Social Work 3201: Study Guide
Social Work 3201: Study Guide Social Work 3201
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by MadsSwart on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Social Work 3201 at Ohio State University taught by Danielle Smith in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 132 views. For similar materials see Social & Economic Justice in Social Work at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
Social and Economic Justice Review INRTO TO SOCIAL POLICY ANALYSIS AND ADVOCACY What is social Policy? - designed to prevent and address social problems Social problems: issues that affect the wellbeing of members of society - educational policy, economic forecast, healthcare, housing, banking, farming legislation etc. - Policy impacts the very fundamental experiences of our lives and the lives of our clients. SNAP program: Address social problem of malnutrition - 1933: Agricultural Adjustment Act: Great Depression Support farmers when crop prices fell - 19391943: Food Stamp Plan: President FDR’s New Deal - 1961: Reintroduced by president JFK - 2008: Renamed SNAP as part of 2008 Farm Bill (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program) Social Policy Examples - Public education, minimum wage and housing regulations, Medicare and Medicaid, Tax codes Types of Social Policy: Social Policy divided into 3 categories: Formal, Informal, & Actualized Formal policy - rules, regulations and budgets that address the problem - laws our gov makes related to social problems and the financial resources dedicated to them - budgeting drives policy. Policy is useless if not funded. - Budget cuts undermine policy progress: cuts in food stamps, education and pension funds and the impact those cuts may have on our nation’s problems. Informal policy: way policy interpreted; individuals’ views hold great power in policy implementation. actualized policy - impacted by personal orientations and actions. - Laws provide the formal policy. - policy administrators set the policy implementation plans and guidelines. - policy is passed on to the individuals who actually carry out the policy. - Individuals choose all the time to obey or disobey a policy. - individuals in our country who refuse to pay taxes as an act of protest. - some who violate drug laws or “creatively interpret” banking regulations. - Social workers may at times bend policies for their clients. Policy Practice and Policy Advocacy - efforts to change policy through legislative revisions, in community, in agencies and in courts. - answer may be to establish new policies, challenge new policy initiatives, battle outdated policies or improve existing policy through revision. - policy practice seeks to maintain a policy that is currently working well. - policy practice that aims to help groups that are vulnerable and typically lack adequate power. - to advocate effectively for change: o understand the problem and the existing policies fully o tendency to prematurely jump to advocacy without all the factscreate unnecessary confusion and lead to wasted efforts - Problems can be complex and require indepth analysis. o What does research say? o Is there a current policy that addresses this problem? o Is the existing policy effective and efficient? o What new policies or policy changes might best address this problem? Diversity and Advocacy - ethnic and racial groups historically discriminated against experience discrimination today - divide vulnerable populations into several categories. o Sociological groups include groups of women, older adults, people with disabilities. o Economic groups include individuals in the lower income brackets that tend to have less power in our economic system. o Dependent groups like children who can’t vote, hold down jobs, etc. o Unconventional or “Nonconformist” groups include those who are not perceived as part of the conventional norm of society. o Model groups are those groups that tend to find success at a higher rate in our society for one reason or another but are often also singled out and discriminated against. Asian Americans may be an example of this group. Social Workers and Policy: Policy influences clients’ lives and work we can do with clients each day. Social vs. Economic Justice Social justice = equality - all members of society have same rights, protections, opportunities, obligations & social benefits - same opportunities to safe neighborhoods, go to good schools & treated equally in justice system Economic justice = equity - should be an equitable standard of living - work 40 hours per week should earn enough to support themselves (and their family) and not live below the poverty line. This is the difference between a minimum wage and a “living wage.” - Work required hours to be fulltime employee, get paid to sustain reasonable standard of living Social workers work to ensure that our society becomes both more socially and economically just. Values and Ethics 6 core social work values. o Service o Importance of human relationships o Social justice o Integrity o Dignity and worth of the person o Competence - Policy and Practice - to change things at an individual level, we must change things on policy level - Policy impacts practice & the clients and causes we serve - When treatment limited to a number of sessions, may be times when you want to advocate for your client to extend those limits - need to stand up and advocate for the people we serve - obligated to look into this issue in greater depth and create change where you can - Challenges when advocating for change: o Competition