Vertebrates Exam 2 Study Guide
Vertebrates Exam 2 Study Guide BZ 214
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kenzie Busick on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BZ 214 at Colorado State University taught by Shane Kanatous in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Animal Biology- Vertebrates in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
Exam 2 Study Guide ▯ Bony Fish ▯ 1) The general characteristics of osteichthyes first appearance of endochondral bone o a calcified skeleton= more dense body adapted to live anywhere there is water largest extant group of vertebrates swim bladder cycloid or ctenoid scales release eggs into the environment ▯ 2) Name the different anatomical features of a generalized ray-finned fish operculum (gill cover) internal nostrils are absent large primitive eyes ganoid, cycloid or no scales hysostylic jaw support caudal fin primitively heterocercal have higher metabolic rates than Chondrichthyes ▯ 3) The different scale types placoid: found in chondrichthyes, tooth-like, have their own blood supply cosmoid: found in lung fish, adaptation from placoid scales, outer armor over the fish’s body, very thick and hard Ganoid: found in basal ray-finned fish (paddle fish, gars, sturgeons), form an outer armor on fish’s body Cycloid and ctenoid: found in modern ray-finned fish (majority of bony fish), allows for greater flexibility o Cycloid: smooth edge o Ctenoid: have a brush-like edge ▯ 4) Role of scales and what some fish use in place of scales scales act as armor, can tell the age of a fish from the scales can have more than one type of scale, and can vary with sex some fish have mucous instead of scales scales in sharks allow them to be more aerodynamic and create less drag ▯ 5) Changes seen in Neopterygii increase in locomotion: reduction in boney armor (size and thickness of scales) increase in the suction generated when the mouth opens o more circular gape loosening the attachment of the maxilla- increase the force of contraction when closing the mouth caudal fin becomes more symmetrical (homocercal tail) appearance of pharyngeal jaws ▯ 6) Ray-finned fish versus lobe-finned fish ray-finned: bony rays extending from the fins, absent internal nostrils, scales ganoid, cycloid, or none lobed-finned: different anatomical placement of the fins, cosmoid scales (support a complex electrosensory system), true enamel on teeth, bones in fins give rise to the bones of the amphibians ▯ 7) Different body forms of fish and locomotor strategies anguilliform: eel-like, entire body undulate in a sine-wave, generally slow swimmers because of the increase in drag carangiform and subcarangiform: tuna-like propulsion, all the force is applied by flexing the posterior third or fourth of the body, maximum thrust w/ minimum drag ostraciform: is boxfish-like, caudal fin can only move at the caudal peduncle, generate a lot of draw and are slow swimmers labriform: thrust comes from rowing the pectoral and pelvic fins crusing: high aspect ratio, elongate, torpedo shape, tuna cover large territory, red muscles> myoglobin, sustained activity maneuverability: low aspect ratio, slow moving, used paired fins for locomotion acceleration: moderately low aspect ratio, use undulatory motion for rapid starts, torpedo shape, white muscle- easily fatigued Generalist: range of locomotive style ▯ 8) Aspect Ratio and its role in locomotion Aspect ratio = (caudal fin height)^2 / caudal fin area Broad surface area powerful thrust, but high frictional drag High aspect ration (and narrow caudal peduncle): rapid sustained propulsion Rapidly swimming fish are proportionately shorter and less flexible ▯ 9) Chondrichthyes vs. Bony Fish chondrichthyes: cartilaginous skeleton, no swim bladder, heterocercal caudal fins, pelvic fins posterior and fixed, placoid scales, most in seawater (with some exceptions) Bony fish: endochondral bone, swim bladders, pelvic fins more anterior to the body and under the pectoral fins, opercular cover, cycloid or ctenoid scales for protection rather than the reduction of drag, increase in socialization, release eggs into the environment, many moved to freshwater ▯ 10) Arguments for why chondrichythes or bony fish are the most successful vertebrate group chondrichthyes: they are at the top of the food chain in every ecosystem they’re in bony fish: adapt to everywhere there is water ▯ 11) Different environments bony fish occupy isolated permanent springs in deserts migrators – swim up-current deep-sea bathyl and abyssalpellagic Antarctic ice fish Coral reef communities Some live on land ▯ ▯ Transition to Land ▯ 1) changes in skeletal and anatomical features for transition to land bones become more dense and established, skeletal elements have ridges for muscle attachment, vertebrae becomes more attached with one another to act as a suspension bridge, somatic (axial) and appendicular skeleton ▯ 2) Basic physical differences between aquatic and land environments air is less dense-> need to have more muscle/energy to maintain skeleton and move on land ▯ 3) different types of vertebrae and where they’re found amphicelous: concave at both ends, most fish, a few salamanders & caecilians opsithocoelous: convex in front & concave in back, most salamanders procelous: concave in front and convex in back, anurans and present-day reptiles acelous: flat-ended, mammals heterocelous: saddle-shaped centrum at both ends, birds ▯ 4) Advantages and disadvantages to moving on land advantages: new food resources, avoidance of aquatic predators and competitors, oxygen abundant disadvantages: water becomes limiting factor in distribution (desiccation, respiration, reproduction), gravity: new morphological designs and air doesn’t provide buoyancy for the body support ▯ 5) Formation of bone two basic structural types of bone; spongy and compact intramembranous ossification: membrane bone formation (dermal bone; flat bones and the skull) o increased vascularity of tissue o active proliferation of mesenchymal cells (give rise to osteogenic cells which give rise to osteoblasts) o osteoblasts begin to lay down osteoid (organic part of bone) o osteoblasts either retreat or become entrapped as osteocytes in the osteoid o the osteoid calcifices to form spicules of spongy bone o bone remodeling occurs (periosteum and compact bone are formed) o This process gave rise to the bones of the lower jaw, skull, pectoral girdle, dentin, vertebrae Endochondral ossification: bone is deposited in pre-existing cartilage; replacement bone (long bones such as the humerus or femur) o Primary center of ossification: occurs in the shaft Formation of periosteum Formation of bone collar Calcification of matrix Invasion of periosteal bud (consists of blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves invades the cavity) Formation of trabeculae (osteoclasts break down spongy bone to form medullary (bone marrow) cavity o Secondary center ossification: epiphyseal plate, undergo the same transformation as above, the proliferation of cartilage eventually stops and only articular cartilage remains ▯ ▯ ▯
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