Study Guide for Midterm
Study Guide for Midterm anth 207
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ariel Kamen on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to anth 207 at Towson University taught by Scott Buresh in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see cultural anthropology in Liberal Arts at Towson University.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
Mid-Term Review Guide I. Key Terms Know the definitions of the key terms we identified in each of the chapters of Core Concepts •culture shock: going into another culture and realizing you don't fit • subculture: cultures within one country or area •ethnocentrism: “my culture is the best culture”; when one thinks their culture is superior •economics: the production, distribution, and consumption/use of goods and services •kinship: the manner in which cultures define familial relationships, e.g. marriage II. Key Cultures !Kung (Kalahari Bushmen); [Aborigines as a point of comparison and contrast] Yanomamo Maasai Tiv (Bohannon Article) ** Ridicule is very important in the !Kung culture, its a way of learning appropriate behavior ** Birds ** Twins - can be conceived as evil ** Hecora experts = hecora means soul ** Shaman ** Any illness in the Yanomamo is when your soul is disconnected from your body, shaman from different tribes will try to keep the soul away but the shaman from from the tribe of the sick will to try to bring it back. III. Key Concepts to be able to Discuss Definitions and models of Culture Culture: “For some it refers to an appreciation of good literature, music, art, and food. For a biologist, it is likely to be a colony of bacteria or other microorganisms growing in a nutrient medium in a laboratory Petri dish. However, for anthropologists and other behavioral scientists, culture is the full range of learned human behavior patterns” Four Disciplines of Anthropology and the key method and values of Cultural Anthropology Methodology- cultural group that different than themselves; we live with the people we learn the language Values- •cultural relativism: opposite of ethnocentrism •holism: every dimension in life matters • comparative: comparing ourselves to others •integrative: we try to integrate everything we do What Cultural Anthropology contributes to our understanding of the human experience Culture, like language is shared. What we know and understand relates back to anthropology in a very significant way. Aspects such as colors and names of objects all resource back to the beginning of Anthropological studies. Willard’s model of the essence of being human (persons) —————> Four domains of Cultural Anthropology: Kinship/Marriage, Economics, Politics, and Religion •kinship: family, marriage, inheritance •economics: production, distribution, consumption/use of goods and services • political: decision making and social control •religion: scared and the transcendent * No where in the constitution does it mention God How subsistence pattern and carrying capacity inform how cultural groups approach kinship, economics, politics, and religion •The way that a cultural group will pattern how the catch and kill their food; and then most importantly deciding how they will share the goods. This effects every aspect of how a culture lives because how reciprocity and jobs are organized will tell a cultural anthropologist a good idea about their culture lives. Kinship and marriage strategies for defining families, clans, and lineages and for using rules of exogamy and endogamy along with parallel and cross cousin forms of marriage •exogamy: outside the tribe •endogamy: inside the tribe •!Kung: Econ- women gather, men hunt, generalized reciprocity, communal consumption, they migrate, 100 sources of food and water, carrying capacity Politcs- no designated leader, “headman”, consensus, ridicule, respect Kinship- nuclear family, band (25-50 people), neolocal, monogamous, family exogamy, band exogamy, neolocal residence, bilateral descent Sacred- creator/spirits (good and bad), they will dance and use trance if they have to •Aborigines: Econ- they live a patrilocal, patrilineal, you must be initiated into this tribe, elders decide only entrust you or allow you to get married if you are initiated, hunters Politics- elders will determine when you get married, they have 3 important men… the story teller, the painter, and the one who takes care of the dead Kinship- can cross cousins but not parallel cousins, patrilocal, patrilineal Sacred- • Econ- much more violent of a tribe, especially the men Yanomamo: towards the women, they snort hallucinogenic drugs even their shaman, they will mostly eat manioc it is a main source of calories for the Yanomamo, village is in the rain forest, rely on slash and burn (horticulture!!!), 100-500 band members, balanced reciprocity, when different lineages need protection one lineage will host a party so whoever hosts can be repaid Kinship- patrilineal, patrilocal, polygyny and polyandry, cannot marry siblings or parents but can cross and parallel Politics- headman and force Religion- shaman (heal and curse) **REMEMBER WHAT THE MOST COMMON IS (MONOGAMOUS) AND THE MOST PREFERRED (POLYGYNY) IN THE WORLD. Use Bohannon to illustrate the importance of cultural understanding in interpreting stories *Read/Skim the article! * Key things to know about this reading, we discussed it during our quiz……how you interpret stories (for example in this case: Hamlet) depends on your world view. Use Lee to discuss the challenges of participant observation •Participant observation is when a subject will completely submerge themselves in another culture and study their ways of life. In doing so, they will not be treated any differently than any of the other tribe members and we be subject to abide by their way of living. For example, in the Christmas time article we read, the man who was staying with that tribe and was ridiculed to the point where he almost wanted to leave was being taught a lesson about equality among the band. The observer was not told that he was to be the subject of a lesson, but he was able to see how important ridicule was and why it was the method to teacher a lesson. Explain why race is a socially constructed category as opposed to a biologically fixed one - So for this one I looked it up on google and I decided that instead of trying to explain in my own words, I am going to copy and paste the link that will help explain it better! - http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/biology/b103/f00/web2/ramon2.html Benefits of cultural relativism over an ethnocentric approach to culture Using ethnocentrism as a way of looking at culture is negative because you are “tunnel visioned” into only seeing how your culture is better than the other culture that you are studying. It is more beneficial to use cultural relativism because you are more open minded to learning about how they live their lives; there is more to experience because you are trying to learn rather than compare and contrast. Differentiate between cultural relativism and moral relativism The difference between these two ideas of relativism is that cultural relativism is when you are open and looking forward to another culture. Moral relativism on the other hand means that their are no connections to objective and/or universal moral truths, but focus on the social, cultural, historical and personal circumstances. How language is a model of culture Because as we have discussed many, many times that language IS SHARED The functions of Religion As found on …. http://anthro.palomar.edu/religion/rel_1.htm “Religions fulfill psychological needs. They help us confront and explain death. They help relieve our fears and anxieties about the unknown. Supernatural powers and beings may be appealed to or manipulated by people in times of crisis, as for example in praying to win a battle or survive a fierce storm. Religions help ease the stress during personal life crises such as birth, marriage, serious illness, and death. It is not a coincidence that in most societies the "rites of passage" that are performed to help people adjust to these often highly emotional transitions are strongly religious. We also get psychological relief from "divinely given" moral codes. They lift some of the burden of decision making from our shoulders in difficult situations because they tell us what is right and wrong. Knowing what to do without having to think deeply about it provides tremendous psychological relief.”
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