There are lots of other groups and professions lobbying on a daily basis. It can be a challenge to make your voice heard. o Opposing ideologies and views Opposing groups will have different ideas than social workers will about what policy is needed. Even within the social work profession, there can be disagreement about the best course of action. o Funding Some groups simply have greater access to resources than social workers generally do. Consider groups like the pharmaceutical lobby or banking associations that have access to large pools of money available to them. o Resources In addition to funding resources, vulnerable populations have limited access to the additional resources necessary to create solid arguments that are well researched. - Becoming a Policy Advocate: skills you will want to possess including vision - develop a vision for the future and consider what could be - creativity and research are both needed to generate new policy and policy changes - Seek opportunities to learn more about the issues and use the skills you will develop - Understand our legislative system and learn to analyze existing policy - develop some political savvy so that you can successfully navigate the system. - WHY SOCIAL WORKERS SHOULD CARE ABOUT POLICY - - Rationales for Policy Advocacy - policy has a direct impact on practice - policies often dictate the way that we serve our clients - social workers have a moral responsibility to address injustice and policies are often the cause - large scale change is only capable when we work to change these policies and conditions - ethical rationale, analytical rationale, political rationale, and electoral rationale - The Ethical Rationale - ‘Does this intervention or policy enhance a person’s wellbeing?’ - social work moral imperative to enhance the client's wellbeing - Beneficence ethical value or principle behind this. It can be defined as the drive to do good for others. Different types of practices and policyrelated services fall under this. - Policysensitive practice take into account our client’s economic and social realities. - Policyrelated services using our brokerage, liaison and advocacy skills on behalf of clients o teach our clients theses skills; to confront barriers and find resources on their own o empowers clients with these skills - Social justice, addressing inequalities that exist in society, important to consider o ethical rationales: social workers to address policies that contribute to inequality autonomy; right for individuals to make decisions regarding their own lives. right to selfdetermination - Equality: right to receive the same services and resources as others - Equity: distribution of services and resources is fair, just and impartial o different rationale and they can be at odds with each other - examples of inequality o education system in US – some groups get more services than others o Some pay more school taxes that others - The Analytical Rationale - ‘Is intervention/policy supported by research?’ - emphasizes research and evidencebased practice and policy - challenge: have to be careful how we select and interpret the vast amount of data that exists - Research: Misleading, erroneous, overly simplified - The Political Rationale ‘Whose agenda is the intervention or policy advancing?’ - The Electoral Rationale - ‘Who are the elected officials and what measures do they support?’ - work to elect and lobby legislatures on behalf of our clients and to advance social justice issues - often see the process of politics as corrupt - Alternative Rationale - Utilitarianism uses empirical data and cost benefit analysis to determine best course of action o closely related to the analytical approach. - Relativism interests of individuals and groups are the primary rationale of decision making o if the issue affects my clients, then I will engage in the political process. - Eclectic strengths of each of the rationales that we have discussed so far to understand societal challenges and to respond with responsible social policies and programs o difficult to operate effectively as an advocate if positioned solely in one reasoning - - Interlocking Rationales - The different rationales for social policy (Values, Elections, Analysis, Politics) - incorporate all four to understand how and why we must engage in social policy advocacy - Point to Ponder: moral responsibility as social workers in our professional and private lives? - OPPRESSIOIN AND SOCIAL INJUSTICE - Oppression - systematic discrimination or mistreatment against a specific group of people - majority rules in most cases o many groups within our society are left out without much, if any, representation o checks and balances within political system to ensure oppression doesn’t take place oppression still exists despite our efforts to protect the people. - racism, ageism, and classism o generalize and stereotype about a group on physical, behavioral, intellectual or traits o limiting individuals by locking them into isolating, generic roles - Structural Discrimination - that favor one group over another based on group characteristics like skin color, gender, etc. - prevents individuals in minority from obtaining benefits and opportunities majority experiences. - find evidence of structural discrimination in many spheres. - barriers that keep assets, opportunities and access from oppressed groups. - Birth of Civil Rights - oppression and discrimination came the birth of civil rights - civil rights: legal protections that prevent arbitrary abuse by the state, or other individuals - Martin Luther King, Jr. - Ohio made