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Study Guide: Midterm: Children and The Media

by: Brianda Hickey

Study Guide: Midterm: Children and The Media CAMHS-UA 150

Marketplace > NYU School of Medicine > Child Development > CAMHS-UA 150 > Study Guide Midterm Children and The Media
Brianda Hickey

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A detailed study guide covering the subjects of: Overview of Child Development Morality and Social Learning Introduction to Media Impact and Mental Health Research Positive Psychology Thinki...
Child and Adolescent Mental Health Studies: Children and the Media
Andrea Vazzana
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This 29 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brianda Hickey on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CAMHS-UA 150 at NYU School of Medicine taught by Andrea Vazzana in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 123 views. For similar materials see Child and Adolescent Mental Health Studies: Children and the Media in Child Development at NYU School of Medicine.

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Date Created: 03/06/16
Study Guide: Midterm Children and Media Overview of Child Development: Related videos: Growth of Knowledge: [ Piaget ] Erik son’s Psychological Development Theory : ////// Understand the central features in each stage of Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development. Sensorimotor ( Birth – 2 years) Child lacks internal schemas or representation Egocentrism - child has no concept of self so they are unable to distinguish self from environment (or mother) Piaget - Egocentrism gradually reduces over time Children initially lackobject permanence Child assumes that objects no longer exist if they are no longer visible (peek a boo) There are seven stages within Sensorimotor Stage: 1. Reflexive stage - simple reflex activity such as grasping, sucking 2. Primary circular reactions - 2 - 4.5 months Primary circular reactions - an action of his own which serves as a stimulus to which it responds with the same action Schemas are centered on infant's body Reflexive behaviors occur in stereotyped repetition (opening closing fingers repeatedly) 3. Secondary circular reactions - (4.5 - 9 months) Secondary circular reactions - an act that extends out to the environment Infant will try to produce an effect on objects seen or grasped Ex. Squeeze a rubber duck to hear sound 4. Object Permanence - (8-9 months) Babies become ticklish (they must be aware that someone else is tickling them or it would not work Develops if… A person or an object leaves the field of vision it still exists Look to the place where an object has fallen Continue to search for hidden objects Stranger anxiety develops around 8 or 9-11 months Child begins to realize the parents still exits once they go away Are able to recognize people better 5. Coordination of secondary circular reactions (8-12 months) Child uses schemes in goal-direct chains of behavior Means - Ends associations 6. Tertiary circular reactions (11 or 12-18) "Experimental scientist" stage Events are sought for their novelty Reflects intrinsic curiosity 7. The beginning of Thought ( 1 - 1/2 yrs old) Child is developing mental representation - ability to hold an image in their mind for a period beyond the immediate experience Engage in Deferred Imitation They can use mental combinations to sole simple problems, put down a toy to open door Pretending begins - one thing could stand for something else Preoperational (2-7 years) Adaptation - a child changes over time as it makes sense of the world in which it lives in Achieved through the process of assimilation and accommodations Assimilation - new information can be fitted into their existing schema Accommodations - new information or experience which do not fit into the child's current understanding. Animism: is the tendency to attribute feelings to inanimate objects (believe inanimate objects are alive Egocentrism: persists- a child understand everything from their own perspective Realism - believing that psychological events (dreams) are real Centration (one-dimensional thinking) - unable to focus on two concepts simultaneously. Ex. Concepts of color + length Lack of conservation of mass- inability to realize that some things remain unchanged despite looking different ex. They would want 5 pennies rather than one nickel (since they would be getting mor e) Concrete Operational (7-11 years) Children believe rules are absolute Emergence of logical (cause and effect) thinking including reversibility and ability to sequence and serialize Seriation: ability to sort objects in a n order according to size, shape, or any other characteristic Reversibility- the ability to mentally picture an action being carried out in reverse. essential for conservation Transitivity- the ability to recognize logical relationships among elements in a serial order, and perform ‘transitive inferences’ ex. If A is taller than B, and B is taller than C, then A must be taller than C Requires concrete examples (unable to think in abstract terms) Less importance is attached to information from their senses as they use thought and imagination more Are able to take another’s point of view Can apply basic knowledge to concrete experiences aside from his or her perceptions Decentering - where the child takes into account multiple aspects of a problem to solve it. The child will no longer perceive an exceptionally wide but short cup to contain less than a normally-wide, taller cup Conservation - Understanding that quantity, length or number of items is unrelated to the arrangement or appearance of the object or items made possible by the ability to decenter Conservation of number is first ( 5-6 years) conservation of weight (7-8 years) Conservation of volume (11 years) Formal Operational (Adolescence – adulthood) The ability to engage in abstract, hypothetical, and deductive reasoning Characteristics Abstract thought the child can now think in abstract terms so no longer requires concrete examples to solve problems Hypothetical thought The child is able to consider things that it has no experience of and consider imaginary scenarios Hypotheses testing Faced with a problem the formal thinker will approach it logically, produce a list of possibilities and test each one systematically Solve Syllogisms A conclusion is reached from a number of statements