Life 103- Study Guide; Exam 2
Life 103- Study Guide; Exam 2 LIFE 103
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexis Darling on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to LIFE 103 at Colorado State University taught by Jennifer L Neuwald; Tanya Anne Dewey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 152 views. For similar materials see Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
Study Guide: Exam 2 1. While Gymnosperms developed seeds, Angiosperms further adapted the key features of _________ and __________, making them the most suited to life on land. 2. The four whorls of flowers are… a. Petals, sepals, anthers, stigmas b. Sepals, stamens, carpels, petals c. Stamens, petals, anthers, carpels d. Petals, stamens, sepals, stigmas 3. Flowers of angiosperm sporophytes typically each produce both ovules and pollen, meaning they are… a. Monocot b. Dicot c. Homosporous d. Heterosporous 4. Double fertilization in angiosperms means that one sperm nuclei fertilizes the ________ and another fuses with the ___ _____ ______ of the female central cell, resulting in a(n) ______ and ________ (respectively to what combined in the first part of the sentence). a. Zygote, two polar nuclei, egg, cotyledons b. Egg, three polar nuclei, endosperm, food c. Endosperm, two nonpolar nuclei, embryo, megasporangia d. Egg, two polar nuclei, zygote, endosperm 5. Basal angiosperms have the ________ lineages. a. Oldest b. Newest c. Most complex d. Simplest 6. Monocots have _______root(s) with vascular tissue arranged in a ring, then in stems their vascular tissue is _________. Eudicots have ________root(s) with vascular tissue arranged like a star, then in stems their vascular tissue is __________. Word bank: tap(root) fibrous arranged in a ring scattered arranged like a star 7. Which of the following is NOT a derived trait of seed plants? a. Reduced gametophytes b. Heterospory c. Walled spores d. Pollen and ovules 8. The 3 main organs of a plant are ________, ________, and ________, which are all made up of the 3 main tissue types ________, ________, and ________. 9. A taproot extends deep into the ground with the main purpose of… a. Anchoring the plant so it cannot be pulled up b. Obtaining water c. Absorbing minerals that are only in the deeper layers of earth d. Providing stability so the plant can grow tall 10. At the very top/tip of stems there are _________ _________ whose purpose is to elongate the plant. 11. The purpose of _________ buds, located between the stem and leaves, can be to form a thorn or flower or just branch out so that the plant is bushier. 12. Rhizomes, stolons, and tubers are all examples of a. Underground stems b. Roots c. Modified leaves d. Petioles 13. Each complex leaf has (one or multiple) blade(s) attached to (one or multiple) stem(s) with (one or multiple) axillary bud(s). 14. The cell that makes a root hair is part of the ________ tissue. (hint: root hair cells are the outermost layer of the root) a. Dermal b. Vascular c. Ground d. All of the above 15. The vascular tissues include watercarrying _________ and sugartransporting ________. 16. Tracheids and vessel elements are (dead or alive) at maturity (and these are the water or sugar conducting cells?), while the sieve plates are (dead or alive) (water or sugar conducting?). 17. Of the ground tissues, ________ is internal to vascular tissue and ________ is external to vascular tissue. a. Xylem, phloem b. Pith, cortex c. Intereids, externeids d. Petiole, tendrils 18. Match the following qualities to the correct cell type: Thick secondary walls thin, flexible walls perform most metabolic functions grouped in strands dead at functional maturity support yet flex to not inhibit growth are least specialized so they can still divide and differentiate Parenchyma Collenchyma Sclerenchyma 19. Arrange the root parts in order from tip towards the center of the plant: zone of elongation, zone of cell division, root cap, zone of differentiation 20. Plant cells elongate mainly by a. Dividing to make more cells b. Producing more cytoplasm c. Filling vacuoles with water d. Expanding their cell walls 21. The _________ meristems are responsible for primary growth, and the _________ meristems are responsible for secondary growth. 