World History I exam 2 study guide
World History I exam 2 study guide HIST 1020
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Meagan on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 1020 at Auburn University taught by Tiffany Sippial in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 257 views. For similar materials see World History 2 in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
World History II / Professor Sippial / Exam 2 Study Guide Worlds of Work in an Industrial Age Agricultural Revolution o A period characterized by crop productivity and new agricultural inventions Enclosure Movement (1760-1830) o Enclose a # of small plots for one large one; make one person the owner o Large farming operations try to make every acre as productive as possible Jethro Tull (1674-1741) o Invented the seed drill which produced higher levels of germination Cottage Industry o Industry that changed the speed and quality of how clothes were produced Mechanization o process of changing from working largely or exclusively by hand or with animals to doing that work with machinery Spinning Jenny (James Hargreaves) o Invention that produces more spools of yarn Waterframe (Richard Arkwright) o Water powered spinning frame o Helped reduce human labor Steam Engine (James Watt) o engine that uses the expansion or rapid condensation of steam to generate power Adam Smith (1723-1790) o philosopher and free-market economist famous for his ideas about the efficiency of the division of labor and the societal benefits of individuals' pursuit of their own self-interest The Wealth of Nations (1776) o focuses on the state of economics during the industrial revolution First book to explain economy of nation as a system Laissez-faire economics o Market's invisible hand = competition o Government non-intervention o Supply and demand Division of labor o Specialization of labor force o Increase production o Routineization Rickets o In children their Knees start to bow out because not enough nutrition and rest o Leads to Skeletal disfigurement Michael Sadler (1780-1835) o Forms a commission to investigate working condition Specifically with children and textile factories Sadler Commission (1832) o Starts interviewing children to show the harsh conditions first hand Wants to evoke a response from Parliament in order to create change Factory Act (1833) o Prohibited children under age 9 o Limited hours working 9-13 years old = 8 hours max 14-18 years old = 12 hours max Mines Act (1842) o Girls no longer used at all Could harm their reproductive health o Boys under the age of 10 could not work Nation Building in an Imperial Age Great Exhibition of 1851 o Invite the world to see London first hand because they want to celebrate and show world advancement in Great Britain Sir Joseph Paxton (1801-1865) o He submitted the venue that was perfect for the Great Exhibition Crystal Palace o It was monumental greenhouse made entirely of industrial materials o Location of the Great Exhibition Colonial Questions o Industrialized/Imperial Nation How acquire colonies? Via what means? How make them socially & politically stable so that can extract raw goods? How justify this relationship of dependence? On what grounds? o Primary Producers/Colony What are the relative costs & benefits of colonial status? What is gained in that relationship? o What is lost in that relationship? Macgregor Laird o He had a lot to say about colonies and imperial relationships o Great Britain has superior biological/ moral (bible)/ physical and mechanical traits o Duty to bring the light of civilization to dark places o Extremely racist East India Company (1600-1858) o chartered in 1600 o Initially funded by wealthy British Investors o Operate monopoly on trade in India in exchange for taxes on imports Sepoys o Funded army of Hindu and Muslim men Sepoy Rebellion (1857-1858) o Multiethnic (Muslims and Hindus) o Leadership positions weren't Indian = British o Second class status o 1857 they released new rifle cartridges into units Tear open with teeth but greased in animal fat to keep waterproof o All of these issues caused them to rebel Queen/Empress Victoria (r. 1837-1901) o British Queen during the industrial era and eventually the symbol for the Victorian era British Raj (reign) o Queen Victoria settles the rebellion o Takes ownership and becomes the Empress of India (1877) o Laid foundation for most important piece in British Empire Quinine o Treatment used for Malaria Indirect rule o Also known as co rule o Rule by or in collaboration with local rulers Viceroy o Key British officials with the greatest amount of power George Nathaniel Curzon (1859-1925) o Viceroy who feels he is the schoolmaster (superior) and that the people are less than school children Indian Civil Service (ICS) o Diplomatic core, educated, elite positions o Had to take an exam (open in theory) Only administer in England Major source of discontentment Babus o Greatest in number o Lowest level administrators, western dress, most held by Indians (local), essential advisor the ICS o Used to help preserve the façade of co-rule The Project of Empire: The British Raj Durbars o Held elaborate celebrations Beautiful elephants, sepoys standing, parade, and members of Indian royalty o All in this together, all want what is best for India Charles Darwin (1809-1882) o naturalist who revolutionized the study of biology with his theory of evolution based on natural selection The Origin of the Species (1859) o Written by Charles Darwin o Theory of survival of the fittest Ill adapted species die out or shorter fertile lifespan, leave the stronger to survive and reproduce Social Darwinism o Survival of the fittest applied to people o People to the left of the spectrum are lesser o Scientific racism “White Man’s Burden” o Bring people on the right hand of spectrum to the left hand Need improving/civilizing o Superior type have this burden to bring that civilization to those people and if not judge Gandhi: Father of the Nation Indian National Congress (1885) o Group met to discuss discontentment of British rule 72 