Piaget maintained everyone would reach this stage, no matter how long it takes Evidence to suggest this is not the case, that it tends to occur later than Piaget predicted Bradmetz (1999) in a longitudinal study showed that out of 62 children tested at the age of 15, on a series of Piagetian tasks, only one had reached formal operations Know how cognitive abilities develop according to Piaget. Believed the development of cognitive abilities occurs because of two factors Maturation of the Brain As the brain grows and becomes more examples, this allows higher levels of thinking However, this means that it is not possible for children to benefit form experience until their brain is sufficiently developed The Child's interaction with the environment Know the differences between operations and schemas and be able to provide examples of each. Schemas are an internal representation of the world that acts as a framework on which the child bases its knowledge of its environment You have a schema for knowing how to use a fork, you do not think about this automatic action…you just do! ex. If someone told you to use a fork as a knife, it would create an disequilibrium in the existing schema you have Operations are logical, thought out ways to interpret/interact in regards to a situation or problem. ex. the child will no longer perceive an exceptionally wide but short cup to contain less than a normally-wide, taller cup Understand the concept of equilibrium and disequilibrium in regards to schemas, and its relation to adaptation, assimilation, and accommodation. The child requires a stable internal world If a new experience does not match existing schema then a state of disequilibrium is produced Assimilation: If a child has only been exposed to horses and finally sees her first deer, she might refer to it as a horse. In this way, she is assimilating a new schema into a horse schema she has already saved/been exposed to The child needs to accommodate to restore the balance, (alter its perception of how things work) ex. will be able to tell the difference between a horse and a deer Piaget saw this desire for equilibrium as innate and believed that it drives us to learn Example would be having a schema for dog and misinterpreting a cat as a dog On being told the mistake this causes temporary confusion and the child needs to alter its schemata to allow this. Essential for learning Understand the different stages in Erikson’s Psychosocial Development theory and how Erikson developed this theory. How Erikson developed his theory: Problems with Freud: did not recognize any personality development past adolescence Erikson believed personality developed throughout whole life One main element of Erikson’s psychosocial stage theory is the development of Ego Identity Ego Identity- The conscious sense of self that we develop through social interaction According to Erikson, our ego identity is constantly changing due to new experience and information we acquire in our daily interactions with others Erikson believed that a sense of competence motivates behaviors and actions Each stage in Erikson’s theory is concerned with becoming competent in an area of life If the stage is handled well, the person will feel a sense of mastery, which he referred to as ego strengthor ego quality If the stage is managed poorly, the person will emerge with a sense of inadequacy In each stage, Erikson believed people experience a conflict that serves as a turning point in development In Erikson’s view, these conflicts are centered on either developing a psychological quality or failing to develop that quality During these times of conflict, the potential for personal growth is high, but so is the potential for failure Not just about feeling (as Freud believed), but also about the emotional attachment Stages in Erikson’s Psychosocial Development Theory Basic Trust vs. Mistrust 0- 18 Months Most fundamental stage Forms the basis of the formation of identity An infant is entirely dependent therefore trust depends on the reliability of the caregiver If a child successfully develops trust, he or she will feel safe and secure in the world Inconsistent, emotionally unavailable, or rejecting caregivers contribute to feelings of mistrust Failure to develop trust will result in fear and a belief that the world is inconsistent and unpredictable Optimism and hope derives from basic trust Anatomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1 1/2 - 4 years) The second stage of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development Aka “Potty Training” Focused on children developing a greater sense of personal control Erikson believed that toilet training was a vital part of this process He believe that learning to control one’s body functions leads to a feeling of control and a sense of independence Muscular maturation of sphincters sets stage for holding and letting go Child has increased capacities includes learning to walk, feed self, talk Gaining more control over choices (food, toys, and clothing) Children who successfully complete this stage feel secure and confident Those who do not successfully complete are left with a sense of inadequacy and self-doubt Shame may occur with lack of self control or when a child is overly self-conscious via negative exposure Self doubt can evolve if parent overly shames the child over elimination/toileting Need for constant limits, outer control, firmness and consistency of caretaker prior to development of autonomy Initiative Vs. Guilt (4-6 Years) During preschool years Productive and involved in play Sibling rivalries frequent Children become more personably and courageous Initiative arises in relation to tasks for the sake of activity (both motor and intellectual) Initiative, enjoyment of an activity and accomplishment Too much initiative Child becomes ruthless Too little initiative: Child becomes shy, passive, lazy sense of guilt Self-doubt Modulation - control themselves Children who are successful at this stage feel capable and able to lead others Child learns to mask disappointment Can recognize what is not socially appropriate Able to articulate past, present and future describe their emotions Able to self Sooth Separation anxiety goes down - Child can remember their parents until they come back Industry vs. Inferiority (7-11 Years) How to get busy and be useful This stage covers the early school years Children enjoy making shared rules, forming