Chapter 6 Study Guide
Chapter 6 Study Guide 365
U of L
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by DARRIAN EVANS on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 365 at University of Louisville taught by J. Danovitch in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 114 views. For similar materials see Child Development in Psychlogy at University of Louisville.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
Child Development Study Guide: Theories of Development, Reading 6.1, 6.2 & 6.3: Vocabulary: Assimilation: Occurs when new experiences are readily incorporated into child’s existing Theories. Accommodation: When a child’s theory is modified based on experience Equilibration: when disequilibrium occurs, children reorganize their theories to return to a state of equilibrium. Object Permanence: Understanding that objects exist independently. Ego Centrism: Young children’s difficulty in seeing the world from another’s view point. Centration: concentrate on one aspect of a problem but ignore the other. Mental Operations: strategies and rules that make thinking more systematic and more powerful. Deductive Reasoning: The ability to draw appropriate conclusions from facts. Intersubjectivity: mutual, shared understanding among participants in an activity Guided Participation: Cognitive growth results from children’s involvement in structured activities with others who are more skilled than they are. Zone of Proximal Development: The difference between what a child can do with assistance and what they can do alone. Scaffolding: Refers to a teaching style that matches the amount of assistance to the learner’s needs. Private Speech: Comments not directed to others but intended to help children regulate their own behavior. (inner speech) Sensory Memory: Where information is held briefly in raw, unanalyzed form. Working Memory: the site of ongoing cognitive activity. Long term Memory: Limitless, permanent store house of knowledge of the world. Automatic Processes: Cognitive activities that require virtually no effort Increased Speed Processing: Older children can execute mental processes more rapidly than younger children. Better Strategies: Older children use faster, more accurate, and easier strategies. More effective functioning: Older children are more skilled at inhibiting, shifting and updating. Teleological Explanation: Children believe that living things and parts of living things exist for a purpose. Essentialism: Children believe that all living things have an essence that can’t be seen but gives a living thing its identity. Animism: preoperational youngsters sometimes credit inanimate objects with life and lifelike properties Theories: Piaget’s Theory: -Believed children were naturally curious. -Assimilation, Accomodation, Equilibrium -Assimilation and accommodation are usually in balance= Equilibrium -“Children find they can readily assimilate most experiences into their existing theories, but occasionally they need to accommodate their theories to adjust to new experiences.” -revolutionary changes in thought occur 3 times, approx.. 2,7, and 11 years of age. -Four Stages of Cognitive Development: 1) Sensorimotor Stage: (birth -2 yrs, encompassing) -period in which the infant progresses from simple reflex actions to symbolic processing -1-4 months, reflexes are modified by experience -4-8 months, infant shows greater interest to the world. Pay more attention to objects. -8 months, the infant reaches a watershed: the onset of deliberate, intentional behavior. -12months, infants become more active experimenters. -adopting to and exploring the environment, understanding objects (object permanence), using symbols. -18months, most infants have begun to talk and gesture, evidence of emerging capacity to use symbols. Words and gestures that stand for something. Ex. Waving to indicate “bye-bye” 2) Preoperational Stage: (2yrs-6, encompassing preschool and early elementary school) -marked by the child’s use of symbols to represent objects and events. -Egocentrism: children believe that people see the world exactly as they do. -preoperational youngsters sometimes credit inanimate objects with life and lifelike properties=Animism. -children in this stage have the psychological equivalence of tunnel vision. -Centration: concentration on a certain aspect of a problem and ignoring the other. Ex. Orange juice in tall skinny glass and short wider glass. 3) Concrete Operational Stage: (7 yrs- 11yrs, encompassing middle and late elementary school) -children first use mental operations to solve problems and reason. -Mental operation: strategies and rules that make thinking more systematic and more powerful. -apply to numbers, categories of objects, spatial relations among objects. -mental operations can be reversed. -concrete operational thinkers believe that if the problem can be reversed, then the quantities would be identical. -Concrete is more powerful than preoperational. 4) Formal Operational Stage: (11yrs and up, encompassing adolescence and adulthood) -children and adolescents apply mental operations to abstract entities, they think hypothetically and reason deductivity. -these thinkers understand that reality is not the only possibility. -they can envision other realities and, and examine the consequences of these propositions. -these thinkers use hypothetical reasoning to probe the implications of fundamental change in physical or biological laws. -more sophisticated approach to problem solving. -solve problems by creating hypothesis and testing them. -deductive reasoning: Ability to draw conclusions from facts. Weakness of Piaget’s Theory: 1. Underestimates cognitive competence in infants and young children and overestimates cognitive competence in adolescents. 2. Vague concerning mechanisms of change 3. Does not account for variability in children’s performance. (children’s performance on different task fall short of consistency. Their thinking may be sophisticated in a certain domain but naïve in another.) 4. Undervalues the influence of the sociocultural environment on cognitive development. Strengths of Piaget’s Theory: 1. The study of Cognitive development itself. 2. A new view of Children 3. Fascinating, often counterintuitive discoveries. Check Your Learning: 1. What are the stages of Cognitive Development in Piaget’s Theory? Define the characteristics of each. 2. Summarize the Main shortcomings of Piaget’s account of cognitive development. 3. Piaget championed the view that children participate actively in their own development. How do the sensorimotor child’s contributions differ from the formal operational child’s contributions? 