delegates; most from educated middle class, Babus o Key issues Admission into Indian Civil Service Process Exam only in Britain, making it impossible to access Resolution #4 most important Equal representation Wanted exam offered in England and India simultaneously Same exam/ want opportunity to try Result 1887 = success Viceroy Lytton passed reform that made the changes requested Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948) o Peaceful man who wanted independence for India from Britain o Known for non-cooperation movement and peace Non-Cooperation Movement (1920) o Non-violent resistance o Economic self determination o National unity between Hindus and Muslims Massacre at Amritsar (13 April 1919) o Unarmed people protesting British rule o Great Britain used anti-terrorism act justification to send in troops o 1650 bullets fired in 10 minutes British Salt Act (1882) o Can operate a monopoly and no Indian can have a say in salt production Salt March (1930) o Indians march towards Indian Ocean to protest British Salt Act Muslim League o Muslims who want separation from Hindus in India Muhammad Ali Jinnah o leader of the Muslim League Victorian Society in the “Age of Progress” Partition of British South Asia (1947) o The division of India, the northern Muslim region became Pakistan and the other Hindu region became the Republic of India “Victorian Age” o Scientific advancements: Second Industrial Revolution o Urban Reforms: public health, housing o New rights: education, labor, vote (women) o Mass leisure: museums, sports, theater, fiction o Creation of modern consumer: department store o RISE OF NATIONALISM! Second Industrial Revolution (1860-1900) o Electricity o Chemicals o Steel o Petroleum o Represent the notion that man is victorious over nature Education Act (1870) o Made it compulsory for children ages 6-12 and it was also state financed o Teach: o Distinction between boys and girls as Future laborers and future civic citizens o Boys = liberal (math, science, history , reading, and writing) o Girls = less math, no science, domestic skills Public Health Act (1875) o Must have running water and internal drainage o Public funding for sewage system Housing Act (1890) o Have to have building inspectors o Landlord could be fined o New type of urban housing Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Frederick Engels (1820-1895) o The writers of the communist manifesto Communist Manifesto (1848) o State governments defend interests of industrial class and allies o SOLUTION = Class Struggle Proletariat (violently overthrow Bourgeoisie Change via conflict o OUTCOMES: Classless society Progress and greater wealth for all “Separate spheres” o ideology that defines and prescribes separate spheres for women and men Emmeline Pankhurst (1858-1928) o leader of Women’s Social and Political Union Women’s Social and Political Union (1903-1917) o called themselves suffragettes o Want the right to vote for women Representation of the People Act (1918) o Women could vote and own property over 30 Harrod’s Department Store o Largest department store o Emphasis on making it a great experience so its massive and ornate Suez Canal (1869) o Water way that would connect the Mediterranean to the Red Sea Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902) o Person willing to put up his own money in exchange for taxes o Mining company King Shaka (ca. 1787-1828) o Person who prepared the Zulu army people to be defensive and offensive King Cetshwayo kaMpande (1826-1884) o Leader of the Zulu army during the Anglo-Zulu War Anglo-Zulu War (1879) o War between the Zulu army and Great Britain o Somewhat of an embarrassment for Great Britain because the Zulu people secure 3 victories; in the end the British won because of guns Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898) o German who called for the Berlin Conference Berlin Conference (1884-1885) o Representatives from almost every European nation meet to discuss what to do with Africa in order to slow down British expansion “Principle of Effective Occupation” o New approach to empire building within the Berlin conference o Have to make known that want to colonize in Africa, colonial administration of troops José Martí (1853-1895) o Cuban who felt that they shouldn’t allow the US to come in because they may never leave Spanish-American War (April-August 1898) o Short war for the US and long war for Cuba that led to Cuban Independence from Spain U.S.S. Maine (15 February 1898) o The mysterious explosion in Havana, Cuba that made the US decide to join in and help Cuba gain independence Rough Riders Platt Amendment (1901) o Republican constitution that was seen as the price Cuba paid and showed that they never truly sovereign The Great War: Origins and Experiences Archduke Franz Ferdinand (1863-1914) o Leader who was killed by Gavrilo Princip because he threatened the dream of unification for the Black Hand Gavrilo Princip (1894-1918) o Assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand outside of Schiller’s Deli and dies in prison Black Hand (1911-1917) o Group of Serbians who wanted a unified Slavic state Triple Alliance o Austria Hungary, Germany, Italy (switched 1915) Triple Entente o France, Great Britain, Russia, US (post-1917) Schlieffen Plan o Germany’s plan to make the first move in order to not fight a war on 2 fronts Plan XVII o France’s battle plan to invade Germany “Poor Little Belgium” o Germany plans to easily go through Belgium to get to France but Great Britain honored a treaty back from 1839 to fight against the British making it hard for Germany to complete their plan Battle of the Marne (5-12 September 1914) o First battle of WWI o Taxi drivers help bring French troops back to protect the capital o French victory over the German army Western Front o name applied to the fighting zone in France where the British, French, Belgian and the American armies faced that of Germany War of Attrition o a prolonged war or period of conflict during which each side seeks to gradually wear out the other
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