unisex clubs and collecting things such as baseball cards or dolls Building, creating and accomplishing Through social interactions, children begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments and abilities Children who are encouraged and commended by parents and teachers develop a feeling of competence and belief in their skills Those who receive little or no encouragement from parents, teachers, or peers will doubt their ability to be successful (danger of self inadequacy and inferiority if child feels unable to compete with his skills and status among peers) Identity vs. Identify diffusion (Role Confusion) 12-17 years Children are exploring their independence and developing a sense of self think of what is true or real about them Struggle to obtain sense of ego identity Sense of sameness and continuity Preoccupation with appearance, hero worship, ideology Group identity with peers develops Moodiness and affect reactivity develop Struggles with decisions about romantic relationships and conflicts with parents Teens 'try on different identities' Separate more from the family Proper encouragement and reinforcement through personal exploration, will emerge with a strong sense of self and a feeling of independence and control Blind allegiance might emerge Those who remain unsure of their beliefs and desires will feel insecure and confused about themselves and the future (danger of role confusion with doubts about sexual identity and vocational identity) Resolve Identity Status: Identity achievement Identity Moratorium In the process of exploring without making a commitment Identity Foreclosure Commit to an outcome without exploring what the other outcomes are Identity Diffusion Sense of apathy, not exploring nor committing, just floundering (like Ariel) Intimacy vs. Isolation (19-40 years old) This stage covers the period of early adulthood when people are exploring personal relationships Erikson believed it was vital that people develop close, committed relationships with other people Those who are successful at this step will develop relationships that are committed and secure Each step builds on skills learned in previous steps Erikson believed that a strong sense of personal identity was important to developing intimate relationships Studies have demonstrated that those with a poor sense of self tend to have less committed relationships and are more likely to suffer emotional isolation, loneliness, and depression Able to show long term commitment Develop significant relationships If successful: Sense of love instilled Too much: Exclusivity, being stuck Generatively vs. Stagnation (25-64 years old) During adulthood, people continue to build their lives, focusing on their career and family Those who are successful during this phase will feel that they are contributing to the world by being active in their home and community Those who fail to attain this skill will feel unproductive and uninvolved in the world Too much: Over extension - always taking care of other people Too Little Rejection - person feels unproductive and uninvolved in the world Integrity vs. Despair (65 years old to death) This phase occurs during old age and is focused on reflecting back on life Those who are unsuccessful during this phase will feel that their life has been wasted and will experience many regrets. The individual will be left with feelings of bitterness and despair Those who feel proud of their accomplishments will feel a sense of integrity. Successfully completing this phase means looking back with few regrets and a general feeling of satisfaction. These individuals will attain wisdom, even when confronting death People begin to reflect and accomplish what they did in life Good Job: A sense of happiness and integrity Bad Job: A sense of despair Gender Identity Gender identity is firmly solidified by three years of age (can identify self as a boy or girl) A child has a firm belief about his or her gender by 2-3 years of age Sexual orientation usually consolidates by 15-17 years old Morality and Social Learning: Related Videos: The Heinz Dilemma & Kohlberg: Albert Bandura & The Bobo Doll: Kolber’s Stages of Moral Development: Understand Bandura’s Social Learning Theory. Social learning theory posits that most learning occurs vicariously by observing and imitating models For survival and growth, humans are designed to acquire patterns of behavior through observational learning Be able to describe reciprocal determinism, instigation mechanisms, and maintaining mechanisms. Maintaining mechanisms include: External reinforcement (e.g., tangible rewards, social and status rewards, reduction of aversive treatment) Punishment Vicarious reinforcement: a reinforcement which is received indirectly by observing another person who is being reinforced. Self-regulatory mechanisms (e.g., self-observation, self-judgment through attribution and valuation, self-applied consequences). Instigation mechanisms include both biological and cognitive motivators Internal aversive stimulation might activate behavior through its painful effect (hunger, sex, or aggression) Cognitively based motivators are based on the organism's capacity to mentally represent future material as well as sensory, and social consequences. reciprocal determinism: a person's behavior both influences and is influenced by personal factors and the social environment. If you are driving (environment), and someone honks…you think they are saying hi (cognitive)….you wake at them and smile (behavior) Know the three different types of modeling. Live Model: involves an actual individual demonstrating or acting out a behavior Verbal Instructional Model: involves descriptions and explanations of a behavior Symbolic Model: involves real or fictional chapters displaying behaviors in books, films, television programs, or online media Understand the four processes that govern social learning. Four processes govern social learning: 1. Attention- regulates exploration and perception 2. Memory- observed events are symbolically stored to guide future behavior 3. Motor Production- novel behaviors are formed from the integration f constituent acts with observed actions 4. Incentives and Motivation- regulate the performance of learned responses Development involves biological maturation enthuse processes as well as the increasingly complex storage of continqencies and response repertoires in memory Be able to describe