Chapter 3 Dev. Psych Notes
Chapter 3 Dev. Psych Notes PSYC 2013
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alex Huh on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 2013 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Professor Sigelman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
Chapter 3 Dev. Psych Notes Species heredity: the genetic endowment that members of a species have in common, including genes that influence biological maturation and aging processes. Natural selection: idea that nature “selects,” or allows to survive and reproduce, those members of a species whose genes permit them to adapt to their environment. Evolutionary psychology: application of evolutionary theory to understanding why humans think and behave as they do. Evolutionary psychologists ask important questions about how the characteristics and behaviors we observe in humans today may have helped our ancestors adapt to their environments and consequently may have become part of the shared genetic endowment of our species. Cultural evolution: we “inherit” from previous generations a characteristically human environment and tried and true ways of adapting to it, learn to adjust to changing conditions, and pass on what we learn to the next generation. *PRETTY MUCH REVIEW* Conception: moment when an egg is fertilized by a sperm. Zygote: fertilized egg Chromosomes: threadlike bodies in the nucleus of each cell and are made up of genes, the basic units of heredity. Meiosis: sperm and ova with 23 chromosomes, produced through this process Mitosis: process through which single-celled zygote is formed at conception and becomes a multiple-celled organism -------- Human Genome Project: completed 2003. mapped sequence of chemical units or “letters” that make up the strands of DNAin a full set of 46 human chromosomes. International HapMap Project: described genetic similarities and differences among 270 people from a variety of racial and ethnic groups around the world. -------- Crossing over: causes genetic uniqueness of children of same parents Identical twins/monozygotic twins: result when one fertilized ovum divides to form two or more genetically identical individuals. 1/250 Chapter 3 Dev. Psych Notes Fraternal twins/dizygotic twins: result when two ova are released at the same time and each is fertilized by a different sperm. 1/125 Male: X + Y chromosome Female: two X chromosomes Karyotype: chromosomes that have been photographed through powerful microscope, then arranged in pairs and rephotographed in a pattern that allows their number and form to be studied Genotype: genetic makeup a person inherits Phenotype: characteristics or traits the person eventually has Gene expression: activation of particular genes in particular cells of the body at particular times; only if a gene is “turned on” is it influential. Ultimately influences our traits and therefore converts genotypes into phenotypes. Single gene-pair inheritance: each of thousands of human characteristics are influenced by only one pair of genes- one from the mother, one from the father. Dominant gene: expressed when paired with recessive gene (weaker gene that can be dominated) Incomplete dominance: when a dominant gene incompletely dominates a recessive partner gene, and the result is a new trait that blends the parents’traits Codominance: two genes influence a trait but each is expressed in the product Sex-linked characteristics: influenced by single genes located on the sex chromosomes rather than on the other 22 pairs of chromosomes Hemophilia: deficiency in blood’s ability to clot, far more common among males than females because it is linked to sex-linked disorder associated with a recessive gene on X chromosomes. Polygenic traits: most important human characteristics. influenced by multiple pairs of genes, interacting with multiple environmental factors, rather than by a single pair of genes. Mutation: change in structure of arrangement of one or more genes that produces a new phenotype. Chromosome abnormalities: child receives too many or too few chromosomes Down syndrome/trisomy 21: associated with three rather than two 21st chromosomes -distinctive eyelid folds -short stubby limbs Chapter 3 Dev. Psych Notes -thick tongues -intellectual disability Turner syndrome: female is born with single X chromosome rather than two -small -stubby fingers and toes -webbed neck -underdeveloped breasts -unable to reproduce -lower-than-average spatial, mathematical abilities Klinefelter syndrome: male is born with one or more extra X chromosomes -long limbs -big ears -long faces -sterile -feminine sex characteristics develop at puberty (enlarged breasts) -some intellectual disabilities Fragile X syndrome: all 46 chromosomes present, but one arm of the X chromosome is only barely connected to the rest of the chromosome and looks as if it is about to break off -intellectual disability Copy number variations: instances in which person receives too many or too few copies of a stretch of DNA. can be inherited from a parent or arise spontaneously. some contribute to diseases and disorders, among them autism, schizophrenia, andADHD. Genetic counseling: service that provides info about and guidance regarding nature, likelihood, effects, treatment of genetically based diseases and disorders to people who suspect or learn that they or their unborn children are at risk Sickle-cell disease: red blood cells shaped like sickles, become entangled, distribute less oxygen though circulatory system than round blood cells do. Carriers: do not have disease, but can transmit gene for it to their children. Huntington’s disease: genetic defect associated with a single dominant gene. -strikes in middle age -disrupts expression of genes in nervous system -motor disturbances -personality changes Chapter 3 Dev. Psych Notes Phenylketonuria (PKU): caused by single pair of recessive genes that result in brain damage and intellectual disability PRENATAL DETECTION OFABNORMALITIES: 1) Ultrasound -use of sound waves to scan womb and create image of fetus on a monitor screen 2)Amniocentesis -needle inserted into abdomen, sample of amniotic fluid withdrawn, fetal cells that have been shed are analyzed 3) Chorionic Villus Sampling -inserting catheter through mother’s vagina or cervix into membrane called chorion that surrounds fetus, extracting tiny hair cells from chorion that contain genetic material from the fetus 4) Maternal Blood Sampling -test mother’s blood for various chemicals that can indicate abnormalities in fetus. 5) Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis -fertilizing a mother’s eggs with a father’s sperm in the laboratory using in vitro fertilization, conducting DNAtests on the first cells that result from mitosis of each fertilized egg, and implanting in the mother’s uterus only eggs that do not have chromosome abnormalities or genes associated with disorders. Behavioral genetics: scientific study of extent to which genetic and environmental differences among people or animals are responsible for differences in their physical and psychological traits. Heritability: percentage of variability in a trait in sample linked to genetic differences among those people NOT percent of genetic influence in each individual—percent in sample Twin study: determining whether identical twins reared together are more similar to each other in the traits of interest than fraternal twins reared together. Adoption study: are children adopted early in life psychologically similar to their biological parents, whose genes they share, or are they similar to their adoptive parents, whose environment they share? Family studies: include pairs of siblings who have a variety of different degrees of genetic similarity- for example, identical twins, fraternal twins, full biological siblings, half siblings, and unrelated step siblings who live together in stepfamilies. Concordance rates: percentage of pairs of people studied Chapter 3 Dev. Psych Notes Contributions of THREE FACTORS to individual differences in angry emotionality: 1) Genes 2) Shared environmental influences 3) Nonshared environmental influences Molecular genetics: analysis of particular genes and their effects ~QUESTION INVOLVED HERE~ Elderly adults withAPOE4 gene show greater deterioration in memory and reasoning over the years than do individuals without it, even though they do not have diagnosableAlzheimer’s disease-at least not yet. Having theAPOE4 gene and experiencing an environmental risk factor such as a head injury increases the odds ofAlzheimer’s disease still further-something college football and soccer players and boxers might want to note. Temperament: tendencies to respond in predictable ways, such as sociability and emotional reactivity, that serve as the building blocks of later personality Schizophrenia: serious mental illness that involves disturbances in logical thinking, emotional expression, and social behavior. Typically emerges in late adolescence and early adulthood. Genes contribute substantially to this disorder. **People do not inherit psychological disorders, they inherit PREDISPOSITIONS to develop disorders. Gene-environment interaction: effects of our genes depend on what kind of environment we experience, and how we respond to the environment depends on what genes we have. 5-HTTLPR gene affects stress reactivity and can put individuals at risk for-or protect them from- a number of psychological disorders. Other gene variants seem to protect children who experience traumatic events from developing disorders, helping to explain why some children are resilient despite terrible childhood experiences. Gene-environment correlations: ways in which a person’s genes and his environment or experiences are systematically interrelated. Passive gene-environment correlations: because parents provide children with both their genes and home environment, compatible with those genes, the home environments to which children are exposed are correlated with their genotypes. Chapter 3 Dev. Psych Notes Evocative gene-environment correlations: child’s genotype also evokes certain kinds of reactions from people. Genetic makeup may affect reactions of other people to an individual and, hence, the kind of environment the individual will experience through life. Active gene-environment correlations: children’s genotypes influence kinds of environments they seek. Reciprocal influences at work in parent-child relationships. For example, harsh, negative parenting contributes to development of antisocial behavior in children, but children genetically predisposed to be antisocial also bring out the worst in their parents. Epigenesis: term for general process through which nature and nurture co-act to bring forth particular developmental outcomes. Epigenetic effects: environmental factors that affect whether or not particular genes in particular cells are expressed ~QUESTION INVOLVED HERE~ By altering gene expression, Meaney suggests, epigenetic effects may help organisms and their offspring adapt flexibly to whatever environmental conditions they encounter, rather than wait generations for biological evolution to do its work. Most conditions are product of interaction of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Researchers not only must deliver the right genes to the body in sufficient number to have the desired effect but also must get them to turn off and on when they should to produce normal functioning and control important environmental influences as well. Gene therapy: involves substituting normal genes for the genes associated with a disease or disorder or otherwise altering a person’s genetic makeup.
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