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Immune System Review Questions- A&P II

by: Tia Spears

Immune System Review Questions- A&P II Biol 2120

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Biology > Biol 2120 > Immune System Review Questions A P II
Tia Spears
GPA 3.0

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Study guide for exam III
Human Anatomy & Physiology 2
Study Guide
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tia Spears on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 2120 at Georgia State University taught by Safer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology 2 in Biology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 03/06/16
Immune System Review 1. What is immunity? What are some examples of pathogens?  Immunity is the capability of removing or killing foreign substances, pathogens, and cancer cells from the body.  Bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoans, and multicellular parasites are examples of pathogens 2. In general, how are innate and adaptive immunity distinguished from each other?  Innate immunity: o Protect against numerous different substances o Born with these defenses o Includes o barriers of the skin and mucosal membranes o nonspecific cellular and molecular internal defenses o Does not require previous exposure to a foreign substance o Respond immediately to potentially harmful agent  Adaptive immunity: o Involves specific T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes  respond to different foreign substances  e.g., particular lymphocyte responding to chickenpox virus  won’t respond to the bacteria causing strep throat o Provide powerful means of eliminating foreign substances o Takes several days to be effective 3. What cells are involved in the immune system? Where are these cells found?  Neutrophils o Leave the bloodstream and phagocytize bacteria o Release antimicrobial peptides o Found in the blood  Eosinophils o Phagocytic cells o Also mount an attack against parasites that are too large to be consumed via phagocytosis o Found in the blood  Macrophages and dendritic cells o Engulf and destroy pathogens o Macrophages are found in the lymphatic tissue o Dendritic cells are found in the epithelial tissue  Natural killer (NK) cells o Large, granular lymphocytes o Kill virus-infected cells and cancer cells o NK cells are found in the lymphatic tissue. 4. Briefly describe the four types of innate immune defenses.  Physical barriers to entry o The skin and its secretions block entry and provide an inhospitable environment for microbial growth o mucous membranes lining the respiratory, digestive, and urinary tracts o Cilia lining the respiratory tract o Antimicrobial molecules in secretions of oil glands, mucous membranes, and the stomach  Protective proteins such as complement and interferons o Enhanced inflammation o Bind to pathogens coated with antibodies to ensure phagocytosis o Form a membrane attack complex that produces holes in the surface of some bacteria and viruses o Produced by virus-infected cells o Bind to receptors of non-infected cells o Causes them to produce substances that interfere with viral replication  Phagocytes and natural killer cells o White blood cells that destroy infected cancerous cells  Inflammatory response o Localized tissue response to injury o Damaged cells and mast cells release histamine, which causes capillaries to dilate and become more permeable o Enlarged capillaries cause skin to redden o Swelling stimulates free nerve endings, causing pain o Neutrophils and monocytes migrate to the site of injury 5. How do physical and chemical barriers protect the body from foreign invaders?  The outer surface of the skin consists of dry, dead cells filled with tough proteins that do not allow the microbes to obtain the water and nutrients they need to survive. The secretions from sweat and sebaceous glands contain natural antibiotics, such as lactic acid, that inhibit the growth of many bacteria and fungi 6. What is the inflammatory response? What purpose does it serve? Describe in detail the stages of the inflammatory response? Pay careful attention to which cells are involved and the terminology defining the various processes/steps.  The inflammatory response is the localized tissue response to injury. The damaged cells and mast cells release histamine, which causes capillaries to dilate and become more permeable which causes tissues to become warm, red, swollen, and painful.  This defense mechanism has several functions: o It attracts phagocytes to infected or injured tissue o It promotes blood clotting o It initiates protective behavior by causing pain 7. Describe in detail antibody-mediated immunity as we discussed in class. What are BCR, clonal selection theory, plasma cells, and memory B cells?  Each type of B cell carries its specific receptor on its surface; this is called the B cell receptor (BCR).  The clonal selection theory states that the antigen selects the B cell to produce a clone of plasma cells. o Only one B cell has the BCRs that can combine with the specific antigen clone. The antigen “selects” the B cell that will clone. o Defense by B cells is called antibody-mediated immunity because most members of the clone become plasma cells that produce specific antibodies. o Some cloned B cells do not participate in antibody production but remain in the blood as memory B cells.  If the same antigen enters the system again, memory B cells quickly divide and give rise to more lymphocytes capable of quickly producing antibodies 8. Describe the structure of antibodies. What are three ways antibodies in the blood combat invading molecules or microbes?  Structure: o Each arm has a “heavy” (long) and “light” (short) polypeptide chain.  