the Bobo doll experiment and its significance. In 1963, Bsndura repeated his experiment to test the extent to which film- mediated aggressive models influenced imitative behavior 48 girls and 48 boys were divided into 3 experimental groups and 1 control group Group1, watched a live model become aggressive towards the bobodoll Group 2, watched a film version of th human model become aggressive to the bobo doll Group 3, watched a cartoon version of a cat becoming aggressive towards the Bobo doll Control Group, saw nothing Following the exposure to the models, all fours groups of children were then individually placed in a room with an experimenter where they were exposed to a mildly frustrating situation to elicit aggression. Next the children were allowed to play freely in an adjoining room, which was full of toys, including the Bobo doll and the "weapons" that were used by the models. Results demonstrated that the children who had been exposed to the aggressive behavior, whether real-life, on film or cartoon, exhibited nearly twice as much aggressive behavior than the control group. It was also found that boys exhibited more overall aggression than girls. Know the differences between each stage of Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development theory. Pre Conventional Morality : Stage 1: Obedience and Punishment- Children think of what is right as that which authority says is right. Doing the right thing is obeying authority and avoiding punishment. Stage 2: Individualism and Exchange:, Children are no longer impressed by any single authority; they see that there are different sides to any issue. Since everything is relative, one is free to pursue one's own interests, although it is often useful to make deals and exchange favors with others. Conventional Morality: More of an emphasis on those who are close to you: family, group;Maintaining the expectation and rules of the family is important At stages 3 Good Interpersonal Relationships and Stage 4 Maintaining Social Order, young people think as members of the conventional society with its values, norms, and expectations At stage 3 Good Interpersonal Relationships , they emphasize being a good person, which basically means having helpful motives toward people close to them. At stage 4 Maintaining Social Order, the concern shifts toward obeying laws to maintain society as a whole. Post-Conventional Morality: Even though an individual may identify with a certain group, they may not go by that group’s laws if they see the situation as different At stages 5 and 6, people are less concerned with maintaining society for it own sake, and more concerned with the principles and values that make for a good society. At stage 5 Social Contract and Individual Rights, they emphasize basic rights and the democratic processes that give everyone a say. At stage 6 Universal Principles,they define the principles by which agreement will be most just. Understand the Heinz dilemma and be able to apply it to the different stages of Kohlberg’s theory. Kohlberg Conducted an experiment to test Piaget's findings - uncovered 6 stages, only the first three shared many features with Piaget's stages Tested: (1958) 72 boys, from both middle and lower class families in Chicago. Ages 10, 13, and 16. [Later added younger children, delinquents, and boys and girls from around the world] Scenario Given: A husband (Heinz) has a dying wife who may be cured with a very expensive remedy. The couple is unable to pay ($2,000) and the husband decides to steal the medicine in order to save his wife's life. Once given the scenario, the children are questioned if they believe the husband should have done this, why or why not. The main concern is their reasoning behind their answer.[Displays their moral development/stage] Kohlberg's Six Stages Level 1 - Preconventional Morality 1. Stage 1. Obedience and Punishment Orientation. Child assumes powerful authorities hand down a fixed set of rules which he or she must unquestioningly obey. The concern is with what authorities permit and punish Children do not yet speak as members of society [MUST OBEY BIG PEOPLE] punishment 'proves' that disobedience is wrong 2. Stage 2. Individualism and Exchange recognize there are different view points It might be okay for the husband to steal, but for the store owner it is not okay punishment is simply a risk that one naturally wants to avoid speak as isolated individuals recognize fair exchange- I scratch your back, you scratch mine no identification with the values of the family or community Level 2 - Conventional Morality 1. Stage 3. Good Interpersonal relationships Recognize that people should behaving in 'Good' ways and not 'bad' ways ex. children justified the husband's actions by saying he is a Good man trying to save his wife, and the store owner is a bad man charging so much money. Defines issues in terms of character traits and motives 2. Stage 4. Maintaining the Social Order Member of Society perspective emphasis on obeying laws, respecting authority, and performing one's duties so that social order is maintained In contrast to Stage 1. (where children were unable to express past the basic 'It's against the law, so it's wrong'), Stage 4 children are able to provide further reasoning behind their judgment and how breaking the law effects society. ex. Children believe husband's actions were unjustified, if everyone did what he did the world would turn to chaos Level 3 - Postconventional Morality 1. Stage 5. Social contract and Individual Rights Trying to determine logically what a society ought to be like Best Society = people freely enter to work toward the benefit of all Different social groups -> different values Certain basic rights (life & liberty) Democratic procedure for changing unfair law and for improving society Response to scenario: Not generally favor breaking laws, but the wife's right to live is a moral right that must be protected 2. Stage 6. Universal Principles The "theoretical Stage" - Many people do Not reach this stage of development Believes Justice requires impartiality and the principle that everyone is given full and equal respect Impartiality- person needs to remove themselves (their eventual role) from the equation and only consider others) A commitment to justice makes the rationale for civil disobedience stronger and broader Introduction to Media Impact and Mental Health Research: Know the difference between