cuts in 2014 to early voting which may impact many Ohio citizens. - fair treatment in employment and adequate education. - Disenfranchised Groups - unemployment rates by race o 1990: African Americans (11%) Whites (4.5%) Latinos (7.5%) o 2014: African Americans (11.5%) Whites (5%) Latinos (8%) Asian Americans (4.5%) - Native Americans - issues of tribal sovereignty, rights outside of the constitution, disparities in wellbeing & poverty - Supreme Court ruled that tribes should be considered dependent upon the government o 2000 tribes could not tax nonIndian businesses on their reservations and that tribal courts hold no jurisdiction over nonIndians for harm done to their land - burden that increases likelihood of financial hardship, poverty, reduce quality of life - Child Poverty - 32% of white children live in lowincome families - 66% of black children, 64% of Hispanic children, and 64% of Native American children live in lowincome families - lack in income can impact family’s ability to provide clothing, housing and food for their children - limit child’s ability to learn, exacerbate health issues and contribute to problems. - LGBT - experience ongoing issues of discrimination in employment, barriers to same sex marriage, youth discrimination, violence and hate crimes, and lack legal rights for partners - yes shifts in gay marriage laws, still many ways in which population experiences discrimination - Human Rights Campaign works to fight discrimination and promote equal rights for LGBT - People with Disabilities & Older Adults - Disabilities include: physical, intellectual, and mental health disabilities - disability can be visual, hearing, cognitive, ambulatory, related to selfcare or independent living - by ages 65 – 74 the rate of disability jumps to 25% and at age 75+ the rate is 50% - aging of Baby Boomers lead to an increase in older adults and those with disabilities - Affirmative Action - 1961: reducing discrimination in areas such as housing, education and employment - Supreme Court issued a ruling in 2014 on this policy on Affirmative Action which was to uphold Michigan State's banning racial preferences in on college campuses. - POLICY ANALYSIS BREAKDOWN - - Policy Analysis - process of dissecting and evaluating the essential components of policy - analytic framework o intellectual lens through which we can distill the essential elements of policy - - Elements of an Analytic Framework Dimensions of Choice o choices that programs and policies make to determine who they serve, what they provide, how they deliver these provisions, and how they finance provisions. o What are the eligibility criteria? How is it decided who’s eligible and who’s not? o What are the types of provisions or benefits to be allocated? form and size of benefit o What are we providing to people? o What are the strategies for the delivery of these provisions or benefits? o What’s the vehicle? This is the how of service delivery. o What are the ways we finance these provisions? [funding] - - Choices Regarding Social Allocation - who gets the social provision - Eligibility criteria are choices and characteristics and involve choices and characteristics upon which social provisions are made available to particular individuals and groups - determine who is eligible and who qualifies for a program based on what the policy states - consider how we delineate between need and want who really needs something o commonly done through means testing or income - - Choices Regarding Delivery and Finance - Types of social provisions received by beneficiaries: cash or inkind benefits. - Inkind benefits o goods, services, vouchers, power, or opportunity o determine which type of benefit best addresses the problem or situation o Do we give cash to someone with a heroin addiction? o providing an inkind service, such as treatment, might be a better option o - considerations in determining how we deliver the social provisions - 1. level of delivery o local, state, or federal level program? Is structure of agency notfor profit or for profit? o Is the mode of delivered direct or indirect? determine the most effective delivery system. local problem: make sense for the program to be run by the federal government? outreach program: make sense to have a central office or satellite offices? 2. Funding o how are we going to pay for this? without adequate funding, policies fail o consider the source of funds and the fashion with which funds flow funded publicly or privately, or both? o What is the level of government involvement? What types of taxes are levied? o Are we going to charge fees for our services? o advocacy through lobbying and organizing. How successful has lobbying for similar policy been in past? Ex: social welfare problems, such as homelessness, are not popular problems. - 3 Core Values of Social Welfare - consider when programs are being setup and policies are being developed o Equality, Equity, Adequacy - Equality o Numerical Equality: everyone gets the same amount Example: we all get the same amount of family medical leave OR sales tax o Proportional Equality: merit or what is needed Example: deduction for dependent children on our federal income taxes Social Security retirement: The more you pay in, the more you take out. - Equity o conventional sense of fair treatment o if you do half the work, you deserve half the reward - Adequacy o providing a decent standard of physical, emotional and spiritual wellbeing o stands apart from whether the benefit allocation is equal or distributed based on merit o how do we determine what is adequate? o Example: the