22. For secondary growth, __________ produces more layers of secondary xylem and phloem and _________ replaces epiderm with a tougher periderm of cork cells, and together they _________. Word bank: lateral meristems apical meristems cork cambium vascular cambium bark elongate the shoots and roots increase diameter of stems and roots 23. True/false: Heartwood is the very center of a tree and is the path of water and mineral transport, while sapwood is around it and no longer transports water or minerals because it is dead. 24. Because of ____________, a plant can grow and develop according to its environment. a. Developmental plasticity b. Morphogenesis c. Indeterminate growth d. All of the above 25. When water and minerals pass through the cells before reaching vascular tissue, they can take the apoplastic route through ____________, or the symplastic route through __________, or the transmembrane route through __________. Choices: cytosol, cell walls/extracellular spaces, a combination of both the others 26. Water flows from (high or low) potential to (high or low) potential. The addition of solutes (raises or lowers) water potential? 27. In order to enter the vascular tissue, water and dissolved minerals must pass… a. The Casparian strip b. Through a cell membrane c. The cytoplasm of an endodermal cell d. All of the above 28. The main factor to continue the bulk flow of water through a plant is… a. Root pressure b. Transpiration c. The intake of water through root hairs d. Gravity 29. The endodermis is… a. The layer of cells that surround the vascular cylinder b. The layer of cells that surround the outside of roots c. The layer of cells between the xylem and phloem d. A waxy layer that blocks water and solvents from entering the vascular cylinder until they have passed through a plasma membrane. + + 30. Guard cells transport (K , H , or Na ) ions (outside or inside) their plasma membranes so that water flows into the guard cells and the stomata (open or close). 31. Translocation is… a. The movement of water through xylem b. The transport of sugars through phloem c. The transport of ions across cell membranes d. The movement of a plant root to a more nutrientrich area 32. True/false: Xylem always flows upwards (from roots to leaves). 33. True/false: Phloem always flows downwards (from leaves to storage roots). 34. True/false: A sugar sink always consumes sugar and does not produce sugar. 35. Sugar is loaded into sieve tubes by (passive or active) transport, specifically cotransport + + with sucrose and (K , H , or Na ) ions. 36. What are the steps of cation exchange? a. The plant roots of a mycorrhizae release cation nutrients needed by the mycelia of a fungus, and in return the fungus donates different cation nutrients b. Since anions stick to negatively charged soil particles, roots release more negative ions to displace the negative nutrient ions so that the nutrient ions are dissolved in the soil solution, allowing them to be taken in by the roots c. Since cations stick to negatively charged soil particles, roots acidify the soil by + + releasing H ions or CO w2ich reacts with H O to2form H , these positive ions displace the positive nutrient ions on the soil particles so that the nutrient ions are dissolved in the soil solution, allowing them to be taken in by the roots d. As leaves release positive ions into the air, negative ions come through the stomata and into the airspace of the leaves so that the spongy mesophyll layer can absorb them 37. _____ of the dry mass of plants is derived from atmospheric CO . 2 a. 100% b. 96% c. 50% d. 4% 38. Soil microbes do all of the following for plants EXCEPT… a. Release growth stimulating chemicals b. Supply energy c. Release antibiotics d. Absorb toxic metals 39. Since plants can only absorb nitrogen as NO or NH ,they depend on 3 4 _____________________ bacteria such as rhizobium. 40. The nodules on a legume are an example of… a. A mutualistic relationship; the bacteroids obtain sugar and the plant obtains nitrogen b. A parasitic relationship; the bacteroids feed off of the nutrients flowing through the legume roots, slightly depriving the legume c. Commensalism; the bacteroids get an anaerobic environment in the legume roots but the legume feels no effect 41. Stamen= _________+__________ Carpel=_________+__________+__________ 42. Dormancy is a seed state reached by (dehydration or imbibition), and germination begins with (dehydration or imbibition). 