Exam 2 Knowledge Checkleist
Exam 2 Knowledge Checkleist Psych 415
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Date Created: 03/06/16
Knowledge Checklist Two Psychology 4150 Chapter FiveStructuralism Remember that Wundt, Brentano, Kulpe, and the gang are now considered to be experimental psychologist and not structuralists because of the experimental methodology and the wide range of their research. Wundt was interested in the elements of consciousness but stressed the importance of their active organization and synthesis. History marches on! Structuralism actually begins with Edward Bradford Titchener (18671927) Titchener presented himself as Wundt’s faithful student and translator but focused entirely on the elements of consciousness and the construction of a periodic table of the mind. He totally discarded Wundt’s voluntarism and apperception. Titchener’s Life Graduated from Oxford in philosophy Went to study the new psychology with Wundt PhD in 1892 England not receptive to psychology so gets job at Cornell University. Developed psychology laboratory. Stayed for rest of academic career. Wrote 2 widely read introductory psychology text books Outline of Psychology 1896 Primer of Psychology 1898 Major work was Experimental Psychology: A Manual of Laboratory Practice 19011905) Very influential book for the next 25 years. Titchener was Germanic in his approach to students. Highly controlling of students careers and lives even after graduation. Kind and friendly if students were deferential. Lectures were formal but popular. 1 Supported female and minority graduate student long before they were accepted in other programs. Margaret Floy Washburn first female PhD was Titchener’s student. The Animal Mind Titchener’s Experimentalist meet weeklyno women! Cigars and ice cream for all. Titchener’s work and interest in psychology declined in his later years. Coin collecting, foreign languages, and music took up more and more of his time. Titchener becomes more isolated because he refuses to attend meetings. Keeps British citizenship, Resigns for APA. This isolates Titchener and contributes to the fall of Structuralism. Titchener names his new enemy school of psychology functionalism. Titchener’s Psychology Titchener believed that the proper area of study for psychology was the structure the conscious experience of the normal adult human and the way these elements associated Proposed three elementary states of consciousness sensations: “...basic elements of perception and occur in the sounds, sights, smells, and other experiences evoked by physical objects in our environment.” Images: “...elements of ideas...not actually present in the moment,” e.g., “memory of a past experience.” affective states: “elements of emotions” Discovered 44,500 basic and irreducible elements of sensation Each element could be categorized according to characteristics basic to all sensations (Titchener added duration and clearness to Wundt’s quality and intensity) (1) quality: attribute differentiating each element from the other, e.g., “cold,” “red” (2) intensity: strength, weakness, loudness, or brightness of sensation 2 (3) duration: sensation’s path over time (4) clearness: the role of attention in conscious processing (5) extensity: used with vision and touch; how much of the receptor is effected by the stimulus. Rejected Wundt’s tridimensional theory; proposed only pleasure/displeasure. Major method of investigation was introspection. Titchener viewed this as experimental. Experiment = an observation “that can be repeated, isolated, varied” Warns students about the problem of stimulus errors which involves confusing the process under study with the object under study. Also warns about meaning words which represent preconceived ideas, Attention was another major area of interest to Titchener because it relates closely to successful introspection. Three types of attention. Naïve or involuntary attention: caused by unexpected stimulation. Door slamming Voluntary or secondary attention. Focused attention like reading or studying Derived or habitual attention. Lightly focused attention while doing something else. Listening to children playing in back yard Reasons for the decline and death of structuralism. Little interest in application (Scrouge McDuck). Far too pure. Too foreign for many Americansactually too German WWI created lasting bad feelings for some in US. 3 Introspection has been suspect since Greek times. Limited area of study. No animals, children, abnormals, etc. James and many others felt that you learned little about humans by breaking down consciousness. Against reductionism. Chapter 6Functional Antecedent Influences Time is right for evolutionary theory. New species discover every yeartoo many for the ark. Bones, fossils and even bodies of extinct animals found. Even society changing. Charles Darwin (18091882) Darwin’s Life Academic problems and has a hard time deciding what to do with life. Several false starts. Family connections get him a job on HMS Beagle: Captain Robert Fitzroy Problems with physical health upon return to England Worked on his theory of evolution for 22 years Alfred Russel Wallace: wrote Darwin about a theory of evolution similar to Darwin’s that Wallace developed in 3 days. Darwin took friends’ suggestion to have Wallace’s paper and portion of his forthcoming book presented at scientific meeting. st 1 printing of On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection sold out Darwin overwhelmed with new physical illness. He relies on Thomas Henry Huxley to defend his new theory against the antievolutionary forces of Soapy Sam Wilberforce and Captain Fitzroy. 