poverty line - - Other important values/concerns: - cost effectiveness vs. social effectiveness o Cost effectiveness: concept of making sure we’re getting the most out of our money - Choice, voice, and autonomy o Do recipients or beneficiaries of programs have choice in programs they receive? o Do they have a voice in terms of the types of programs they are involved with? o Do communities have autonomy and control over the types of social welfare policies and programs that exist in the community? - - Social Class in America - point to ponder: o It looks like a person just needs to “roll up her/his sleeves” and “pull up her/his bootstraps” to make it in this world. True? What factors might impede vertical mobility between social classes? - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - WHO SHALL BENEFIT? - Social Allocations and Eligibility - rules and requirements that determine who will receive benefits - referring to eligibility - two schools on this issue; they are universalism and selectivity. - Universalism o made available to an entire population as a basic right o programs are designed so that people can maintain social cohesiveness o don’t demean those who receive this benefit; there is no associated stigma public school system - selective benefits o made available on the basis of individual need and are not universally available o more limited approach to social policy is supported here o specific populations in need are identified and targeted o Means testing is usually the way this selection occurs Medicare, federal student AID, Tanf Qualify based on need or income - Determining Who Shall Benefit - - Means Testing - eligibility determined upon evidence on individual’s inability to purchase goods or services - achieved by a review of the individual’s income and assets - goal is to determine if the individual has the means to do without the assistance - The Poverty Line - developed in early 1960s o based on two parent family with a mother that stays at home with the children - current reality is that in twothirds of two parent families, both parents work outside the home o costs associated with transportation, daycare, costofliving variations in different communities, taxes and all of these issues were not taken into consideration when the poverty line was developed - Eligibility Other Considerations - Attributed Need - provisional; on membership in group with common needs not currently met by existing programs. - Need: according to normative standards - Compensation - special compensation offered to those who have made economic or social contributions to society - extended to those who suffered unfair harm by our culture o Affirmative Action programs target minority groups designed to address past societal harms and current harms by expanding access to jobs and higher education. In this way, women and underrepresented groups can achieve greater success. - Diagnostic Differentiation - eligibility is primarily determined by professional judgment - You can’t simply claim eligibility professional must determine eligibility. - Interesting Ideas - The Children’s Allowance: example of a policy that incorporates both universalism and selectivity - Earned Income Tax Credit - negative tax given through the tax code providing income subsidy to lowincome families - To be eligible: must have worked and earned some small amount of income - Benefits:rewards people who work As income rises, benefits are reduced. People who don’t work will not benefit. no negative impact on employers very creative and effective way to redistribute income to poor people shifts income to poor people – more than other program that currently exists - Issues in Social Welfare - Incentives and Disincentives - social welfare benefits provide an incentive for the circumstances that they intend to eliminate o Unemployment insurance: makes it easier to stay unemployed o Homeless shelters: make it easier to stay homeless o AFDC, before it was revised into TANF higher welfare payments discouraged people from seeking employment TANF created to address issue and compel people to return to employment benefits we provide to people can lead people to stay in the same circumstances - Welfare benefits can make it easier to remain poor o This does not mean that we should withhold assistance but rather that we should seek creative incentives and solutions to this problem. - Stigma and Disharmony - particularly selective programs, create stigma for the groups receiving benefits - Means testing: divides society intro groups of givers and receivers o can create a great deal of disharmony and class warfare o individuals who live just below/above the poverty line experience this o typically broken down along racial lines, particularly in southern community o Universal programs avoid stigma everyone receives the benefitscreates potential for greater harmony - Social & Cost Effectiveness - suggestion that social welfare programs lead to an increase in childbirths - countries with the most generous family support programs also have shrinking birth rates - social welfare programs support family stability o these programs can relieve some financial burdens o Financial issues are leading cause of divorce decreasing financial concerns perhaps divorce and be avoided Some disagree and argue welfare benefits encourage births outside of marriage - The Myth of a Welfare Queen - 1980s: President Reagan o Chicago welfare queen had multiple false identities and had taken $150,000 from gov o woman was actually convicted of having 2 aliases to collect $8,000. o despite the exaggeration