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AU / History / HIST 1020 / What is agricultural revolution?

What is agricultural revolution?

What is agricultural revolution?

Description

School: Auburn University
Department: History
Course: World History II
Professor: Michael smith
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: history and World History
Cost: 50
Name: World History I exam 2 study guide
Description: This study guide has the key terms for exam 2.
Uploaded: 03/06/2016
10 Pages 196 Views 16 Unlocks
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World History II / Professor Sippial / Exam 2 Study Guide  Worlds of Work in an Industrial Age


What is agricultural revolution?



∙ Agricultural Revolution  

o A period characterized by crop productivity and new agricultural  inventions  

∙ Enclosure Movement (1760-1830)  

o Enclose a # of small plots for one large one; make one person the  owner

o Large farming operations try to make every acre as productive as  possible

∙ Jethro Tull (1674-1741)  

o Invented the seed drill which produced higher levels of germination  ∙ Cottage Industry  

o Industry that changed the speed and quality of how clothes were  produced  

∙ Mechanization  

o process of changing from working largely or exclusively by hand or  with animals to doing that work with machinery


What is enclosure movement?



∙ Spinning Jenny (James Hargreaves)  

o Invention that produces more spools of yarn  

∙ Waterframe (Richard Arkwright)

o Water powered spinning frame

o Helped reduce human labor  

∙ Steam Engine (James Watt)  

o engine that uses the expansion or rapid condensation of steam to  generate power

∙ Adam Smith (1723-1790)

o philosopher and free-market economist famous for his ideas about  the efficiency of the division of labor and the societal benefits of  individuals' pursuit of their own self-interest We also discuss several other topics like What are the ten reasons for poor listening?

∙ The Wealth of Nations (1776)  

o focuses on the state of economics during the industrial revolution ▪ First book to explain economy of nation as a system


Who is jethro tull?



∙ Laissez-faire economics

o Market's invisible hand = competition

o Government non-intervention

o Supply and demand

∙ Division of labor

o Specialization of labor force

o Increase production

o Routineization

∙ Rickets  

o In children their Knees start to bow out because not enough nutrition  and rest

o Leads to Skeletal disfigurement If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between graded potential and action potential?

∙ Michael Sadler (1780-1835)

o Forms a commission to investigate working condition

▪ Specifically with children and textile factories

∙ Sadler Commission (1832)  

o Starts interviewing children to show the harsh conditions first hand  ▪ Wants to evoke a response from Parliament in order to create  change  

∙ Factory Act (1833)  

o Prohibited children under age 9

o Limited hours working

▪ 9-13 years old = 8 hours max If you want to learn more check out Who is tommie smith and john carlos?

▪ 14-18 years old = 12 hours max

∙ Mines Act (1842)

o Girls no longer used at all

▪ Could harm their reproductive health

o Boys under the age of 10 could not work

Nation Building in an Imperial Age

∙ Great Exhibition of 1851  

o Invite the world to see London first hand because they want to  celebrate and show world advancement in Great Britain  

∙ Sir Joseph Paxton (1801-1865)

o He submitted the venue that was perfect for the Great Exhibition  ∙ Crystal Palace  

o It was monumental greenhouse made entirely of industrial materials  o Location of the Great Exhibition  

∙ Colonial Questions  

o Industrialized/Imperial Nation

▪ How acquire colonies? Via what means?

▪ How make them socially & politically stable so that can extract  raw goods? Don't forget about the age old question of What is a parasite?

▪ How justify this relationship of dependence? On what  

grounds?

o Primary Producers/Colony

▪ What are the relative costs & benefits of colonial status? ▪ What is gained in that relationship?

o What is lost in that relationship?