4 Fitzroy commits suicide because of his role in Darwin’s voyage and theory. Darwin helps to financially support Fitzroy’s widow. Darwin’s Theory as expressed in The Origin of the Species by Means of Natural Selection. 1. There are limited resources throughout nature even for humans a. Thomas Malthus predicts human starvation 2. There is genetic variability in each generation. 3. Some of these changes will be favored by natural selection. 4. An increase in survival and reproduction result. Successful reproduction is how the evolutionary battle is won. A 3% reproductive advantage is huge over hundreds of generations. 5. Successful traits intensify sometimes to a point that they later become useless. Darwin’s importance to psychology is that fact that behavioral traits can be passed on the same way. Grizzly Bears Human Sexual Behaviors. Darwin tries to narrow the distance between human and animal behavior in two other important books; 1871: The Descent of Man evidence for human evolution from lower forms of life emphasized similarity between animal and human processes 1872: The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals Peter and Rosemary Grant show that evolution can work much more rapidly than Darwin predicted with a 20 year study of finches. Evidence continues to grow for evolution. Missing links have pretty much found and the gaps filled in.. Know the four reasons that Darwin is important to modern psychology on page 155. Sir Francis Galton (18221911) Galton’s life estimated IQ = 20 youngest of 9 children wealthy family 5 pressured by father to study medicine; didn’t like it after Oil of Croton. entered Cambridge University to study mathematics traveled extensively; wrote popular book, The Art of Travel cousin Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species: Galton fascinated by theory of evolution, which guided his subsequent work Mental inheritance Hereditary Genius (1869) eminent men have eminent sons specific forms of genius inherited founded eugenics: improve inherited human traits through artificial selection applied statistical concepts to heredity problems eminence not a function of opportunity English Men of Science (1874) Natural Inheritance (1889) Basically all these books says that great men come from great family His works suggest the old English saying that “blood will tell.” Didn’t know the mechanism of genetic transmission. Mendel’s work not known at this time, Statistical methods Galton fascinated by counting and numbers. Adolph Quetelet: first to apply statistical methods and normal curve to biological and social data Galton developed mean and standard deviation to describe any normal curve produced corelation measure his student Karl Pearson developed productmoment coefficient of correlation Pearson’s r: for Galton’s discovery of regression toward the mean 6 Mental tests 1. originated by Galton, but term comes from his student, James McKeen Cattell,. 2. assumed: intelligence can be measured in terms of sensory capacities 3. assumption based on Locke’s empiricism 4. developed his own instruments Galton Whistle 1884: established Anthropometric Laboratory The association of ideas i. two problems in association 1. diversity of association of ideas 2. the time required to produce associations 3. 40% of associations traced to events in childhood and adolescence 4. The unconscious influenced thought processes 5. wordassociation test: first experiment attempt to examine associations Mental imagery ii. Galton: first extensive use of psychological questionnaire iii. determined imagery distributed normally in the population iv. found similar images more likely to occur between siblings than between unrelated persons Arithmetic by smell and other topics selfinduced paranoia validity of religious beliefs power of prayer yawns and coughs as a measure of boredom arithmetic by smell The Animal Guys George John Romanes (18481894) Formalized and systematized study of animal intelligence 7 b. selected by Darwin to apply theory of evolution to the mind c. Animal Intelligence (1883) (1) first book on comparative psychology (2) purpose: demonstrate (a) high level of animal intelligence (b) similarity of animal intelligence to human intellectual functioning (c) continuity in mental development d. anecdotal method: “the use of observational, often causal, reports or narratives about animal behavior” Cute and amazing animal stories like the Reader’s Digest e. introspection by analogy: “A technique for studying animal behavior by assuming that the same mental processes that occur in the observer’s mind also occur in the animal’s mind” f. criticisms: (1) short on scientific rigor (2) line between fact and subjective interpretation in his data not clear Conway Lloyd Morgan (18521936) g. Romanes’s designated successor h. proposed a law of parsimony: “The notion that animal behavior must not be attributed to a higher mental process when it can be explained in terms of lower mental processes” (1) also called Lloyd Morgan’s Canon (1894) (2) suggested by Wundt (1892) i. goal: give comparative psychology a more scientific basis j. believed most animal behavior due to learning based on sensory experience k. first to conduct largescale experimental studies in animal psychology Chapter 7Functionalism: Development and Founding Evolution’s Neurotic Philosopher: Herbert Spencer (18201903) He comes from Britain to America where he and his ideas are celebrated. Social Darwinism: application of the “theory of evolution to human nature and society” 8 Principle of “survival of the fittest” (coined the phrase) Utopian view: human perfection inevitable if nothing interferes with the natural order and evolutionary process. Let the weak, the poor and the unfit perish for the good of society. Synthetic philosophy: “Spencer’s idea that knowledge and experience can be explained in terms of evolutionary principles William James (18421910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology General paradox: James is a great influence on American psychology but seems to have no leadership aspirations. In some ways he is a negative influence and calls psychology “that nasty little science” James Life: Wealthy family with early international schooling and international connections. Many false starts in a career including art, business, medicine and chemistry. Major intellectual depression about free will. Goes to Europe to learn about the new science of psychology; Meets with Helmholtz, Fechner, Wundt and others. Attends classes informally. 1869: earned M.D. from Harvard Considered suicide, intensely fearful; institutionalized himself Chronically neurasthenic academic year 18751876: taught his first course in psychology James is a natural teacher who is loved by students Talks with then after class Student evaluationsGertrude Stein incident Hates laboratory work and hire Musterberg Started 1 book on honeymoon; finished it 12 years later “there is no such thing as a science of psychology” “[James] is an incapable” 9 Principles of Psychology (1890) is loved by students and Americans in general. goal of psychology: study of people as they adapt function of consciousness: survival treats psychology as a biological science James tells people here’s what we know and here’s what you can apply to your life James’s Psychology The Steam of Consciousness It is personal no two people have the same concisouness It’s ever changinglike a soap bubble It’s continuous with no gaps It’s selective JamesLange Theory of Emotion Often called the backward theory of emotion. Behavior such as running comes before the emotional response. People like this view because it gives good control of our emotional behavior Habit: the great fly wheel of society Keeps people in dangerous jobs and bad places Decided he had nothing more to say about psychology Wrote Talks for teachers James moved back into the area of philosophy and religion. To understand James and his psychology, you have to understand his philosophy Pragmatism Emphasized the value of pragmatism 10 Validity of an idea is its practical utility Anything is true if it works Granville Stanley Hall (18441924) Growth of psychology 18751900 due to Hall as well as James Large number of firsts 1.received first American doctoral degree in psychology 2. started first psychology lab in U.S. 3. started first American psychology journal 4. first president of Clark University 5. organized and was first president of APA 6. one of the first applied psychologists 7. born on Massachusetts farm 8. ashamed when, at 17, father purchased draft exemption from civil war 9. 1863 enters Williams College a. Voted smartest man b. Developed enthusiasm for evolutionary theory 10. after graduation, enrolls in seminary a. interest in evolution probably not helpful b. Hall gives a trial sermon, seminary president prays for his soul 11. leaves seminary, goes to Germany a. studies philosophy and theology b. later adds physiology and physics c. also goes to beer gardens and theaters, very daring for him d. he reports having romantic interludes e. passionate affairs “made life seem richer” 12. returns to U.S. in 1871 (parents revoke support) a. has no degree b. is heavily in debt 13. reads Wundt’s book Physiological Psychology (1874) a. Becomes interested in psychology b. Becomes uncertain of his career 14. Goes to Harvard gets 1 doctoral degree in psychology (1978) 15. Leaves for Europe to study with Wundt 16. Hall returns to U.S. with no job 11 17. Decides to apply psychology to education 1882 Gives talk to National Educational Association this brings Hall fame and a professorship at Johns Hopkins. Hall urges psychologists to hitch their future to the growing area of education 18. 1887 Hall founds American Journal of Psychology 19. 1888 Hall becomes first president of Clark University a. before takes job, takes an all expensespaid tour of Europe 20. 