These chains have constant regions and variable regions. o The constant regions have amino acid sequences that do not change; the constant regions are not identical among all antibodies. o The variable regions have portions of polypeptide chains whose amino acid sequence changes providing antigen specificity; it forms the antigen binding sites of antibodies—their shape is specific to antigen.  Antibodies in the blood combat invading molecules or microbes in three ways: 1. The circulating antibodies may bind to a foreign molecule, virus, or cell and render it harmless by a process called neutralization  An example of neutralization is an antibody covering the active site of a toxic enzyme in snake venom 2. Antibodies may coat the surface of invading molecules, viruses, or cells and make it easier for phagocytic cells to destroy them  Macrophages recognize the antibody stems sticking out into the blood, then engulf the antibody-coated invaders and digest them 3. When antibodies bind to antigens on the surface of a microbe, the antibodies interact with complement proteins that are always present in the blood  Some of the complement proteins punch holes in the plasma membranes of the microbe, killing it  Other complement proteins promote phagocytosis of the invaders 9. Describe in detail cell-mediated immunity as we discussed in class. What are TCR,APC, MHC clonal expansion, and memory T cells?  Like B cells, T cells have unique antigen receptors, called the T cell receptor, or TCR.  However, the receptors of cytotoxic and helper T cells cannot recognize antigen present in the tissues, lymph, or blood.  Instead, antigen must be presented to them by an antigen-presenting cell (APC).  When an APC presents a viral or cancer cell antigen, the antigen is first linked to a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein; together they are presented to a T cell.  When a macrophage antigen is presented to a T cell, the T cell recognizes the antigen.  Once a helper T cell recognizes the antigen, it undergoes clonal expansion and produces cytokines stimulating immune cells to remain active and perform their functions.  Once a cytotoxic T cell is activated, it undergoes clonal expansion and destroys any cell that possesses antigen if the cell bears the correct antigen presented earlier.  As the infection disappears, the immune reaction wanes and few cytokines are produced. 10. How does a cytotoxic T cell attack and destroy a cell infected by a virus?  Cytotoxic T cells in the blood may bump into an infected body cell that is displaying a viral protein on its surface  The cytotoxic T cell receptor will bind to the viral protein and squirt proteins onto the surface of the infected cell, punching holes in the cell and killing it, sparing new body cells a future infection 11. What is passive immunity? What is active immunity? Give an example of each.  Passive immunity o Occurs when an individual is given prepared antibodies (immunoglobulins) to combat a disease o Ex: Mother breast feeding or transferring antibodies cross the placenta  Active Immunity o Occurs when an individual produces antibodies on their own in response to a foreign antigen o Vaccines 12. How are antibiotics and vaccines different from each other?  Antibiotics slow down microbial reproduction o Antibiotics are chemicals that help to combat infection by slowing down the multiplication of bacteria, fungi, or protists  The occasional mutant microbe that is resistant to an antibiotic will pass on the genes for resistance to its offspring, which results in many antibiotics becoming ineffective in treating diseases  Antibiotics are not effective against viruses  Vaccinations stimulate the development of memory cells and future immunity against disease o A vaccine stimulates an immune response by exposing a person to antigens produced by a pathogen  Vaccines often consist of weakened or killed microbes, or some of the pathogen’s antigens  Exposure to these antigens results in the body producing an army of memory cells that confer immunity against living microbes of the same type 13. What is a fever? Why does a fever occur? What are the benefits of a fever? Why are the dangers of a fever?  Fever o The human thermostat, located in the hypothalamus of the brain, is set at 97–99ºF o During an infection, macrophages release a protein called endogenous pyrogen that travels to the hypothalamus and raises the thermostat’s set point o Elevated body temperature increases phagocytic activity and slows bacterial reproduction o Fever also stimulates cells infected by viruses to produce a protein called interferon, which travels to other cells and increases their resistance to viral attack; interferon also stimulates natural killer cells that destroy virus-infected body cells o Risks of a high fever  Fever significant above 100 degrees F  High fevers potentially dangerous  103 in children, slightly lower in adult  Changes in metabolic pathways and denaturation of proteins  Possible seizures  Irreversible brain damage at greater than 106  Death likely if temperature greater than 109 14. What are allergies? What is the mechanism by which an allergic reaction takes place? What is anaphylactic shock?  Allergies – hypersensitivities to substances that ordinarily would not harm the body  allergic response o IgE antibodies o Causes release of histamine, which brings about the symptoms of the allergy o Anaphylactic shock – occurs after the allergen has entered the bloodstream  Life-threatening 15. What is an autoimmune disease? What are some examples of autoimmune diseases?  An autoimmune disease is an immune response against the body’s own molecules.  Ex: Type 1 diabetes may begin when the immune system attacks the insulin- secreting cells of the pancreas o Other autoimmune diseases include rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and systemic lupus


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