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Respiratory System Review Questions- A&P II

by: Tia Spears

Respiratory System Review Questions- A&P II Biol 2120

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Biology > Biol 2120 > Respiratory System Review Questions A P II
Tia Spears
GPA 3.0

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About this Document

These notes cover respiratory system for exam III
Human Anatomy & Physiology 2
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tia Spears on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 2120 at Georgia State University taught by Safer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology 2 in Biology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 03/06/16
Respiratory System 1. Define respiration. How is ventilation/breathing distinguished from internal and external respiration?  Respiration – collective process by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are continuously exchanged between the atmosphere and the body’s cells  Ventilation ( breathing) o External respiration - gas exchange between the air and the blood within the lungs o Internal respiration - gas exchange between the blood and the tissue fluid 2. What organs comprise the upper respiratory tract? What organs comprise the lower respiratory tract? Also, what are the conducting zone and the respiratory zone?  Structural organization o Upper respiratory tract – larynx and above o Lower respiratory tract – trachea and below  Functional organization o The conducting zone transports air  nose to terminal bronchioles o The respiratory zone participates in gas exchange  respiratory bronchioles to alveoli 3. What type of cells make up alveolar tissue? What are the functions of these different cell types?  Simple squamous alveolar type I cells o 95% of alveolar surface area o form part of the thin barrier separating air from blood o moist environment makes prone to collapse (high surface tension)  Alveolar type II cells (septal cells) o almost cuboidal shaped o secrete pulmonary surfactant, an oily substance o coats inner alveolar surface o helps oppose the collapse of alveoli  Alveolar macrophage (dust cells) o leukocytes that engulf microorganisms o either fixed in alveolar wall or free to migrate 4. What are the characteristics of the respiratory membrane?  Characteristics of respiratory membrane o Thin barrier between alveoli and pulmonary capillaries o Consists of:  alveolar epithelium and its basement membrane  capillary epithelium and its basement membrane  two basement membranes fused o Oxygen diffuses from alveolus into capillaries  erythrocytes become oxygenated o Carbon dioxide diffuses from blood to alveolus  expired to external environment 5. Compare pulmonary circulation in the lungs with systemic circulation in the lungs.  Pulmonary circulation o Pulmonary arteries deliver systemic venous blood  Branch profusely, along with bronchi  Feed into the pulmonary capillary networks o Pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from respiratory zones to the heart  Systemic circulation o Bronchial arteries provide oxygenated blood to lung tissue  Arise from aorta and enter the lungs at the hilum  Supply all lung tissue except the alveoli o Bronchial veins anastomose with pulmonary veins o Pulmonary veins carry most venous blood back to the heart 6. What are the serous membranes that cover the lungs?  Pleural membranes o Pleural cavity 7. Discuss the mechanics of breathing. What does Boyle’s law tell us? What are the two phases of pulmonary ventilation? What are the sequence of events that different these phases and allow air to be moved in and out of the lungs?  Pulmonary ventilation consists of two phases o Inspiration: gases flow into the lungs o Expiration: gases exit the lungs  Mechanical processes that depend on volume changes in the thoracic cavity o o  Boyle’s Law o The relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas o Pressure (P) varies inversely with volume (V):  P1V1 = P2V2 8. How do intrapulmonary pressure and intrapleural pressure change during inspiration and expiration?  Intrapulmonary pressure o Pressure inside lung decreases as lung volume increases during inspiration; pressure increases during expiration.  Intrapleural pressure. o Pleural cavity pressure becomes more negative as chest wall expands during expiration. Returns to initial value as chest wall recoils. 9. List and describe the three factors that hinder air passage and pulmonary ventilation. 1. Airway resistance 2. Alveolar surface tension o Attracts liquid molecules to one another at a gas-liquid interface o Resists any force that tends to increase the surface area of the liquid 3. Lung compliance o A measure of the change in lung volume that occurs with a given change in transpulmonary pressure 10. What are the four types of respiratory volumes we discussed in class? Define them. What are the four types of respiratory capacities? Define them. Why are these values (volumes and capacities) important?  