4. What is Piaget’s position on continuity-discontinuity? Modern Theories of Cognitive Development: Vygotsky’s Theory: -Sociocultural Perspective: Children are products of their culture: children cognitive development is not only brought about by social interaction, it is inseparable from the cultural contexts in which children live. Q: How does cultural context organize cognitive development? A: Culture often defines which cognitive activities are valued. Culture provides tools that shape the way children think. Higher-level cultural practices help children to organize their knowledge and communicate it to others. -Vygotsky saw development as an apprenticeship in which children advance when they collaborate with others who are skilled . -child development is never a solitary journey -believed that children always travel with others and usually progress most rapidly when they walk hand in hand with an expert partner. -believed that the social nature of cognitive development is captured in the concept of intersubjectivity= mutual, shared understanding among participants in an activity. -Guided Participations= cognitive growth results from children’s involvement in structured activities with others who are more skilled than they are. -Zone of Proximinal Development: The difference from what a child can do with help and what a child can do alone. –cognition develops first in a social setting and only gradually comes under the child’s independent control. -Scaffolding: refers to a teaching style that matches the amount of assistance to the learner’s needs. –giving help but not more than is needed. -When teachers collaborate with them, allowing children to take on more and more task as they master its different elements, they learn more effectively. -Private Speech (inner speech) Q: What do Piaget and Vygotsky share in common? A: Views of expert and Novice. Perspectives has several implications for helping children to learn. -Cooperative Learning: groups of students working together. Peer tutoring. Information Process Theory: -proposes that human cognition consists of mental hardware and mental software. -Sensory Memory: Where information is held briefly in raw, unanalyzed form (no longer than a few seconds) -Working Memory: Site of ongoing cognitive activity. -Long-Term Memory: limitless, permanent storehouse of knowledge of the world. – executive functioning Q: How does information process change with development? A: Better Strategies,more effective executive functioning, Increased automatic processing and increased speed processing. Core-Knowledge Theories: -Proposes distinctive domains of knowledge, some of which are acquired very early in life. –account for the fact that most children acquire some kind of knowledge relatively easier and early on in life. Q: What are the domains of knowledge that have specialized mental structures? A: Language, knowledge of objects, people and living things, they create informal or naïve theories of physics, psychology and biology. -Naïve Physics: how objects will move in the environment -Naïve Psychology: makes for more successful interactions with others. -Naïve Biology: important in avoiding predators and maintaining health. Check Your Learning: 1. What 3 concepts are fundamental to Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory? 2. What specialized domains of knowledge have been identified by core- knowledge theorist? 3. Do the developmental mechanism in the information-processing p[erspective emphasize nature, nurture or both? How? 4. How might an information-processing theorist explain sociocultural influence on cognitive development? Understanding in Core Domain: Naïve Physics: -shows babies understand objects more than Piaget claimed. -an infant who understands that objects are permanent should find the unrealistic event a truly novel stimulus and look at it longer than the realistic event. -infants know more about objects than permanence. -they know objects move continuously on path, not magically moving from one spot to another. -they know objects are solid and cannot pass through each other. -know that objects must contact another to cause movement-objects do not move spontaneously. Naïve Biology: -living and non-living things. -infants and toddlers use motion to identify animate objects; -by 12-15months children have determined that animate objects are self-propelled, can move irregular paths, and act to achieve a goal. -By pre-school (4years): -Movements: Children understand that animals can move themselves but inanimate objects can only be moved by other objects or by people. -Growth: Children understand that, from their first appearance, animals get bigger and physically more complex but that inanimate objects do not. -Internal Parts: Children know that the insides of animate objects contain different materials than the insides of inanimate objects. -Inheritance: Children understand that only things that have offspring resemble their parents. -Illness: Children believe that permanent illnesses such as color blindedness or food allergies are more likely to be inherited from parents, but that temporary illnesses such as a sore throat can be transmitted through contact. -Healing: Children understand that, when injured, animate things heal by regrowth whereas inanimate things must be fixed by humans. -Teleological Explanations: Children believe that living things and parts exist for a purpose. -rooted in essentialism: Children believe that all living things have an essence that can’t be seen but gives a living things its identity. -Children do NOT know that genes are the biological basis for inheritance. Naïve Psychology: -Folk Psychology: refers to our informal beliefs about other people and their behavior. -people’s behavior is often intentional- designed to achieve a goal. -between ages 2and 5, children develop a Theory of Mind= a naïve understanding of the relation between mind and behavior. -children believe that behavior is based on a person’s beliefs about events and situations, even when those beliefs are wrong. -child’s theory pof mind emerges from interactions with other people, interactions that provide children with insights into different mental states. Check Your Learning: 1) Summarize the evidence indicating that Piaget underestimated infants understanding of object permanence. 2) What properties of living things are featured in young children’s theories of biology?
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