43. What is the order in which the embryo parts emerge? a. Radicle, hypocotyl, cotyledon b. Cotyledon, radicle, hypocotyl c. Hypocotyl, cotyledon, radicle d. Cotyledon, hypocotyl, radicle 44. What are adventitious shoots? a. Shoots with extra leaves that support an extraordinary amount of photosynthesis b. Roots that grow at a faster rate to find the most nutrientrich soils c. Fresh shoots designed to grow flower reproductive systems d. A parent root system which forms clones by new shoots 45. ___________ species have staminate and carpullate flowers on different plants to avoid selfpollination. a. Monecious b. Dioecious c. Homosporous d. Heterosporous 46. Transgenic organisms… a. Express a gene from another species b. Can have improved nutritional quality c. Can produce their own insecticides d. All of the above 47. Cell signal processing involves… a. Reception, hormone release, response b. Detection, transduction, response c. Translation, processing, hormone release d. Reception, transduction, response 48. Match: Auxins initiate seed germination Cytokinins stimulate cell elongation Giberellins results in the triple response and ripening Ethylene promote cell division 49. Which photoreceptor regulates seed germination and shade avoidance? a. Bluelight photoreceptors b. Phytochromes c. Chloroplasts d. Cytokinins 50. Leaves in the canopy absorb (red or farred light) which indicates to the plant that it needs to grow (taller or wider). Leaves near the ground receive (red or farred light) which indicates to the plant that it needs to grow (taller or wider). 51. As detected by the plant, a shortday plant flowers when (a, b, c, d) and a longday plant flowers when (a, b, c, d). a. Sunlight is shorter than a critical period b. Sunlight is longer than a critical period c. The night is shorter than a critical period d. The night is longer than a critical period. 52. What is a plant’s response to the environmental stress of drought? (hint: it happens in the leaves) 53. The release of antimicrobial chemicals and the toughening of cell walls is an initial response to... a. Herbivory b. Touch (thigmotropism) c. Pathogenassociated molecular patterns d. Heat 54. The hypersensitive response causes __________ while systematic acquired resistance causes… a. Cell and tissue death; expression of defense genes b. Expression of defense genes; the formation of new plants to continue the lineage c. The destruction of the majority of the plant; release of toxins d. Contraction of leaves; the alteration of certain genes Answers: 1. Flowers, fruit 2. B 3. D 4. D 5. A 6. Fibrous, scattered, tap, arranged in a ring 7. C 8. Leaves, stems, roots; dermal, vascular, ground 9. D 10. Apical buds 11. Axillary 12. A 13. Multiple, one, one 14. Dermal 15. Xylem, phloem 16. Dead, water; alive, sugar 17. B 18. Parenchyma Collenchyma Sclerenchyma thin, flexible walls support yet flex to not inhibit Thick secondary walls perform most metabolic growth dead at functional maturity functions grouped in strands are least specialized so they can still divide and differentiate 19. Root cap, zone of cell division, zone of elongation, zone of differentiation 20. C 21. Apical, lateral 22. Vascular cambium, cork cambium, increase diameter of shoots and roots 23. False; heartwood is dead and sapwood still transports water and minerals 24. A 25. Cell walls/extracellular spaces, cytosol, a combination of both 26. High to low; lowers 27. D 28. B 29. A 30. K ; inside; open 31. B 32. True 33. False 34. False; different sugar sinks can store sugar (storage roots), and leaves are a sugar sink in the spring as they grow rapidly, but then will later become a net producer of sugar. 35. Active; H+ 36. C 37. B 38. B 39. Nitrogenfixing 40. A 41. Filament+anther Stigma+style+ovary 42. dehydration; imbibition 43. A 44. D 45. B 46. D 47. D 48. Auxins elongate, cytokinins cause cytokinesis (cell division), gibberellins germinate, and ethylene takes away green (triple response and ripening) 49. B 50. Red, wider; farred, taller 51. D, C; remember plants are controlled based on night length 52. Close the stomata 53. C 54. A
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