of this story, the myth persists. - The Gap Between Eligibility & Access - individuals are not aware of available benefits - not know they could qualify for food stamps, scholarships, assistance unnecessary hardship - Some people are unable to access their benefits. o Person with mental illness can’t complete the necessary paperwork to receive assistance. Can you imagine completing the Benefits.gov information if you were hearing voices or severely depressed - Some programs only want to work with the “best” clients and not address the real needs - Generational Equity - fairness in the allocations of benefits across the age groups of society o society skewed to spend money on specific ages while lessening needs of other ages? o resources are limited giving as much to the elderly as we do to the children? o giving as much to old women with health issues as young women heading for college? o voting politics play a role - TYPES OF BENEFITS - - Types of Benefits - - Cash Benefits - Pros Include o Cash provides maximum choice for beneficiaries o easy to use and convenient o promotes consumer sovereignty, freedom of choice, and selfdetermination o saves money on administration costs o reduces stigmatization of the person using it o requires sound decision making from recipients: would you give a drug addict cash? - Cons Include o checks historically mailed out on the first of the month: o Deaths from substance abuse were 14% higher for recipients on first week of month. o Homicides 6% higher, suicides 5% higher, car accidents 3% higher during this time. o Mail carriers were also robbed more frequently when delivering benefit checks. - - InKind Benefits - Types of inkind benefits can include: o Goods – concrete commodities like food o Services – activities performed on a client’s behalf o Opportunities – incentives or sanctions o Vouchers & Tax Credits – benefits that have a structured value like a school voucher o Power – the redistribution of influence or control, for example affirmative action - argued to be accurate and on target - provide greater social control and oversight - reduce the chances of bad judgment by the recipient - better vehicle to advance social policies. - - School Vouchers - allowing families whose children’s schools are underperforming to go to a private school - pros include: o promote choice and equal opportunity o increase competition between schools o force public schools to raise their standards o increase diversity in private schools - cons include: o violates separation of church and state [many private schools run by religious orgs] o take funds away from public school system o create “brain drain” high performing children that utilize the vouchers affect discrimination in the acceptance process. - Academic benefit to AfricanAmerican students o does not seem to be a benefit to other racial groups o students that stay in underperforming schools impacted by smarter students leaving? o Controversial need for more research to fully understand the effects. - - TANF - TANF (Temporary Assistance to Needy Families) provides families with cash assistance and other inkind benefits such as childcare and employment assistance. - cycle of how public assistance has been structured in this country over the last several decades - 1960s: offered mostly services - 1970s &1980s: primarily cash was offered - current trend involves offering less and less cash and focuses on more structured benefits. - - Social Provisions & Policy Values Views - - The Resource of Deficiency View - The lack of resources [healthcare, education employment or housing] characteristic of poverty - to get you must first have - Social provisions provide resources to change living circumstances o providing schools, housing, daycare, employment training - tend to blame the environment, not the person. - - The Individual Deficiency View - builds on the Social Darwinist view that poverty is the result of personal defects and deficits - The Cultural of Poverty view fits under this heading o holds that certain elements in a culture keep people in poverty - address poverty we must change the people and the culture - Benefits stemming from this: o counseling, training, education, punitive programs punishing behaviors - argued to drive the current trend away from cash benefits that we discussed above. - - The Institutional Deficiency View - explains poverty as a result of dysfunctional social welfare programs - The environment and the person are not to blame; the programs and the policies are the problem - programs are viewed as ineffective in addressing poverty & work to keep people in poverty o example: people see unemployment insurance as ineffective since it doesn’t address the root cause of unemployment such as the availability of jobs and lack of training. - Some say swung away from resource deficiency view entrenched in individual deficiency view - - Waiting for "Superman" - Documentary: "Waiting for Superman" discusses American school system o once wanted "no child left behind" –and unfortunately seems to do so o weaknesses in system explores innovative approaches that have helped children succeed - - - - - - - - - - - DESIGN OF THE DELIVERY SYSTEM - - The Delivery System - services are delivered by agencies - variation in how services are delivered; agencies have own policies, procedures, and resources - food banks o over ten regional food banks across our state o While these agencies are all dedicated to feeding the hungry, all provide own services. - Here are some specialized programs that Ohio food pantries offer. Notice the variety of options. o