1915 establishes Journal of Applied Psychology (the 16 American journal) st 21. Founding member of the American Psychological Association and 1 president 22. Hall’s interest in religion: Establishes Journal of Religious Psychology (1904) 23. Hall hosts the Clark Conference featuring Freud, Jung and other famous European psychoanalysts. Fits with Halls interest in sex 24. Makes Clark receptive to women and minorities, despite his opposition to coeducation a. Admitted female graduate students and faculty b. Encouraged Japanese students to enroll c. Refused to restrict hiring Jewish faculty d. Encouraged Black graduate students (1) First African American to earn Ph.D. was Cecil Sumner at Clark 25. Hall retires in 1920, continues to write 26. Hall dies 4 years later during second term as APA president a. “Difficult, untrustworthy, unscrupulous, devious, and aggressively selfpromoting” b. James said Hall was mix of “bigness and pettiness” Hall’s Psychology B. Evolution and the recapitulation theory of development 1. unitary theme to Hall’s work: evolution 2. belief that growth of mind follows evolutionary stages 3. Hall often called genetic psychologist a. Concern with human and animal development b. Problems with adaptation 4. Leads him to study of childhood 12 a. Calls for such study at 1892 world’s fair speech b. Intended to how child functions in real world c. Child becomes “Hall’s laboratory” 5. Uses questionnaires 6. Hall’s influential book Adolescence (1904) a. Two volumes, 1300 pages b. Develops recapitulation theory: “children in their personal development repeat the life history of the human race” c. Controversial: Excessive focus on sex (1) Hall accused of having prurient interest (2) Thorndike: Hall’s book is “chock full of errors, masturbation, and Jesus” (3) Lectures on sex at Clark cancelled 7. The Founding of Functionalism No formal founders, none interested in promotion of the school There were differences, but interested in studying functions of consciousness Named by Titchener The Chicago School John Dewey (18591952) The Reflex Arh James Rowland Angell (1869 –1949) Harvey A. Carr (18731954) Functionalism at Columbia University Robert Sessions Woodworth (18691962) Dynamic psychology is concerned with the behavior and motivation of the functioning organism. The problems faced by talented women in the field of higher education. Myth of male superiority Derivative of variability hypothesis based on Darwinian ideas that men show a wider range and variation of physical and mental development than women; the abilities of women are seen as more average.” Therefore, it was argued, women 13 1. are less likely to benefit from education 2. are less likely to achieve intellectually 3. had less evolved brains than men 4. showed a smaller range of talents than men 5. are inferior to men physically and mentally No women allowed at colleges and universities before 1830. Fear that intellectual activity would interfere with reproductive capacity. Mary Whiton Calkins (18631930) 1. Not allowed to formally enroll at Harvard but attends classes. Harvard refused to grant a degree. 2. Used paired associate method of memory testing 3. James called her PhD examination brilliant but still no degree given. 4. First female president of the APA Helen Bradford Thompson Woolley (18741947) 1. Administer battery o physical, mental, emotion and personality tests to males and females. Found no significant indication of male superiority Leta Stetter Hollingworth (18861939) 1. conducted extensive research on variability hypothesis 191316: focused on physical, sensorimotor and intellectual functioning of wide range of subjects. Her data refuted variability hypothesis and socalled female inferiority. 2. Challenged notion of innate motherhood instinct 3. Social and cultural attitudes, not biology, responsible for keeping women behind men in contributions Chapter 8Applied Psychology: The Legacy of Functionalism 14 Poor salaries and lack of jobs force many new PhD psychologists to look for work outside of the traditional academic areas Testing and education become one of the major applied areas of employment. G. Stanley Hall was one of the first to recognize the importance of this area. James McKeen Cattell (18601944) According to legend, Cattell boldly announces to Wundt that he will be Wundt’s assistant Cattell insists on doing his own individual difference research Wundt calls Cattell “typically American” Obtains Ph.D. in 1886 Goes to study with Galton who is at the peak of his career a Takes on Galton’s interest in statistics b Both interested in individual differences c Uses Galton’s method of mental testing which involves sensory capacity d Cattell also interested in Galton’s Eugenics. Becomes a firm believer. and argued for sterilizing “delinquents and socalled defective persons” Promoted offering incentives to the “healthy and intelligent” who intermarry Galton has a much larger influence on Cattell than Wundt e 1888 Cattell becomes professor of psychology at U. of Penn. 1 Aloofness strained relations between Cattell and Columbia’s administration. Described as “ungentlemanly, irretrievably nasty, and lacking in decency” Dismissed from University. f In 1921 he forms the Psychological Corporation and earns a living doing testing for industry and education Alfred Binet’s (1857-1911) develops the first good intelligence test for the French ministry of education. Binet and Theodore Simon revise Binet’s test and add the concept of mental age which is “age at which children of average ability can perform certain tasks” Henry Goddard translates Binet’s test into English. 