∙ Macgregor Laird  

o He had a lot to say about colonies and imperial relationships o Great Britain has superior biological/ moral (bible)/ physical and  mechanical traits

o Duty to bring the light of civilization to dark places

o Extremely racist

∙ East India Company (1600-1858)  

o chartered in 1600 We also discuss several other topics like What are the elements and stages of pre­main­sequence stellar evolution?

o Initially funded by wealthy British Investors

o Operate monopoly on trade in India in exchange for taxes on imports ∙ Sepoys  

o Funded army of Hindu and Muslim men  

∙ Sepoy Rebellion (1857-1858)  

o Multiethnic (Muslims and Hindus)

o Leadership positions weren't Indian = British

o Second class status

o 1857 they released new rifle cartridges into units

▪ Tear open with teeth but greased in animal fat to keep  

waterproof

o All of these issues caused them to rebel  

∙ Queen/Empress Victoria (r. 1837-1901)

o British Queen during the industrial era and eventually the symbol for  the Victorian era  

∙ British Raj (reign)  

o Queen Victoria settles the rebellion

o Takes ownership and becomes the Empress of India (1877) o Laid foundation for most important piece in British Empire ∙ Quinine  

o Treatment used for Malaria  We also discuss several other topics like What is the federal trade commissions?

∙ Indirect rule  

o Also known as co rule  

o Rule by or in collaboration with local rulers

∙ Viceroy  

o Key British officials with the greatest amount of power  

∙ George Nathaniel Curzon (1859-1925)

o Viceroy who feels he is the schoolmaster (superior) and that the  people are less than school children

∙ Indian Civil Service (ICS)  

o Diplomatic core, educated, elite positions

o Had to take an exam (open in theory)

▪ Only administer in England

▪ Major source of discontentment

∙ Babus  

o Greatest in number

o Lowest level administrators, western dress, most held by Indians  (local), essential advisor the ICS

o Used to help preserve the façade of co-rule

The Project of Empire: The British Raj

∙ Durbars  

o Held elaborate celebrations

▪ Beautiful elephants, sepoys standing, parade, and members of  Indian royalty

o All in this together, all want what is best for India

∙ Charles Darwin (1809-1882)  

o naturalist who revolutionized the study of biology with his theory of  evolution based on natural selection

∙ The Origin of the Species (1859)  

o Written by Charles Darwin  

o Theory of survival of the fittest

▪ Ill adapted species die out or shorter fertile lifespan, leave the  stronger to survive and reproduce

∙ Social Darwinism  

o Survival of the fittest applied to people  

o People to the left of the spectrum are lesser

o Scientific racism

∙ “White Man’s Burden”  

o Bring people on the right hand of spectrum to the left hand ▪ Need improving/civilizing

o Superior type have this burden to bring that civilization to those  people and if not judge

Gandhi: Father of the Nation

∙ Indian National Congress (1885)

o Group met to discuss discontentment of British rule

▪ 72 delegates; most from educated middle class, Babus

o Key issues

▪ Admission into Indian Civil Service Process

▪ Exam only in Britain, making it impossible to access

▪ Resolution #4 most important

∙ Equal representation

∙ Wanted exam offered in England and India  

simultaneously

∙ Same exam/ want opportunity to try

▪ Result 1887 = success Viceroy Lytton passed reform that made  the changes requested

∙ Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948)

o Peaceful man who wanted independence for India from Britain o Known for non-cooperation movement and peace

∙ Non-Cooperation Movement (1920)

o Non-violent resistance  

o Economic self determination  

o National unity between Hindus and Muslims

∙ Massacre at Amritsar (13 April 1919)  

o Unarmed people protesting British rule  

o Great Britain used anti-terrorism act justification to send in troops  o 1650 bullets fired in 10 minutes  

∙ British Salt Act (1882)  

o Can operate a monopoly and no Indian can have a say in salt  production  

∙ Salt March (1930)  

o Indians march towards Indian Ocean to protest British Salt Act ∙ Muslim League  

o Muslims who want separation from Hindus in India

∙ Muhammad Ali Jinnah

o leader of the Muslim League

Victorian Society in the “Age of Progress”

∙ Partition of British South Asia (1947)

o The division of India, the northern Muslim region became Pakistan  and the other Hindu region became the Republic of India  ∙ “Victorian Age”

o Scientific advancements: Second Industrial Revolution  o Urban Reforms: public health, housing  

o New rights: education, labor, vote (women)  

o Mass leisure: museums, sports, theater, fiction  

o Creation of modern consumer: department store  

o RISE OF NATIONALISM!  

