Com 101 Study Guide NO.1
Com 101 Study Guide NO.1 Com 101
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Annabelle Hutson on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Com 101 at Washington State University taught by Taflinger in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 283 views. For similar materials see Media and Society in Communication at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
Corn 101 Study Guide 1 Professor Taftlinger Class Media and Society Lecture Notes There are several channels of communications Chemical communications through chemicals Pheromones these are molecules of sent that can be picked up to send messages For example insects do this during mating season to attract a mate and communicate that they are ready to mate Visual This is a visual display something that can be seen to convey a message Aurally sound noises or sound vibrations that communicate something The primary way of human communication is talking Talking is the intricate manipulation of oral sound to convey meaning The purpose of communication is to connect with other members of the same species other humans Why communications is important Survival 0 Safety in numbers means less of a chance of being picked off 0 Being the biggest and strongest Hominids had neither natural weapons nor numbers What they did have was cooperation they banded together in small bands so they had to communicate survival strategies Because they did not show by example they had to make words to talk it out first Hunters in the animal kingdom wolf lions etc tend to cooperate but only on the hunt Humans did not have packs and they did not hunt They had to talk so they created a mutual support group Reproduction This is not as strait forward for humans as it is for other animals People choose partners based on other s communication and if they like the way they communicate To bind groups together This is a way of helping an organism people or animals ect know they belong to a group and identify those who are not part of the group Humans like to use language that shows they are a part of a certain group This does not have to be language it can also be dialect such as the southern accent People have to translate what they here decode it into something they understand and then translate their thoughtsresponse into something that they can reply with Denotative Meanings of words in the literal sense Usually have a concrete reference Connotative applies to almost everything especially things that are not physical objects Personal definition of the word not literal o What the word means to the individual 0 Sometimes there is a strong emotional element the feelings that apply to the word 0 Abstract not concrete Sometimes problems arise when someone thinks someone else has the same definition for an abstraction that they have It is not the media who creates the definitions of beauty it simply follows culture s definition of beauty A problem for mass media is that the sender of the mass media such as a TV show producer is that it is difficult to get feedback response for their messages Thus they are conservative and repeat the same kinds of media over and over because it was successful once such as ideas for TV shows or movies Think of how many doctor shows there are or vampire movies Media Literacy It is important because if we are not media literate we cannot understand what the media are doing forto us It is the ability to access analyze evaluate and process messages that come from the media The US produces the most media but is however the least media literate of the countries It is a continuum rather than a category from Low to High High Literacy the ability to actively process the message and put it into context more control over the interpretation of the message Low Literacy not consciously processing the message more likely to just accept the message at face value rather than interpret it Someone who is media literate has the skill of critical thinking enabling them the audience to develop independent judgments about media content Someone who is media literate understands the process of mass communication written to be read vs written to be said Someone who is media literate has an awareness of the impact of media on the individual and society as well as the ability to enjoy understand and appreciate media content Third Person Effect This when people think they are not affected by the media but they think everyone else is so they complain about the media For example quotwell violence in video games doesn t make me thing violent thoughts but it must make other people think violence is ok therefore the media is affecting them badly This was proposed by W Philips Davidson 1983 Perceptual component Message desirability pro or antisocial Overestimate the effects on others Social Distance Corollary The more general social distant quototherquot leads to larger perceived effects 0 Lower class quotothersquot are more likely to be effected Importance of perceived exposure quotothersquot are estimated due to perceived exposure Linking 3rel person perception to support for censorships Censorship 0 Pornography 0 Violent TV Content 0 Violent and misogynistic rap and death metal lyrics in music People support censorship because they assume people are being affected by this content There is no evidence from any of this it is just someone using anecdotal evidence Qualitative Analysis of media messages Qualitative trying to find out potential effects on the audience because of how they will receive it Critical Theories Help us to understand how audiences perceive a message 1 Semiotics the science of signs and symbols 0 Looks at how people create and understand signs and symbols in order to comprehend communications 0 Trying to figure out how people know what symbols mean who will interpret a sign and why they will 0 What does a symbol mean to those who see it o Takes a media message apart breaks it into pieces they try to understand what those pieces mean and then put them back together to understand what the target audience will interpret the whole message as o quotsymbolic interactionism is another term for semiotics 2 Psychoanalysis quotpsychoanalytic theory 0 Examines the way in which mass media messages influence the audience s social rules in order to suppress instinctive antisocial impulses Freud was the first to come up with this Id selfish only about you nothing else matters Superego about everyone else except you The id and the superego fighting against each other id is selfcentered and only concerned with avoiding discomfort at all costs The superego counters the id the superego is learned so that the superego keeps the id in check so that the person is socially acceptable Those who don t have a superego do not follow the rules of society and this is where psychopaths come from Id and superego simply react to the situation No one has the same superego as another person Trapped between the id and the superego is the ego which is the combination of the id and superego Tries to balance the demands of id and superego which tells you what you39re going to do for real 0 Looks at the balance of the id and superego So many rules from our superego comes from the media 0 Who you are is the balance of id s demands and the superego s demands 0 Every form of media tries to reinforce the superego except for advertising which tries to get the id stimulated without getting the superego involved 0 All about the subconscious mind to influence conscious behavior 3 Sociological Analysis the most common 0 Comes in many forms that have evolved over the years 0 500 kinds OOOO The Story The Neoaristotelian analysis All stories had elements in common 0 Action something needs to happen to be interesting there are certain parts that