Health and Exercise Science (HES 145) Study Guide for Exam 2
Health and Exercise Science (HES 145) Study Guide for Exam 2 HES 145
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Makayla Crow on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HES 145 at Colorado State University taught by Dr. Ryan Donovan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see Health and Exercise Science in Nursing and Health Sciences at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
Study Guide for HES Exam 2 UNIT 2: Psychosocial Health What is psychosocial health? - Spiritual health, social health, intellectual health, emotional health Key characteristics of psychosocial healthy people 1) Feel good about themselves (self-esteem) 2) Feel comfortable around others 3) Control tension and anxiety 4) Meet demands of life (time management) 5) Curb hate and guilt 6) Maintain a positive health (optimism) 7) Enrich the lives of others 8) Cherish the things that make them smile 9) Value diversity 10) Respect nature Factors that influence psychosocial health - External factors (i.e. family, broader environment, social bonds) - Internal factors (i.e. self-efficacy (belief in the ability to perform a task) and self-esteem (overall feeling of self-worth), learned helplessness v. learned optimism, personality) - Life span and maturity Strategies to Enhance Psychosocial Health - Find a support group, form realistic expectations, make time for yourself, etc. Why psychosocial health deteriorates - Define psychosocial disorders 1) Signs what the objective observer can document (ex, agitation, rapid breathing) 2) Symptoms subjective feeling that the individual experiences (ex. Euphoria, hopelessness) 3) Functional Impairments inability to perform certain routine or basic daily tasks (ex. bathing, going to school or work) Brain Chemistry - Neurotransmitters: chemicals that are used to relay, amplify, and modulate signals between a neuron and another cell 1) Dopamine motivation, “wanting,” pleasure 2) Serotonin memory, emotions, wakefulness, sleep and temperature regulation - Dendrites receive information from neurotransmitters and then electrical signal travels to axon terminal and releases - Synapse is space between 2 nerve cells - Top causes for faulty brain chemistry 1) Release may release too little/too much 2) Receptors not enough/too much dopamine receptors 3) Re-uptake feedback from receptors in synapse Common types of Psychosocial Disorders - Anxiety disorder Characterized by persistent feelings of threat and worry The #1 mental health issue in the US (40+ million people, 18% of adults) Example is mood disorder affect how you feel; 10% or 20.9 million US adults affected Specific phobias fear of something definite; most common and understandable Social phobias fear of humiliation or embarrassment while being observed by others Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) reaction to future threats is to worry, and worry has taken over Panic disorders (panic attacks) sudden unexpected surges in anxiety; rapid and strong heartbeat; shortness of breath; feeling of losing mental control Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) 1) Obsessions recurrent, unwanted thoughts 2) Compulsions repetitive, difficult to resist actions Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) reaction to a severely traumatic event - Mood disorders Depression 1) Symptoms feeling of sadness, loss of pleasure, etc. (SIGNS) 2) Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) typically occurs in the winter due to the lack of sunlight Mania and bipolar disorder 1) Mania restlessness, excessive energy, insomnia 2) A person who is bipolar swings between manic and depressive states Suicide: Warning Signs - Expressing the wish to be dead, increased social withdrawal/isolation, history of substance abuse, etc. Treatments for Psychosocial Disorders - Depends on conditions and severities, like how long you’ve had symptoms and how severe the symptoms are - Options are psycho therapy, medication, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and light therapy for SAD Unit 3: Nutrition 101 Body mass index (BMI) kg/m^2 - It’s easy, quick, and inexpensive, but not accurate per-say - Less than 18.5 is “underweight”; 18.5 – 24.9 is “normal”; 25 – 29.9 is “overweight”; more than 30 is “obese” - BMI works for 80% of the population, but not the other 20% 1) High muscle percentage: BMI overestimates disease risk, especially for short muscular people 2) Sedentary elderly: BMI underestimates disease risk - Sarcopenia: age-associated decline in muscle mass - ONE POUND = 0.454 KILOGRAM; ONE FOOT = 0.3048 METERS; ONE INCH = 0.0254 METERS “Freshman 15” is a struggle - Average weight gain for a person after freshman year is 7.8 lbs - 1/3 gained 10+ lbs; 1/5 gained 15+ lbs (we don’t know if it’s muscle or fat) - After sophomore year, males are 9.5 lbs heavier and females are 9.2 lbs heavier - Why? Cafeteria food, alcohol, sitting on your ass all day Energy balance - Balance energy intake with energy expenditure - To change weight, you must have the