correlation and causation. Correlation is a measure of the relationship between two variables While two things may be correlated, one thing did not cause the other. ex. during the summer the sales of rattle snake bites and coke sales both go up, although they have a correlation…rattle snake bites did not cause the coke sales to go up Causation: the actions of causing something Be able to describe what it means to have an “n of 1” in a study. a clinical trial in which a single patient is the entire trial, a single case study. There is only one subject being studied Know how to interpret Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient values. In many analyses the correlation will be measured as r (Pearson’s coeffeicient) Correlations can be positive or negative Positive correlation Negative correlation (same direction) (opposite direction) The direction of the relation is determined by the sign The strength of the correlation is measured by the correlational coefficient Can range from -1 to +1 A 0 indicates that there is no relation between variables The closer the number is to 1 (-/+), the stronger the relation Correlations do not indicate causation Negative correlation indicates that the presence of one decreases the likelihood of the other variable’s presence Understand the stages of theory acceptance. Theory Case Report (n=1) Series (n=1-10) Formal Study Randomized Control Studies Meta-analyses and Review Articles Policy and Position Statements Be able to identify non-peer, limited, and peer reviewed data sources. Non-peer reviewed Newsletters, op-ed pieces Websites Lectures Limited peer review Textbook chapters Non-peer reviewed journals Peer reviewed Blinded review of paper before publication Most academic journals Understand the structure of a research article and be able to define each part of it. Abstract Brief review of the entire article What was studied? Who participated in the study? How and where was the research done? What did the researchers find? Introduction Commonly called Background or Literature Review What they studied? Why the study was done? What is already known on the topic? Citations will be listed Methods Who participated? How were they chosen? What kind of research was done? How was it done? Interviews Review of medical records Measuring an intervention? How were the results examined? Results What the authors found Tables and graphs (read them) Statistically significant (or not) Were the results likely due to chance Discussion/Conclusion Take it with a Grain of Salt Discussion should always describe the limitations of the study What can’t they conclude? Confounding variables? Are the results considered against a background of previously published data? Is the study applicable to larger populations of similar people? Who would those similar persons be? Positive Psychology: Know the three pillars of Positive Psychology Positive personal traits Positive subjective experience Positive institutions-society and media Understand the ripple effect and be able to briefly describe mirror neurons. We have the power to affect others’ happiness - a ripple effect ex. when someone smiles at you, you can’t help but smile back Know what dopamine is, its function and factors that influence dopamine levels Dopamine: Neurotransmitter in the brain a chemical substance that is released in the brain and transmits nerve impulses across a synapse Nucleus Assumbens - pleasure center of brain Raises pleasure in the brain Turns on earning centers If a person enjoys their work (during) it increases their level of intelligence, intellectual resources, creativity, productivity, lowers depression rate, lowers turnover and raises their level of activation in that area Physical activity releases dopamine especially novel activity dark chocolate Be able to identify the factors that do not influence happiness Money Happiness Income Paradox Material Things Youth Know the happiness pie chart describing what variables affect happiness PDF File Be able to identify activities/factors that increase happiness Gratitude Journaling Three times a day X 21 days Random acts of kindness Compassion Social Connection Exercise Mediation Journaling Five minutes about a positive experience with a lot of detail (immune system and optimism) Play Friends and Family Meaningful activity/ Meaning Amusing video clips Increased activity in the left prefrontal cortex (also seen in brains of generally happy people and Tibetan Monks Be able to describe the scientific evidence of what makes us happy from the Anchor “One Day University” reading from Amazon. Link to youtube Video: Thinking Outside of the Box Related Videos: ADHD: Understand the symptoms and subtypes of ADHD ADHD People show a persistent pattern of inattention and or hyperactivity - impulsivity that interfere with functioning or development Six or more symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity must be present for children up to age 16, or Five or more individuals 17 and older Symptoms have to be present for at least 6 months Symptoms are inappropriate for developmental level Several inattentive or hyperactivity - impulsive symptoms were present before age 12 years severe symptoms present in 2 or more settings symptoms are interfering with or reducing the quality of social, school, or work functioning symptoms do not happen only during the course of schizophrenia or another psychotic disorder symptoms are not better explained by another mental disorder Inattentive Symptoms trouble holding attention on tasks or play activities doesn’t seem to listen when spoken directly does not follow instructions cannot remember the instructions given trouble organizing tasks and activities Dislikes things that require sustained mental effort easily distracted Hyperactivity and Impulsivity fidgets with or taps hands or feet, squirms in seat leaves seat in situations when remaining seated is expected runs about or climbs in situations where it is not appropriate unable to play or take part in leisure activities quietly. often “on the go” acting as if “driven by a motor” talks excessively blurts out an answer before a question has been completed has trouble waiting his/her turn interrupts or intrudes on others (butts into conversations or games) ADHD Subtypes Predominantly Inattentive: If symptoms of inattention, but not hyperactivity-impulsivity, were present for the past six months Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive: If symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity but not inattention were present for the past six months. Combined Presentation: If symptoms of both criteria inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity were present for the past 6 months Boys are more commonly diagnosed with combined type Leading to earlier detection Girls with ADHD often have inattentive type Leading to frequently later detection Know the effects of television viewing on ADHD In a study, 1,354 children published in Pediatrics in April 2004, it was found that for every hour of television watched per day, at age 1 and 3, children had almost a 10% higher change of developing attention problems that could be diagnosed as ADHD by age seven ADHD may or may not be inherited- probably not More likely to be diagnosed with ADHD if watch more TV television viewing might contribute to the development of attention problems, and the effects may be long lasting. According to Dr. Christakis: the rapidly moving images on TV and in video games may rewire the brains of very young children, making it difficult for them to focus on slower tasks that require more thought. Others say that TV may, at least temporarily, idle the centers in the pre-frontal cortex that are responsible for organizing, planning, and sequencing thought. Understand the link between television viewing and Autism Controversial study’ “ Does Television Cause Autism” by Cornell University, done to see if Autism was connected with TV viewing by children under the age of 3 as cable TV became common in California and Pennsylvania, beginning around 1980, childhood autism rose more in the areas that had cable TV than in the areas that did not. more time toddlers spend watching TV -> more likely they were to exhibit symptoms of autism disorder Autism is thought to be inheritable - biologically based but, the study points to a significant correlation between rising autism rates and more frequent television viewing Know the effects of television viewing on asthma, sleep and eyesight Asthma and High Blood Pressure Children who watch more than 2 hours of television per day are twice as likely to develop asthma as those who watch less Breathing patterns associated with sedentary behavior could lead to developmental changes in the lungs Television viewing is linked to significantly higher blood pressure in children Kids watching from an hour and a half to five and a half hours of TV each day had blood-pressure readings that were five to seven points higher than those children watching less than half an hour of TV a day Poor Sleep researchers found that the number of hours that babies watched television was associated with irregular nap and bedtime schedules, which leads to poor quality sleep more TV a child viewed, the more likely he/she was to resist going to bed, to have difficulty falling asleep and trouble staying asleep, to be afraid to sleep and to wake up during the night Sleep problems created by TV viewing in childhood often persists throughout adolescence and into adulthood watching 3 or more hours of TV per day during childhood more than doubled the chances of a child having sleep problems in adulthood Lack of sleep associated with TV viewing has been linked to number of health problems lowers body level of the hormone melatonin Poor Eyesight the longer periods of fixed attention required by viewers are now believed to be a significant cause of an increase in myopia - can lead to blindness in extreme cases television can cause a dramatic increase in shortsightedness television is responsible for damaging children’s visual development and is a major cause of impairing children’s reading and learning abilities Know what melatonin is and screen time’s effect on this hormone melatonin develops the immune system, regulates circadian rhythm and sleep cycles, controls hormone levels, and helps learning and memory Lower melatonin level may be one factor contributing to early onset of puberty in girls as young as 8 When children were deprived of television, computers and video games, their melatonin production increased by an average of 30 % Know the effects of television viewing on mood/depression Depression those who watch TV were more likely to report symptoms of depression, with the rate increasing 8% with every additional hour of TV viewing Sitting in front of the television may create lower levels of dopamine in the brain results in a lack of motivation, drive and creative thinking Mastery helps creates self-esteem The sense of accomplishment a child gets when he works hard to do something - roll over for the first time, throw a ball or complete a puzzle television is antithetical to the experience of mastery This dynamic contributes to depression Aggression and Violence verbal and physical aggression on the school playground increase for both boys and girls Fear movies may affect a child’s fears of separation and abandonment the number one preventable cause of nightmares and anxieties in children = movies/television Be able to identify what three activities get displaced by television viewing Time spent with parents and siblings Time doing Homework Time spent partaking in creative play Be able to describe Williams’s 1979 study on the impact of television introduction including its results- “The Impact of Television: A Natural Experiment in Three Communities A natural experiment involving a non-isolated Canadian town which did not obtain TV reception until late 1973 Code-named “Notel” Tannis Williams, a professor of sociology at the University of British Columbia, studied three communities on two occasions, just before one of the towns obtained television for the first time and again two years later It is extremely rare for a researcher to have the opportunity to examine such a large number of subjects who have never viewed television Methods: 120 boys and girls in early elementary school at Phase 1 and Phase 2 (two years later) “Notel” served as the experimental town “Unitel” and “Multitel” served as the control/comparison towns which both already had access to television The three towns were similar in size, demographic variables such as SES, cultural backgrounds of the residents in the town, and types of industry in the area The researchers studied aggression by observing children’s natural play behavior on the school playgrounds Results: Following the introduction of TV to