have to be there such as exposition what audience needs to know to understand the story the universe in which the story happens when where basic starting point Establishes an equilibruim Next there is a problem something throws off the equlibrium everything in the rest of the story is about fixing the problem in stories there is only one problem there is Next there is the Crisis the solution is applied often it is the wrong solution and makes the problem worse which allows the story to continue because it creates a complication obstacle to solving the problem keeps getting in the way most stories more than 15 seconds have multiple complication and crisis Finally there is the climax ultimate crisis where the protagonist finds the solution and it is over Finally there is the denouement where it illustrates the universe back in balance 0 Character agents who carry out the action there are two words which are vital to storytelling Every character wants something and each one wants something different 0 Conflict because the character wants something and each character wants something different they are constantly in conflict with every other character Without the conflict there is no story the problem starts the conflict the climax is the resolution of the problem and thus ends the conflict 0 Thought why they story is being told in the first place Sometimes this influences what the audience s reality Most stories use the rules of society they are written for to inforce them 0 Diction Music Spectacle How the story is told diction the words used and how they39re said for example characters of a certain status might speak in a way that conveys that whereas characters who are supposed to be quotdumbquot have an accent that conveys that such as a southern accent music what we hear including music and sound effects spectacle what is seen including setting lighting costumes makeup relationships angles etc they recreate reality Why is this important Humans do not live in reality Humans tell stories about reality and that is how we understand everything we know We want to understand things in a quotcleanquot way and stories are clean when reality is messy Humans have a great sense of the past present and future We can remember the past apply it to the present to project the future Stories give us the magic of life Three kinds of magic 0 Magic of nature things we see every day ex the grand canyon O Spells saying you want something and it happens ex quotabracadabra and quotplease 0 Technology How does it work Do you really know ex cell phones What is a society It is a shared learned symbolic system of values belief and attitude that shapes and influences perception and behavior All groups which get together have the same basic values and world views ex Christians vs Jews republicans vs democrats They are a shared perception of reality Ways of knowing Tradition a belief that has lasted for a long time this is hard to change after someone believes something ex eating turkey on thanksgiving Authority someone who should know says so hard to change and may not consider new info ex a doctors diagnosis Intuition or Logic where the truth is selfevident Problems with everyday ways of knowing things Filters how info is processed false premise illogical reasoning Everyday ways of knowing can lead to conflict ideas about quottruthquot belief in two completely contradictory things at once Why bother with societies and culture Humans are weak Societies are mutual support packs sociability mutual supportprotection packs Rules are designed to keep friction at bay between different opinions As more rules are added the freedom of the individual is limited more and more for the benefit of the group Book Notes Chapters 15 and 15 Chapter 1 Media and the Social World The quotsocial construction of reality is the termed used by sociologists when discussing how meaning is created through the creation and performance of media Media is the plural of Medium In the beginning news could not travel very far because spoken could only travel so far then even written could not be printed in massive quantities 18405 brought around the invention of the telegraph for almost instantaneous communication over long distances and these two places needed to be physically wired together 1876 brought the invention of the telephone for more access to personal long distance communications The telephone also facilitated the work of reporters Thomas Edison invented the phonograph in 1877 which began the first new mass medium since print Auguste and Louis Lumiere invented cinematography in 1895 The digital video disk DVD came around in 1997 In the mid20005 websites such as youtube and vimeo came around and commercial films were increasingly available on the internet such as amazon hulu and Netflix Development of broadcasting altered the patterns of media in a critical way because it created the possibility for a largely privatized and individualized media experience With the rise of computer technology media content moved into digital form media production was altered and provided a platform for digital media to be distributed and consumed Mass media provide a huge socializing agent Remember the following 3 types of relations 0 Between institutions 0 Within an institution Between institutions and individuals Reference the figure 15 on page 2625 of your book for a good model of media and the social world interactions 0 Chapter 5 Social Inequality and Media Representation Chapter 15 A common argument is that the media often reproduce inequalities and specialize stereotypes based on gender class race or sexual orientation Representations are selections of some parts of society that are highlighted while others are neglected Media which compares the quotsocialquot world and the quotrealquot world seem to imply that the media should reflect society The significance of media involve linking content to producers audience interests society in general audience effect and examining content independent of context Race is a concept created by people and the meaning has changed over time and varies from culture to culture Racial minorities are often ignored or stereotyped into the typical role for their race Between genders for a long time especially in sports commentators would use men and quotgirlsquot rather than men and quotwomen They also chose vocabulary that is much less intensethreatening for women Media is increasingly inclusive however not always stereo typing Macrolevel effects on the public Not all information makes it to the public through the media therefore the people are getting what the media wants to show This is when you only see the extremists on TV and not the rest of the general population This section of the book is largely common sense think about these things in your life What often shapes public opinion How do people become interested invested in something Commination from many sources contributes in these areas Highlights 0 Effects on public knowledge how the media exerts influence on the general level of knowledge on the public 0 Effects of News how the news expandslimits the knowledge of the general public 0 Explaining Formation of Public Beliefs how the media effects the public through theories of agenda setting and cultivation o Beliefs of the public not the beliefs of the individual but the belief of the general public as a whole 0 Public attitudes and opinion how the media effects the public s attitude about something 0 Public Affect Affecting how the public feels about something in the media related to emotions 0 Public behavior how the public behaves after receiving a message from the media 0 Civil Participation The actions of the public after engaging with a message from the media
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