The Foodbank, Inc. in Dayton offers over 100 member programs across that area. o The West Ohio Food Bank offers a mobile food pantry and serves 170 food pantries. o The Freestore Foodbank offers many additional programs like the Kids Café for hungry children after school. o The MidOhio Foodbank offers an onsite community garden. o The Southeastern Ohio Foodbank houses a central kitchen that provides meals for seniors, children and the local Meals on Wheels program. - - Delivery Service Designs - variety of delivery service designs o delivery system: organizational arrangements that exist among services providers and between service providers and consumers [vehicle by which services are delivered] o Policy makers and providers decide how to deliver services to people in need. - Different options for basic delivery of services: - Centralization vs Decentralization - Professional vs nonprofessional employees - Combines Services vs. Single Services - Public Administration vs. Private Contractors - Coordinated vs. Uncoordinated Efforts - Forprofit vs. notforprofit - Centralization vs Decentralization - Centralized programs o administered in a centralized group or location o centralized office in one place o advantage: decreases duplications in work o disadvantage: create general policies that do not reflect the needs of local problems and issues. o In one office, may be difficult to create policy that meets needs of other areas. Difficult to create policies that meet needs of wide groups of individuals - Decentralized administration o administered by separate groups in separate locations o The public school system offers one example o flexible enough to meet the needs of smaller communities o less efficient and expensive as work may be duplicated in each community. - Combined Services vs. Single Services - combined services - serices grouped together within one agency - advantage is that a single organization can provide older adults with multiple benefits related to their needs - disadvantage is that by offering lots of services, combined service agencies cannot specialize in one particular area. - - Single services - agencies only provide one service for the community - advantage is that it provides a very specialized service which allows an agency to become really good at that particular service - disadvantage is that isn’t very userfriendly. Consumers must go to multiple agencies to receive the services they need. - - Coordinated services vs. uncoordinated services - Coordinated services - agencies and programs that work together to address problems - work together to meet the needs of the community - Temporary Assistance for Needy Families or TANF :works with agencies to address poverty - advantage is that by drawing in multiple agencies to address one issue, you can address complex problems like poverty, housing, unemployment, and education - disadvantage is that it can become complicated to coordinate agencies to work well together. - Uncoordinated services - agencies and services that do not coordinate or cooperate very effectively - example might be our healthcare system - access multiple organizations to take good care of their bodies and these organizations often don’t communicate well - advantage of this is method is that it is rather easy to work independently and not consider other organizations within your own practice - disadvantage is that it is makes it much harder to address complex problems - - Professional employees vs. nonprofessional employees - professional agency - program is staffed only by professionally trained workers - mental health clinic where counseling and supportive services are provided by counselors, social workers and psychologists - advantage is that you have a pool of welltrained, licensed workers - can lead to higher payroll costs - possible that professionals are somewhat removed from their clients’ daily experiences. - nonprofessional employees - operate with people who don’t have formal degrees or licenses but instead rely on volunteers and other nonprofessionals - pantry where volunteers and former clients might offer the key services of the organization - advantages of this would that payroll costs would be kept low and workers can relate better to their clients’ experiences - staff may not be welltrained and this could lead to some liability issues. - - Public Administrator vs. Private Contractor - public administrationprograms that are run by the government - advantages are accountability and a dedication to the public good over profit - receives funding and oversight from the government - often lead to bureaucracy and limited competition - Private contractors offer programs that are run by the private sector rather than the government - Ex: a private treatment center - advantages of this style would be efficiency and competitive - organizations must work efficiently to maintain profits and stay in business. - - - ForProfit vs. NonProfit - Forprofit organizations: make money for their shareholders - nonprofit agencies: not obligated to shareholders or profit driven and tend to have greater public accountability due to their governance - - Recent Trends - Trends in the delivery system. The two most significant trends to mention are privatization verses commercialization as well as faithbased services. Let's look at these trends in more detail. - - Privatization vs. commercialization - Privatization o Rising public funds are used to pay for services delivered by private agencies o democratize social services by putting services back in the hands of the people; the people decide how