Notel, both verbal and physical aggression on the school playground increased substantially for both girls and boys The second graders studied were found to be twice as aggressive toward each other (as measured by acts of pushing or taunting) Verbal and physical aggression also for those who were initially low as well as those initially high in aggression relative to their classmates Similar increases did not occur in Unitel and Multitel, although amount of TV viewing by children in those towns in Phase 1 did add significantly to prediction of aggressive behavior in Phase 2/ Know the effects of television viewing on academic performance Academic Problems Children who watch a lot of television re likely to have lower grades ins school and read fewer books Children incomes where the TV is on a ll the time re less likely to be able to read by the age of 6 than their peers Children who have television int heir bedrooms have the lowest scores on school achievement levels 10 hours is the magic number of TV-watching hours per week at which academic scores starts to decline for school age kids Know the effects of television viewing on metabolic rates Metabolism television slows down metabolic rates burn fewer calories, slow metallic rates stay 25 min after turning television off Know the effects of television viewing on eating habits and food choices Turning Off the Body’s Signals 53% of children under the age of six eat at least one meal or snack while watching TV while watching TV, difficult to pay attention to the body’s signals of satiety The avg person eats eight times more food while watching TV TV= sublime effects on appetite that cause diners to make more bites per minute, take larger mouthfuls, and eat more food Influencing Food Preferences Television negatively influences food choices people who watch a lot of TV are more likely to rate unhealthy foods as being “good for you” The more children who watch television commercials,t he more likely they are to eat sugary cereal Child Consumerism and Advertising: Related Videos: American Academy of Pediatrics Guide to Viewing Television Girl vs. Boy Ads Girl: Boy: Know the results of the study examining children’s request for products and viewing advertising Prospective cohort study published in the Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine Participants: 827 third grade children; 386 students in 6 schools were followed for 20 months Results: Children’s screen media time was significantly associated with concurrent requests for advertised toys and food/drinks Screen media exposure is a prospective risk factor for children’s request for advertised products Understand the role of development on child and teen consumerism. Infants and Toddlers (0-2 years): Feeling Wants and Presences Babies come into the world with some presences for tastes and smells Like to look & listen at mothers Enjoy Sweet & Salty tastes Enjoy hearing human voices Born with an innate tendency to respond to language - “mothers” by 4-6 months babies start to turn their head toward music and show outward expressions of joy and surprise Parents recognize this, and offer their child it much more At 4-5 months 8 months of age - babies can sit upright in a shopping cart more likely to be taken to the grocery story 18-24 months babies stare to recognize and request products express brand preferences advertisers make wrapping pretty for babies - they will ask their parents to buy for them Preschoolers (2-5 years old): Nagging and Negotiating Unable to distinguish fantasy from reality Believe characters and events in media are real Will expect the product to act like it does in adds ex. a toy train will have smoke coming out of it respond better to programs that are slow-paced and with lots of repetition ex. Barney - Clean Up Song : repetition Believe information in commercials is true, generally unable to separate commercials from television programs Children pays just as much attention to ads and programs while adults get up to use the restroom…can recognize ads are not part of the program - not important Not fair to advertise to them, cannot recognize they are being sold to Unable to recognize that the shows/advertisements are there to sell, not just for enjoyable viewing Cannot recognize someone else’s viewpoint Demonstrate centration- phenomenon in which they fixate on one particular detail to the exclusion of others Ex. Children at this age would not like Beauty and the Beast Beast looks too scary…cannot recognize he is a good guy - would be terrified As consumers, leads them to be unable to judge multiple variables of purchasing, instead focusing on one feature ex. sounds, color Unable to keep minds off tempting products for long poor ability to regulate impulse control - pestering parents Have little disappointment, everything is high expectation and joyous interaction Under the age of 5- unable to use strategies to delay gratification Makes for potentially difficult parenting situations Early Elementary School (age 5-8): Adventure and the First purchase continue to exhibit centration, although it begins to decline The coyote (who keeps dying) is recognized as unreal Begin to separate reality from fantasy, but believe that everything that looks real probably is real Attention span lengthens to almost an hour Begin to enjoy fast-paced entertainment, more complicated plots, character and humor begin to make independent purchases snack time, buy candy Later Elementary School (8-12): Conformity and Fastidiousness Opinions o peers play an increasingly important role Begin to be able to critically evaluate and compare products and information Become attached to real-life heroes Celebrity endorsements come into play Begin to appreciate quality of programing not simple one interesting quality Begin to collect or accumulate products, often with an eye toward social aspect Want to be at the Top at the hierarchy Abercrombie Know the results of the Nutritional Content of Foods Advertised During the Television Programs Children Watch Most study. Convenience/fast foods and sweets comprised 83% of advertised foods Snack-time eating was depicted more often than breakfast, lunch, and dinner combined Apparent character body size was unrelated to eating behavior A 2000-calorie diet of foods in the general-audience advertisements would exceed recommended daily values (RDVs) of total fat, saturated fat, and sodium Know the American Academy