balance tilt one way or another Nutrition fundamentals - Essential nutrients Substances required by the body that must be obtained from food Functions: 1) Provide energy 2) Help build and repair body tissues 3) Help regulate body functions 6 classes: 1) Carbs 2) Protein 3) Fat 4) Vitamins 5) Minerals 6) Water Highlighted ones are fuel nutrients (macro); non-highlighted ones are regulatory nutrients (micro) Food as energy 1) How is the amount of energy in food expressed? Kilocalorie 2) Carbs: 4 cal/gram 3) Protein: 4 cal/gram 4) Fat: 9 cal/gram 5) Alcohol: 7 cal/gram 6) Regardless of the source, excess calories are stored as fat 7) 3500 extra calories = 1 lb of fat Carbs - Primary function: energy source blood glucose + glycogen High intensity exercise Brian, central nervous system, and red blood cells can only use carbs for energy Regulates fat and protein metabolism Fat burns in the flame of carbs! - Daily recommendation: 45 – 65% of total daily calories Endurance athletes 60 – 70% of total daily calories - Not all carbs are created equal Simple sugar (less than 10% of total calories) 1) Low nutrient density Fiber (25 grams/day women; 38 grams/day men) 1) Lower blood glucose and cholesterol 2) Improved gastral intestinal health for women 3) Satiety (fullness) Whole grain 1) Digest slower 2) Sugars enter the blood stream slowly 3) Reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, stroke, and some forms of cancer Protein - Functions: 1) Structure of muscles, bones, organs, skin, nails, hair, etc. 2) Necessary for hormones, antibodies, and enzymes 3) Energy source when carbs aren’t readily available - Complete versus incomplete proteins Amino acids: building blocks for protein 1) 9 essential: can’t be made by body 2) 11 nonessential: can be produced by body Complete protein: supplies all essential amino acids in adequate amounts (meat, fish, eggs, fish, etc.) Incomplete protein: missing (or very low amounts of) at least 1 essential amino acid (legumes, nets, etc.) Complementary proteins: 2 incomplete proteins that when consumed together makes complete protein (wheat, peanuts, beans, rice) - Recommended protein intake 10 – 35% of total daily calories OR 0.8 grams/kg of body weight for adults Athletes: 1.5 – 2 grams/kg body weight Post-workout: 30 – 60 min after workout Fat - Functions 1) Concentrated energy source: at rest and during low-intensity exercise 2) Absorption of fat-soluble vitamins 3) Necessary for cell structure - Most fats in foods are in the form of triglycerides Glycerol molecule with 3 fatty acids Types of fatty acids 1) Saturated 2) Monounsaturated 3) Polyunsaturated - Saturated fats no double bonds between carbon atoms; usually solid at room temperature; usually from animal products; raises LDL cholesterol and risk for cardiovascular disease - Unsaturated fats one (monounsaturated) or more (polyunsaturated) double bonds between carbon atoms; usually liquid at room temperature; usually from plant sources (mono: olive and canola oils; poly: soybean and cottonseed oils); usually lowers LDL cholesterol; monounsaturated fats may also increase HDL - Trans fats chemically, we can add hydrogen molecules to unsaturated fats Partially hydrogenated fatty acids Deep fried foods, cakes, etc. Raises LDL, lowers HDL, may increase risk for cardiovascular disease and breast cancer 0.5 grams trans fat ~ 0 grams trans fat - Recommended fat intake 20 – 35% of total calories No more than 7 – 10% of total calories from saturated fat No trans fat, or as low as possible Energy balance - For weight maintenance: Energy in = Energy out - Think about your activity level: Endurance athletes: more carbs Strength athletes: more protein High cholesterol: more unsaturated/monounsaturated fats Vitamins - Organic (carbon containing) - Required in small amounts for cellular reactions - Water soluble (9): C – immune system, b-complex - Fat soluble (4): A, D, E, K - Abundant in fruits, vegetables, and grains Minerals - Inorganic - Functions: 1) Help regulate body functions 2) Aid in growth and maintenance of body tissues 3) Catalyze energy reactions - 17 essential: Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cl, Co, Cu, Fl, I, Fe - Calcium (11 – 24 year olds): 1200 – 1500 mg/day with vitamin D or else bone mineral density (BMD) will decrease rapidly *osteroporosis - Iron: men 8 – 11 mg/day, women 15 – 18 mg/day *lack of Fe is anemia - Folate: 400 mg/day (folic acid) *cereal - Sodium: less than 2400 mg/day Water - “the most critical nutrient for sustaining life” - Functions: 1) Body temperature regulation 2) Transportation of nutrients and wastes 3) Join lubrication 4) Maintenance of blood volume - You lose 64 – 80 oz of water each day - Don’t wait until you are thirsty to drink! - Hyponatremia is a condition of low blood sodium that’s fatal Applied Nutrition - Fist 1 cup rice, pasta, fruit, veggies - Palm 3 oz meat, fish, poultry - Handful 1 oz nuts and raisins - 2 handfuls 1 oz chips, popcorn, pretzels - Thumb 1 oz peanut butter and hard cheese - Thumb tip 1 teaspoon cooking oil, butter, and sugar Eating Healthy on a