to organize and serve rather than our government o cost is that efficiency can decrease - private agencies include both forprofit and nonprofit groups - in line with our free market ideals and empowerment through participation - Competition and choice are rare in the social services market - - Faithbased services - Social services delivered by religiouslyaffiliated groups and institutions - important to recognize that faithbased are the largest component of the volunteer sector o organizations are eligible for public funding as long as they don’t evangelize or discriminate in any way against nonbelievers - - Additional Factors that impact services - Citizen Participation: How can citizens participate in creating change in this system? - Fragmentation - bigger problems in our society handled through a fragmented system - takes valuable time and transportation resources - not efficient for our clients or our culture at large - want to decrease fragmentation to put client’s need above the rest - Social Service Rationing - have only limited resources to meet social needs of many, many individuals - agency budgets shrinking naturally leads to rationing - Cultural Competence - large gap that exists between white and minority service delivery outcomes. - increase our cultural competence as social workers. - - - - - - - - - SOURCES OF FUNDING - Funding - affects every level of social services, from frontline workers to administrators. - needed to sustain programs and it provides us with jobs! - Types of Funding 1. Taxation Public levies on citizens and businesses. Examples include income tax and sales tax. 2. Voluntary Giving This includes charity and philanthropy. Expamples include donations to the United Way. 3. Fees for Services Charges for goods and services. - Taxation: most common source of funding for social welfare programs - Income Taxes | Sales Taxes | Payroll Taxes | Property Taxes | Estate Taxes - Progressive vs. Regressive Taxes - Progressive taxes are proportionately higher for the wealthy. o personal income taxes o wealthy people pay a higher percentage of their income - Regressive taxes take a larger proportion of income for the poor. o flat taxincome tax that takes 10% of a person’s income would more negatively affect a poor person - Earmarks in Taxation designating tax revenues for specific purposes or programs. - pros and cons to earmarks o pros people can see where there money is going o cons program support is tentative and it undermines flexibility in spending - Taxation and Behavior Taxes affect economic behavior like spending, saving, and investment - If sales tax is high, spending may decrease. - 401Ks save for retirement without paying taxes upfront. avoid taking money out of their 401Ks early because of the high taxes they would pay: wait until a certain age to retire because of taxes. - Children are a tax deduction; this potentially can affect our family planning decisions. Many people wouldn’t donate to charities if they didn’t receive a tax deduction. - Sin Tax Taxes on alcohol and tobacco - major source of revenue for local, state and federal government for many years - seen as a way to reduce the consumption of these substances - Who really pays the sin tax on smoking? smoking is more prevalent among lower income adults. Therefore the sin tax would affect them more. - Voluntary Giving – private donations aren’t taxed o Charity giving to the poor. Donation to homeless shelter. o Philanthropy – give to wide range of activities. donation to Ohio State. - Voluntary giving encourages pluralism in community services [allows minority positions and projects to receive fundings outside of taxation] o important vehicle for implementing novel and possibly unpopular ideas. - Fees for Services: Fees for services is our third major source of funding for social welfare programs - Charging fees - People tend to value things more if they pay for them, even a nominal sum - The Mixed Economy of Welfare - Agencies and programs funded by private and public fundslook at human service nonprofits. - fatal embracerequirements, stipulations or “strings attached” that come with gov funding. - not free to spend your money any way you want. - 70s and 80s link funding with raising drinking age states need funding, so raised drinking age - Accountability and Oversight - Accountability held to a certain fiduciary standard. - Oversightmechanisms in place to ensure proper financial accountability. - INTRO TO POLICY ADVOCACY - Advocacy - four dimensions of advocacy: - speaking on behalf of and representing others - accessing rights and benefits and empowering clients - securing social justice - taking action and promoting change - domestic violence - patterns of abusive behavior used to gain or maintain power and control over an intimate partner. o Intimate partners may be married or not married; heterosexual, gay, lesbian, or transgender; living together, separated or dating. - isolation, jealousy, threats or namecalling and may include emotional, sexual or verbal abuse. It can progress to physical violence: more complicated than a simple, isolated punch - Abusers - abusers use patterns of behavior that are designed to control and intimidate other people - use tactics such as threatening, isolating, minimizing and blaming, economic abuse and others to control their partners - system of power and control: difficult for victims to break free from this oppression need advocates to help break this vicious cycle of violence and provide much needed support and activism to create change.
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