of Pediatrics’ Guide to Viewing Television 1. Limit children’s total media time (with entertainment media) to no more than 1 to 2 hours of quality programming per day 2. Remove television sets from children’s bedrooms 3. Discourage television viewing for children younger than 2 years, and encourage more interactive activities that will promote proper brain development, such as talking, playing, singing, and reading together 4. Monitor the shows children and adolescents are viewing. Most programs should be informational, educational, and nonviolent 5. View television programs along with children, and discuss the content. Two recent surveys involving a total of nearly 1,500 parents found that less than half of parents reported always watching television with their children 6. Use controversial programming as a stepping-off point to initiate discussions about family values, violence, sex and sexuality, and drugs 7. Use the DVR wisely to show or record high-quality, educational programming for children 8. Support efforts to establish comprehensive media education programs in schools 9. Encourage alternative entertainment for children, including reading, athletics, hobbies, and creative play Know the effects of viewing advertisements Impacts a child’s preference towards numerous products The developmental stage the child is in affects their susceptibility to different forms and contents of advertising Know when a child is reliably able to distinguish an ad from programming as per our text book (hint: 5 years old) 2 year olds pay just as much attention to ads as to programs 5, 8, and 12 year olds looked more at programs than at ads, with the difference increasing by age Know what is meant by cradle to grave advertising The development of brand loyalty at an early age until they die. ex. only buying Jiff all your life because it was the peanut butter your mom used Know whether or not Baby Einstein is recommended viewing for very young children (0-2) NO Baby Einstein is not recommended. Babies need to be interacting with people, not machines. - Stunt development Know the difference between ads aimed at girls versus ads aimed at boys (as per the chapter) “Girl" Ads Far more likely to feature domestic setting such as a bedroom or a backyard 80% portrayed cooperation none features competitive interactions Toy ads were for Barbie dolls Teen Girl ads: emphasize romance, sexuality, and belonging to a group “Boy” Ads Features settings such as restaurants, video arcades. baseball fields 30% featured competitive interactions Toy ads were frequently for video games or action figures Teen Boy ads: emphasizes competition, having the best, achievement in persuasive appeals Aggression, Violence, and Media: Related Videos: Parasympathetic vs Sympathetic Nervous System Parasympathetic: Sympathetic: Different Types of Aggression Research of Video Games Know the differences between the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system. Sympathetic nervous system- Arousal Main neurotransmitter Norepinephrine Increases heart rate, blood pressure, blood flow to muscle, and sweating (so we can run away or fight) Mediated the “fight and flight” response ex. tiger that enters the room, sympathetic nervous system will kick in Mediates violence and aggression Parasympathetic nervous system more localized and specific innervation slows heart rate, releases stomach acid, and increases gut motility Mediates the “rest or digest” response ex. when you just finished yoga, Parasympathetic nervous system will kick in Understand the different types of aggression and the General Aggression Mode. Moyer (1968) - 7 types of aggression predatory aggression: attack on prey Inter-male aggression: competition between males over access to resources Fear-induced aggression: aggression associated with attempts to flee from a threat juvenile delinquent, when simply approached by police officer, will induce aggression - out of fear Irritable aggression: aggression induced by frustration and directed against an available target Someone mad at boss, comes home and kicks dog Territorial aggression: defense of a fixed area against intruders Maternal aggression: a female’s aggression to protect her offspring from a threat Instrumental Agression: aggression directed towards obtaining some goal A person mugs another for a jacket Aggression can take a variety of forms Physical Verbal Mental Emotional Developed by Brad Bushman and Craig Anderson in 2002 Aggression is based on the activation and application of aggression- related knowledge structures stores in memory Suggests that repeated exposure to violent media contributes to the development of an aggression personality If you keep seeing something violent over and over again, it will be easier for you to be aggressive (aggressive personality Know the terms presented (aggression, violence, juvenile delinquency, arousal, scripts & schemas). Aggression Hostile or violent behavior or attitudes toward another; readiness to attack or confront NOT necessarily will take action and attack/confront Current human binary classification Affective (or emotional) aggression Predatory (or goal-oriented) aggression Arousal Sympathetic Nervous System The increase of heart rate, blood pressure, blood flow to muscles, and sweating Juvenile Delinquency Refers to criminal acts perpetrated by minors Determined by law Many violent crimes require a component of intent (mens rea) in addition to a guilty act (acts rea) Mens Rea- intended to do something Acts Rea- committed the guilty act (without intent) Nocks a child into lake water, but did not intent to harm/drown them - just trying to be a jerk and get child wet Violence Aggressive behavior which threatens or causes harm to another person Intent to harm someone else may or may not achieve Contextually determined Firing a gun may or not be violent Threatening to kill someone may or may not imply violence i.e. telling your sister you want to kill er because she got you in trouble Schemas A Schema is a cognitive framework that helps organize and interpret information schemas for things: professor dogs shoes Useful because they allow us to take shortcuts in interpreting the vast amount of information that is available in our environment Short cuts that allow us to interpret things in a very short way However, these mental frameworks also cause us to exclude pertinent in


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