Budget - Plan ahead and cook! - Don’t eat out often - Shop around the perimeter of the store - Choose quality over quantity - Don’t skip breakfast, have protein with every meal and snack, diet should be composed of fruits, veggies, protein, and whole grains, and use variety, balance, and moderation Unit 4: Exercise Physical inactivity is killing us - Human body is created to move - Physical inactivity speeds the deterioration of the body National Physical Activity Guidelines - 150 minutes of moderately vigorous physical activity per week OR 75 minutes of vigorous physical activity per week - 1 in 5 Americans meet these guidelines What is Physical Fitness? - Health related fitness Fitness programs designed to improve overall health Components: cardio, muscle and endurance, flexibility, and body composition - Skill related fitness Agility, coordination, speed, balance, reaction time, and power - Physical activity versus exercise Physical activity “bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure and produces progressive health benefits” (walking, dancing, taking stairs, etc.) Exercise “a type of physical activity that requires planned, structured, and repetitive bodily movements with the intent of improving or maintaining one or more components of physical fitness” (running, lifting, etc.) Cardiorespiratory Endurance (Cardiovascular) (CVD) - Exercise bioenergetics Food energy we consume (carbs, fats, proteins) must be converted into biologically usable energy Only source of energy for our cells? 1) Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) 2) Energy is stored in chemical bonds Energy is released when bond is broken ADP Without adequate ATP, all cellular activity would stop Problem: our supply of ATP is extremely limited 1) 10 – 15 seconds of maximum exertion Solution: make more ATP! 1) ADP add energy from carbs/proteins/fats and PCr *very quick!* 2) Replenish of ATP is accomplished by 3 energy systems i. Phosphagen (ATP-CP): produces ATP rapidly, but not much for about 30 seconds ii. Glycolysis (anaerobic): between 30 seconds and 3 minutes iii. Oxidative (aerobic): more than 3 minutes 3) At no time, during either exercise or rest, does any single energy system provide complete supply of energy - Basic cardiorespiratory physiology Oxygen from air into muscle into mitochondria 1) Oxygen enters lungs and is taken up by alveoli (gas exchange location in lungs) 2) Oxygen is picked up by hemoglobin and transported in the blood to the heart 3) Oxygenated blood is pumped to all organs and tissues of body (blood exits via arteries) (gas exchange in muscle at capillaries) 4) Oxygen is used to convert food substrates into ATP through aerobic metabolism 5) ATP provides energy for physical activity/exercise i. If you have a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness, your body can deliver adequate oxygen to meet the demands of exercise with ease ii. If you don’t have a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness, your systems will have to work much harder and less oxygen is delivered - How fit are you? Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) 1) Body’s maximum ability to transport and utilize oxygen 2) Expressed as absolutely (2.1 L oxygen/min) and relative to body mass (41.2 mL oxygen/kg body weight/min) 3) Average values for college student: males (35-40 mL O2/kg body weight/min) and females (30-35 mL O2/kg body weight/min) 4) Elite endurance athletes: 70-80 mL O2/kg body weight/min 5) Highest ever recorded VO2max: 97.5 mL O2/kg body weight/min - Benefits of aerobic training Body becomes more efficient 1) Increased VO2max 2) Decrease in resting HR 3) Faster recovery time 4) Increase in number of capillaries 5) Lower HR at given workload 6) Increased cardiac muscle strength 7) Increased O2 carrying capacity in blood Weight management: improved body composition (decrease in body fat) Increased bone density, decreased risk for Type II diabetes, decreased risk for some cancers, improved immune functions, improved psychological and emotional wellness, and improved levels of concentration Decreased risk of CVD 1) Aerobic exercise i. Slows/stops plaque growth and reduces inflammation ii. Lowers total cholesterol iii. Lowers LDL cholesterol and raises HDL iv. Decreases blood pressure v. Improves insulin sensitivity (lowers blood sugar) vi. Reduces abdominal obesity vii. Reduces stress Fundamental of Exercise Prescription (cardio, strength, flexibility) - Progressive overload: for a training adaptation to occur, a physiological system must be exercised at a level beyond that which it’s presently accustomed More frequent, longer duration, higher intensity Manipulate 1 at a time or else injuries might occur - Specificity: physiological system will adapt according to the training stress - Periodization: varying the volume and intensity of your workouts in order to obtain the best results - FIIT Principle Frequency: times/day, days/week Intensity: how hard (HR, RPE, “talk test”) Time Type of exercise: running, swimming, cycling
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