Popular in General Chemistry 1
Popular in Chemistry
This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Matt Katona on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Chem 1113 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Hendrickson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 284 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at University of Colorado at Boulder.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
Pure Substance Any single substance ie pure hydrogen is a pure substance Mixture A group of two or more elements andor compounds that are physically intermingled Element The simplest type of substance with unique physical and chemical properties Compound A substance composed of two or more elements Homogenous Evenly distributed mixture Heterogeneous A mixture that has one or more visible boundaries among its components Solution Homogenous mixture of one or more solutes dissolved in a solvent Physical Property A property shown by the substance itself Chemical Property A characteristic shown when a substance reacts with another substance lon A charged particle formed by the addition or loss of one or more electrons Anion Negative lon Cation Positive lon Phase A physically distinct and homogenous part of a system Atomic Number The number of protons Mass Number total number of neutrons and protons Atomic Mass The average of the masses of all naturally occurring isotopes Nucleus Tiny positive center of an atom Electron Negatively charged subatomic particle Proton Positively charged subatomic particle Neutron Neutral subatomic particle Ionic Bond Metals amp Nonmetals A bond where electrons are completely transferred Covalent Bond Nonmetals A bond where electrons are shared Reactant A starting substance in a chemical reaction Product A substance formed in a chemical reaction lsotope Atoms of a given element with different amounts of neutrons Extensive Property A property like density that doesn t depend on the amount of the substance Intensive Property A property such as mass that depends on the quantity of the substance Accuracy The closeness of a measurement to the true value Precision The closeness of a measurement to other measurements of the same phenomenon in a series of experiments Percent Yield Actual yieldTheoretical yield x100 Structural Formula Graphic representation of a chemical formula Empirical Formula ex Water is H20 Molecular Formula indicates the actual number of atoms of various elements in each molecule Limiting Reactant The reactant that is completely used up no excess Excess Reactant The reactants that isare not completely used Group vertical columns in the Periodic Table Period horizontal rows in the Periodic Table Pre xes mega M 106 kHo k 103 deck d 104 cen c 104 milli m 10393 micro u 10396 nano n 109 pico p 103912 Basic Units Kilogram Meter Second Kelvin Mole Calculating the Number of Sig Figs Rule 1 All nonzeros are signi cant Rule 2 Zeros between nonzeros are signi cant Rule 3 Zeros to the right of the decimal are signi cant Sig Fig MultiplicationDivision Rule Your answer should be recorded to the least number of sig gs used in the calculation Sig Fig AdditionSubtraction Rule Your answer should be recorded to the least number of decimal places used in the calculation Diatomics H2 N2 02 Br2 F2 I2 Polyatomic Ions Hydronium H30 Ammonium NH4 Hydroxide OH39 Cyanide CN39 Nitrate N0339 Nitrite N0239 Carbonate C03 Hydrogen carbonate bicarbonate HC0339 Sulfate 504239 Sulfite 5032 Phosphate PO4339 Hydrogen phosphate HPO4239 Dihydrogen phosphate H2PO4239 Acetate C2H302 Permanganate MnO439 Chromate CrO4239 Dichromate Cr204239 Perchlorate CIO439 Chlorate CIO339 Chlorite ClOz39 Hypochlorite CIO39 Temperature Conversions Kelvin Celsius27315 Fahrenheit Celsius x 9532 Calculating Atomic Mass Using Percent Abundance For these calculations multiply the mass of each isotope by their percent abundance and add them all together Dalton39s Atomic Theory 1 All matter consists of atoms indivisible particles of an element False Subatomic particles ex protons 2 Atoms of one element cannot be converted into atoms of a different element False Nuclear chemistry in tercon verts elements 3 Atoms of an element are identical in mass and other properties False Isotopes 4 Compounds are formed by the chemical reaction of 2 elements in speci c ratios True Thomson In 1897 JJ Thomson used a cathode ray tube to discover that there are very small very light negative subatomic particles electrons in atoms Millikan In 1909 Robert Millikan used an oil drop experiment to identify the charge of electrons as 16x103919C and the mass is 91x103931kg Rutherford In 1910 Ernest Rutherford used his gold foil experiment to identify that most of the volume of an atom is empty space the nucleus is a positively charged core and electrons have almost no mass but occupy most of the space in an atom Periodic Table General Knowledge When elemental information is displayed like it is below the top number represents the Atomic Mass and the bottom represents the Atomic Number 64 Cu 29 Alkali Metals are Group 1 Alkaline Earth Metals are Group 2 Halogens are group 7A Noble Gases are group 8A Transition Metals are Groups 3 through 12 The Three Fundamental Laws 1 Mass Conservation the total mass of substances does not change during a reaction 2 De nite Composition all samples of a compound contain the same elements with the same mass percent 3 Multiple Proportions if elements A and B form two compounds the different masses of B that combine with a xed mass of A can be expressed as a ratio of small whole numbers
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