15 Becomes the first to misuse IQ test by administering it to non-English speaking immigrants. Lewis Terman in 1916 standardizes Binet’s test into the The Stamford Binet test which was used for many years. Also develops the concept of IQ. World War I accelerates the testing movement because of the Army’s need to access intelligence of thousands of draftees. Yerkes and coworkers develop the Army Alpha and Army Beta test. Testing business booms after WWI but many bad tests such as Edison’s mar the testing movement. Contributions of Women Florence Goodenough, Ph.D. from Stanford 1 created DrawAMan test, a version of which still used Maude Merrill James, wrote StanfordBinet revision with Terman Thelma Thurstone, helped develop Primary Mental Abilities test with her husband Psyche Cattell (daughter of James McKeen Cattell) extends age of the StamfordBinet test to 3 month old infants Anne Anastasi was a general expert in all areas of testing. Wrote over 150 books and articles. APA president in 1971 The Development of Clinical Psychology Lightner Witmer (1867-1956) 16 In 1896 Witmer begins teaching a mentally challenged student to read. Witmer begins teaching educators his methods. Soon opens a clinic to help children with learning disabilities. Witmer is much more educational in his area of interest than the clinical psychology we think of today 1907: founds journal Psychological Clinic Two books provide impetus to field: Clifford Beers (1908), a former mental patient, on the need to deal humanely with the mentally ill in the book A Mind That Found Itself Hugo Münsterberg (1909), describing treatments for mental disorders first child guidance clinic 1909, aim to treat child disorders early. The book was called Psychotherapy. Clinical Psychology, as we know it today, doesn’t really begin to grow until the World Wars create a major need for psychological serves. Then it explodes into a major applied area. The development of Industrial/Organizational Psychology. Walter Dill Scott (1869-1955) Determined to make something of his life from a very early age Studies with Wundt and both he and his wife earn a PhD Gives talks to business men about the role of psychology in business that are well received and later writes The Theory and Practice of Advertising (1903) Doesn’t think much of consumer’s intelligence consumers often not rational, so can be influenced easily should use “emotion, sympathy, and sentimentality to sell products recommends using direct commands: text example is “Use Pears Soap” 17 World War I, offers skills to Army 2 at first, not well received 3 takes skeptical army general to lunch, wins him over 4 later is given Distinguished Service Medal Created The Scott Company (consulting firm) Does good work with employee selection Hawthorne Study (1927) seen as the true beginning of I/O psychology . It extends field to human relations, motivation, morale. It leads to study of “behavior of leaders, informal work groups, employee attitudes, communication patterns...and other factors” Hugo Munsterberg (1863-1913) Hired by James to run the laboratory at Harvard A natural flair for self promotion shows immediately when he publishes a popular book entitled American Traits in 1902. Munsterberg becomes involved with forensic psychology. Writes articles on crime prevention, eye-witness testimony, and false confessions. On the Witness Stand (1908), discusses psychological factors in jury trials Munsterberg damages credibility with incorrect predictions about jury trial outcomes Industrial /Organizational Psychology 1909 article: “Psychology and the Market”, which applies psychology to “vocational guidance, advertising, personnel management, mental testing, employee motivation, and the effects of fatigue and monotony on job performance.” Psychology and Industrial Efficiency (1913), becomes bestseller Argues that selection is best way to improve productivity, etc. 18 Select using psychological tests on job applicants Conducts research on variety of occupations: “ship captain, streetcar driver, telephone operator, and salesperson” Showed that talking while working reduces productivity. Solution: put workstations/physical barriers between workers Psychotherapy Psychotherapy (1909) treated patients in his lab did not charge a fee believed power of suggestion could cure believed mental illness was “behavioral maladjustment problem”, not unconscious conflicts as Freud said Münsterberg: “there is no subconscious” Womens Contributions to I/O Psychology First person to get Ph.D. in I/O is Lillian Gilbreth, from Brown University who with husband Frank Gilbreth, promote timeandmotion studies Anna Berliner, Wundt’s only female student, she works as industrial psychologist in Japan Remember that Functionalism never really died. Many of its basic views and areas of research are still with us today. 19
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