Tidal volume (TV) – Amount of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath under resting conditions  Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) – Amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume inhalation  Expiratory reserve volume (ERV) – Amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal volume exhalation  Residual volume (RV) – Amount of air remaining in the lungs after a forced exhalation  Total lung capacity (TLC) – Maximum amount of air contained in lungs after a maximum inspiratory effort: o TLC = TV + IRV + ERV + RV  Vital capacity (VC) – Maximum amount of air that can be expired after a maximum inspiratory effort: o VC = TV + IRV + ERV  Inspiratory capacity (IC) – Maximum amount of air that can be inspired after a normal expiration: o IC = TV + IRV  Functional residual capacity (FRC) – Volume of air remaining in the lungs after a normal tidal volume expiration: o FRC = ERV + RV 11. What is partial pressure? What does Dalton’s law of partial pressures tell us about the components of air?  Partial pressure = pressure exerted by each gas in a mixture (PO2, PCO2, PN2)  Dalton’s law: in a mixture of gases, the percentage of each gas is proportionate to its partial pressure o Air = 78.6% N2, 20.9% O2, 0.04% CO2, 0.46% H2O 12. Why do alveoli contain more CO an2 water vapor than atmospheric air?  Alveoli contain more CO2 and water vapor than atmospheric air, due to o Gas exchanges in the lungs o Humidification of air o Mixing of alveolar gas that occurs with each breath 13. Describe external respiration. What influences external respiration? What role do the partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide play? What role does ventilation- perfusion coupling play?  External respiration is the exchange of O2 and CO2 across the respiratory membrane  Influenced by o Partial pressure gradients and gas solubilities  Partial pressure gradient for O2 in the lungs is steep  O2 partial pressures reach equilibrium of 104 mm Hg in ~0.25 seconds, about 1/3 the time a red blood cell is in a pulmonary capillary  Partial pressure gradient for CO2 in the lungs is less steep:  CO2 is 20 times more soluble in plasma than oxygen  CO2 diffuses in equal amounts with oxygen o Ventilation-perfusion coupling  Ventilation and perfusion must be matched (coupled) for efficient gas exchange  Changes in Pco2 in the alveoli cause changes in the diameters of the bronchioles  Changes in Po2 in the alveoli cause changes in the diameters of the arterioles o Structural characteristics of the respiratory membrane 14. Describe internal respiration. What role do the partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide play?  Capillary gas exchange in body tissues  Partial pressures and diffusion gradients are reversed compared to external respiration o Po2 in tissue is always lower than in systemic arterial blood o Po2 of venous blood is 40 mm Hg and Pco2 is 45 mm Hg 15. Discuss the structure of hemoglobin. What are oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin?  Molecular O2 is carried in the blood o 1.5% dissolved in plasma o 98.5% loosely bound to each Fe of hemoglobin (Hb) in RBCs o 4 O2 per Hb  Oxyhemoglobin (HbO2): hemoglobin-O2 combination  Reduced hemoglobin (HHb): hemoglobin that has released O2  Oxyhemoglobin – Hb bound to oxygen  Deoxyhemoglobin – Hb after oxygen diffuses into tissues (reduced Hb) 16. What factors affect loading and unloading of 2 in Hb?  Loading and unloading of O2 is facilitated by change in shape of Hb o As O2 binds, Hb affinity for O2 increases o As O2 is released, Hb affinity for O2 decreases  Fully (100%) saturated if all four heme groups carry O2  Partially saturated when one to three hemes carry O2 17. Discuss transport and exchange of CO 2 What are carbonic acid and bicarbonate?  CO2 is transported in the blood in three forms o 7 to 10% dissolved in plasma o 20% bound to globin of hemoglobin (carbaminohemoglobin) o 70% transported as bicarbonate ions (HCO3–) in plasma  CO2 combines with water to form carbonic acid (H2CO3) 18. Compare oxygen release and carbon dioxide pickup at the tissues with oxygen pickup and carbon dioxide release in the lungs.  In systemic capillaries o HCO3– quickly diffuses from RBCs into the plasma o The chloride shift occurs: outrush of HCO3– from the RBCs is balanced as Cl– moves in from the plasma  In pulmonary capillaries o HCO3– moves into the RBCs and binds with H+ to form H2CO3 o H2CO3 is split by carbonic anhydrase into CO2 and water o CO2 diffuses into the alveoli 19. What are the chemical factors that influence breathing? What mechanisms are in place to control breathing? Where are these mechanisms?  Rising CO2 levels are the most powerful respiratory stimulant  Normally blood Po2 affects breathing only indirectly by influencing peripheral chemoreceptor sensitivity to changes in Pco2  When arterial Po2 falls below 60 mm Hg, it becomes the major stimulus for respiration (via the peripheral chemoreceptors)  Changes in arterial pH resulting from CO2 retention or metabolic factors act indirectly through the peripheral chemoreceptors 20. What are some disorders of the respiratory system that we discussed in class?  Emphysema o Alveoli are distended and walls are damaged, reducing the surface area available for gas exchange  Lung Cancer o Begins with thickening and callusing of the cells lining the airways o Atypical cells appear in the thickened lining o Cells from the tumor break loose and metastasize


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