drugs. -explaining -^ -optimizing development Chapter 1 Dev. Psych Notes -how can humans be helped to develop in positive directions? how can capacities be enhanced? how can developmental difficulties be prevented? Evidence-based practice: grounding what you do in research and ensuring that the curricula and treatments provided have been demonstrated to be effective. Scholars began to observe growth and development of their own children and to publish their findings in the form of baby biographies. Darwin believed that infants share many characteristics with their nonhuman ancestors and that understanding the development of the embryo and child can offer insights into evolution of the species. G. Stanley Hall: said that adolescence is tempestuous period of life span full of emotional ups and downs and rapid changes, a time of what Hall called storm and stress. **Development is a lifelong process **Development is multidirectional **Development involves both gain and loss **Development is characterized by lifelong plasticity (capacity to change in response to experience, whether positive or negative) -Sidenote: neuroplasticity is the brain’s ability to change in response to experience throughout the life span **Development is shaped by its historical-cultural context **Development is multiply influenced **Development must be studied by multiple disciplines Agood theory should be: 1) INTERNALLY CONSISTENT 2) FALSIFIABLE 3) SUPPORTED BY DATA Data collection methods: -verbal reports -naturalistic observation -limitation: some behaviors occur too infrequently and unexpectedly to be studied through naturalistic observation. it is difficult to pinpoint causes of the behavior observed because in a natural setting many events are usually happening at the same time, any of which may affect behavior. presence of observer can also sometimes make people behave differently than they otherwise would. Chapter 1 Dev. Psych Notes -structured observation: create special stimuli, tasks, or situations designed to elicit the behavior of interest -case study: useful in studying people with rare conditions -experiment -independent variable: manipulated so causal effects can be assessed -dependent variable: behavior expected to be affected fMRI: brain-scanning technique that uses magnetic forces to measure increase in blood flow to an area of the brain that occurs when that brain area is active Physiological measurements hard to fake and useful in study of infants who cannot verbally tell us what they are thinking or feeling. Not always clear what they are assessing though. For example, physiological arousal can signal other emotions besides anger. Three features shared by any true experiment: 1) RANDOMASSIGNMENT (ensures that treatment groups are similar in all aspects at the outset) 2) MANIPULATION OF INDEPENDENT VARIABLE (different groups must have different experiences so effects can be assessed) 3) EXPERIMENTAL CONTROL (all factors other than independent variable controlled/held constant so they can’t contribute to differences among treatment groups) Best strength of experimental method: ability to establish unambiguously that one thing causes another- that manipulating the independent variable causes a change in the dependent variable. Limitations: because often conducted in lab settings or under unusual conditions, results may not always hold true in real world. Often cannot be used for ethical reasons too. Correlational method: determining whether two or more variables are related in a systematic way. No random assignment. No manipulation of independent variable. Researchers take people as they are and attempt to determine whether there are relationships among their experiences, characteristics, and developmental outcomes. Limitation: cannot unambiguously establish a causal relationship between one variable and another the way an experiment can. Only SUGGEST that a causal relationship exists. Most important questions about human development can only be addressed through this method because it would be unethical to manipulate people’s experiences in experiments.Allow researchers to learn about how multiple factors operating in the “real world” may combine to influence development. Directionality problem: direction of cause-effect relationship could be reverse of what researcher thinks it is. Chapter 1 Dev. Psych Notes Third variable problem: association between the two variables of interest could be caused by some third variable. Meta-analysis: results of multiple studies addressing same question can be synthesized to produce overall conclusions through this Cross-sectional design: performances of people of different age groups/cohorts compared. Limitation: because each individual is observed only at one point, researchers learn nothing about how people change with age. Advantage: quick and easy, can yield valid conclusions about age effects if the cohorts studied are likely to have had similar growing up experiences. Longitudinal design: one cohort of individuals is assessed repeatedly over time. Can indicate whether the characteristics and behaviors measured remain consistent over time Costly, time-consuming Because knowledge is constantly changing, measurement methods that seemed good at the start of the study may seem dated or incomplete by the end. Participants drop out. Effects of repeated testing. Sequential design: combines cross-sectional approach, longitudinal approach Can tell researchers which age-related trends are truly developmental in nature and reflect how most people, regardless of cohort, can be expected to change over time. Can tell them which age trends differ from cohort to cohort and suggest that each generation is affected by its distinct growing-up experiences Can tell them which trends suggest that events during a specific period of history affects all cohorts alive at the time Cohort: group of individuals born at same time, either in same year or within a specified span of years Age effects: relationship between age and particular aspect of development. Cohort effects: effects of being born as a member of a particular cohort or generation in a particular historical context. Presence of this affects cross-sectional research whenever the growing-up experiences of the cohorts studied differ. Time of measurement effects: effects of historical trends and events occurring when the data is collected. Rights of research participants: Chapter 1 Dev. Psych Notes 1) Informed consent 2) Debriefing 3) Protection from harm 4) Confidentiality


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