∙ Second Industrial Revolution (1860-1900)  

o Electricity  

o Chemicals

o Steel  

o Petroleum  

o Represent the notion that man is victorious over nature  

∙ Education Act (1870)  

o Made it compulsory for children ages 6-12 and it was also state  financed  

o Teach:

o Distinction between boys and girls as Future laborers and future civic  citizens  

o Boys = liberal (math, science, history , reading, and writing)  o Girls = less math, no science, domestic skills  

∙ Public Health Act (1875)  

o Must have running water and internal drainage

o Public funding for sewage system  

∙ Housing Act (1890)

o Have to have building inspectors  

o Landlord could be fined  

o New type of urban housing  

∙ Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Frederick Engels (1820-1895)  o The writers of the communist manifesto  

∙ Communist Manifesto (1848)

o State governments defend interests of industrial class and allies  o SOLUTION = Class Struggle  

▪ Proletariat (violently overthrow Bourgeoisie  

▪ Change via conflict  

o OUTCOMES:  

▪ Classless society  

▪ Progress and greater wealth for all  

∙ “Separate spheres”

o ideology that defines and prescribes separate spheres for women  and men

∙ Emmeline Pankhurst (1858-1928)  

o leader of Women’s Social and Political Union

∙ Women’s Social and Political Union (1903-1917)

o called themselves suffragettes  

o Want the right to vote for women  

∙ Representation of the People Act (1918)

o Women could vote and own property over 30  

∙ Harrod’s Department Store

o Largest department store  

o Emphasis on making it a great experience so its massive and ornate  ∙ Suez Canal (1869)  

o Water way that would connect the Mediterranean to the Red Sea ∙ Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902)  

o Person willing to put up his own money in exchange for taxes  o Mining company  

∙ King Shaka (ca. 1787-1828)  

o Person who prepared the Zulu army people to be defensive and  offensive  

∙ King Cetshwayo kaMpande (1826-1884)  

o Leader of the Zulu army during the Anglo-Zulu War  

∙ Anglo-Zulu War (1879)  

o War between the Zulu army and Great Britain  

o Somewhat of an embarrassment for Great Britain because the Zulu  people secure 3 victories; in the end the British won because of guns  ∙ Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898)  

o German who called for the Berlin Conference  

∙ Berlin Conference (1884-1885)

o Representatives from almost every European nation meet to discuss  what to do with Africa in order to slow down British expansion ∙ “Principle of Effective Occupation”

o New approach to empire building within the Berlin conference  o Have to make known that want to colonize in Africa, colonial administration of troops

∙ José Martí (1853-1895)  

o Cuban who felt that they shouldn’t allow the US to come in because they may never leave  

∙ Spanish-American War (April-August 1898)

o Short war for the US and long war for Cuba that led to Cuban  Independence from Spain  

∙ U.S.S. Maine (15 February 1898)  

o The mysterious explosion in Havana, Cuba that made the US decide  to join in and help Cuba gain independence  

∙ Rough Riders Platt Amendment (1901)

o Republican constitution that was seen as the price Cuba paid and  showed that they never truly sovereign

The Great War: Origins and Experiences

∙ Archduke Franz Ferdinand (1863-1914)  

o Leader who was killed by Gavrilo Princip because he threatened the  dream of unification for the Black Hand  

∙ Gavrilo Princip (1894-1918)  

o Assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand outside of Schiller’s Deli and  dies in prison  

∙ Black Hand (1911-1917)  

o Group of Serbians who wanted a unified Slavic state  

∙ Triple Alliance  

o Austria Hungary, Germany, Italy (switched 1915)

∙ Triple Entente  

o France, Great Britain, Russia, US (post-1917)

∙ Schlieffen Plan  

o Germany’s plan to make the first move in order to not fight a war on  2 fronts  

∙ Plan XVII

o France’s battle plan to invade Germany  

∙ “Poor Little Belgium”

o Germany plans to easily go through Belgium to get to France but  Great Britain honored a treaty back from 1839 to fight against the  British making it hard for Germany to complete their plan  

∙ Battle of the Marne (5-12 September 1914)  

o First battle of WWI  

o Taxi drivers help bring French troops back to protect the capital

o French victory over the German army  

∙ Western Front

o name applied to the fighting zone in France where the British,  French, Belgian and the American armies faced that of Germany ∙ War of Attrition

o a prolonged war or period of conflict during which each side seeks to  gradually wear out the other

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