Chapter 2 Dev. Psych Notes
Chapter 2 Dev. Psych Notes PSYC 2013
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Date Created: 03/06/16
Chapter 2 Dev. Psych Notes Activity-passivity issue: focuses on extent to which human beings are active in creating and influencing their own environment and, in the process, in producing their own development, or are passively shaped by forces beyond their control. Continuity-discontinuity issue: focuses on whether changes people undergo over life span are gradual or abrupt Also concerns whether changes are quantitative or qualitative in nature Universality-context-specificity issue: extent to which developmental changes are common to all humans Sigmund Freud: psychoanalytic theory (focuses on development and dynamics of personality; challenges prevailing notions of human nature and human development. proposes that people are driven by motives and emotional conflicts of which they are largely unaware and that they are shaped by their earliest experiences in the family) Freud viewed newborn as inherently selfish, aggressive, driven by instincts. Freud believed in unconscious motivation. Id: impulsive, irrational, and selfish part of the personality whose mission is to satisfy the instincts. Seeks immediate gratification. Ego: rational side of individual that tries to find realistic ways to gratify instincts. Emerges during infancy and takes form of cognitive processes like perception, learning, problem solving. Superego: internalized moral standards. Develops from ego as 3-6 year old children internalize the moral standards and values of their parents. Conflict among these three is inevitable. Psychological problems arise if there is an imbalance among them. Freud said that as child matures biologically, psychic energy of sex instinct, called libido, shifts from one part of the body to another, seeking to gratify different biological needs. Leads to going through five PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES: oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital. Oral: mouth as source of sexual pleasure. anxiety experienced if denied oral gratification (fixation; libido remains tied to earlier stage of development) Anal: cope with new demands when toilet training begins. Phallic: 3-6 years old. develop incestuous desire for parent of the other sex and must defend against it. boys: Oedipus complex; loves mother, fears father will retaliate by castrating him, resolves this conflict through identification with his father. involves taking or internalizing the attitudes and behaviors of another person. possesses mother vicariously through his father, who, through, identification, is now an admired and less fear-provoking figure. girl experiences Electra complex. Chapter 2 Dev. Psych Notes Latency: sexual urges are tame and 6-12 year olds invest psychic energy in schoolwork and play. Genital: adolescents have trouble accepting new sexuality, may reexperience conflicting feelings towards parents they felt during phallic stage, may distance themselves from them as a result. *Freud believed that psychosexual development stops with adolescence and that individual remains in genital stage throughout adulthood. Ego can develop defense mechanisms like repression, regression. Erik Erikson: placed less emphasis on sexual urges as drivers of development and more emphasis on social influences. Places less emphasis on unconscious, irrational, selfish id and more on rational ego and adaptive powers. Held more positive view of human nature. Put more emphasis on developmentAFTER adolescence. Eight PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES: Trust vs. mistrust: revolves around whether or not infants become able to rely on other people to be responsive to their needs (will develop autonomy and take initiative as opposed to guilt that allows them to plan and tackle big projects. will acquire sense of industry rather than inferiority that will enable them to master important academic, social skills in school. Identity vs. role confusion *Erikson believed that psychosocial growth continue during adult years. Resolving identity vs. role confusion paves way for resolving early childhood conflict of intimacy vs. isolation and for becoming ready to form a shared identity with someone else in a committed, long-term relationship. Generativity vs. stagnation: did i do something that will outlive me? Integrity vs. despair: sense of meaning in lives that will help them face death Sometimes these stages are vague and difficult to test. Provides useful description of human personality development, does not provide adequate explanation of how this development comes about. John Locke: tabula rasa (“blank slate”; waiting to be written on by life experiences) Watson: behaviorism (rested on belief that conclusions about human development and functioning should be based on observations of overt behavior rather than on speculations about unobservable cognitive and emotional processes) *rejected psychoanalytic theory POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT: something pleasant added, behavior strengthened Chapter 2 Dev. Psych Notes NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT: behavior strengthened because something unpleasant removed (sound that goes off in car when you don’t do seatbelt) POSITIVE PUNISHMENT: unpleasant stimulus is consequence of behavior (spanking for misbehaving) NEGATIVE PUNISHMENT: desirable stimulus removed following behavior (misbehaving child loses privilege of watching TV) Social cognitive theory: claims humans are cognitive beings whose active processing of info plays critical role in learning, behavior, development. Latent learning: learning occurs but not evident in behavior. children can learn from observation even though they do not imitate learned responses. Vicarious reinforcement: process in which learners become more or less likely to perform a behavior based on whether consequences are experienced by model they observe are reinforcing or punishing. Self-efficacy: belief that they can effectively produce a particular desired outcome. Reciprocal determinism: development occurs through continuous reciprocal interaction among person, behavior, environment Bandura doubts that there are universal stages of human development. Maintains that development is context specific and can proceed along many paths, is continuous. Jean Piaget: constructivism (children actively construct their own understandings of the world based on their experiences) Sensorimotor stage: deal with world directly through perceptions and actions. unable to use symbols to help solve problems Preoperational stage: developed capacity for symbolic thought but not yet capable of logical problem solving (also egocentric) Lack demonstration of conservation Concrete operations stage: more logical than preschoolers. use trial-and-error approach to problem solving. Formal operations stage: able to think more abstractly, hypothetically. can formulate hypotheses, predictions. Critics question whether Piaget’s stages really hang together as general modes of thinking that are applied to a variety of types of problems. Research suggests that cognitive development proceeds at different rates for different types of problems. Critics also conclude that Piaget underestimated cognitive abilities of young children. Lev Vygotsky: sociocultural perspective Chapter 2 Dev. Psych Notes maintained that cognitive development is shaped by sociocultural context in which it occurs and grows out of children’s interactions with members of their culture. ways in which people in a particular culture approach and solve problems is passed from generation to generation. Information-processing approach: likens human mind to computer with hardware and software and examines fundamental mental processes like attention, memory, decision-making involved in cognitive tasks. BRONFENBRENNER’S BIOECOLOGICAL MODEL**: said developing person is embedded in series of environmental systems. 1) microsystem (immediate physical and social environment in which person interacts face-to- face with other people and influences and is affected by them) 2) mesosystem (interrelationships between two or more microsystems. so teens who experienced stress in family microsystem report increased problems of poor attendance and difficult learning at school, second microsystem) 3) exosystem: linkages involving social settings that individuals do not experienced directly but that can still influence their development. children can be affected by how their parents’day at work went. 4) macrosystem (larger cultural context in which micro, meso, ecosystem embedded) THEN chronosystem to capture idea that people and environments and relations between two change over time and unfold in particular patterns or sequences over a person’s lifetime. Systems theories faulted for not yet providing a clear picture of course of human development and for being only partially formulated and tested. Eclectics: rely on many theories, recognizing that no major theory of human development can explain everything but that each has something to contribute to our understanding
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