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AU / Chemistry / CHEM 1030 / How do you name a compound?

How do you name a compound?

How do you name a compound?

Description

School: Auburn University
Department: Chemistry
Course: Fundamentals Chemistry I
Professor: John gorden
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Chemistry
Cost: 50
Name: Dr. Streit Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: Ch4-6 with some practice problems
Uploaded: 03/07/2016
5 Pages 87 Views 9 Unlocks
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How do you name a compound?



CHEM 1030

Exam 2 Study Guide: 

Chapter 4 Vocab: 

∙ Ionization energy= the minimum energy required to remove an electron from an  atom

o Increases from left to right

o Exceptions: decreases Group 2A-3A and Group 5A-6A

∙ Electron affinity= energy released when an atom accepts an electron o Increases from left to right

o Exceptions: decreases from Groups 1A-2A and Group 4A-5A

∙ Columb’s Law= F αQ 1x Q 2

d2 

∙ Isoelectrons= when an atom gets the same electron configuration as noble gases due to gaining or losing electrons


Which is an ionic compound?



∙ Ionic radius= the radius of a cation or an anion

o Cation radius<atomic radius

o Anion radius> atomic radius

Chapter 5: Vocab: 

∙ Ionic compound= electrostatic attraction that holds oppositely charged ions  together

∙ Lattice= 3D array of cations and anions in an ionic compound

∙ Lattice energy=measure of how stable the ionic compound is

o High lattice energy→small radius/distance→most stable

o High lattice energy→higher charges→most stable

∙ Law of Definite Proportions= different samples of the same compound always  have the same mass ratio of elements


What are examples of polyatomic ions?



If you want to learn more check out Have you ever worked in fast food?

∙ Law of Multiple Proportions=if 2 elements can combine with each other to form 2 or more different compounds, then the ratio of masses of 1 element between the 2 compounds can be represented by a whole number

o ex. CO2 can also be CO→ ratio of O to C between these molecules is about  2:1

∙ Diatomic molecules= contain 2 atoms; can be the same element or different  elements

∙ Heteonuclear= 2 molecules are different

∙ Homonuclear= elements are the same

∙ Polyatomic molecules= more than 2 atoms

∙ Molecular formula= exact number of atoms in each element

∙ Empirical formula= the simplest chemical formula

∙ Structural formula= shows elemental composition and the general arrangement  of atoms in space

∙ Hydrate= a compound that has a specific number of water molecules associated  with its solid structure (ex. CuSO4 x 5H2O) If you want to learn more check out What is neutralize toxin?
If you want to learn more check out What is griffith?

∙ Anhydrous= when hydrate is heated and the water molecules are driven off;  often can cause the substance to change color

∙ Molecular mass= sum of atomic masses in a molecule of atoms; only for  molecular compounds

∙ Formula mass= same as molecular mass but for ionic compounds (found the  same way)

∙ Percent composition by mass= n x atomic mass of element

molecular∨ formula mass of an element x 100

Chapter 5: Concepts to Know: 

∙ Naming Compounds

o Ionic Compounds: between metal and nonmetal; neutral If you want to learn more check out What is pahoehoe?

 1st element is same, 2nd element ends in –ide

 for d-block elements→ roman numeral represents charge (except for  Ag+, Zn2+, Al3+)

 ex. iron (II) bromide

  Oxoanions 

∙    Add –ate to the base

∙    1 more than base→per…ate

∙    1 less than base→-ite

∙    2 less than base→hypo…ite

o Molecular compounds: between 2 nonmetals

 Use greek prefixes

 Ex. nitrogen trifluoride

o Acids: contains enough hydrogen to cancel out the charge of the other  element

 Add hydro- to beginning Don't forget about the age old question of What is risk-taking gentry?
Don't forget about the age old question of What are teratogens?

 Add –ic to the end

 Ex. HCl→hydrochloric acid

o Oxoacids: contains enough hydrogen to cancel the charge of the polyatomic  ion( that contains oxygen)

 Base (-ate)→ change to –ic acid

 1 less than base(-ite)→change to –ous acid

 2 less than base(hypo-)→change to hypo…ous acid

 1 more than base(per-)→change to per…ic acid

o Organic Compounds: usually is just carbon and hydrogen

 Alkanes=simplest hydrocarbons:

 1 carbon= methane

 2 carbon=ethane

 3 carbon= propane

 4 carbon=butane

 5 carbon= pentane

∙ Memorize polyatomic ions: (don’t forget charges!!)

∙ Common name compounds:

o NH4→ammonia

o PH3→phosphine

o H2S→hydrogen sulfide

Chapter 6: Vocab: 

∙ The Octet Rule= says atoms with lose/gain/share electrons in order to get a full  valence shell

∙ Bond length= the distance between nuclei of 2 covalently bonded atoms; shows  strength of chemical bond

o Shorter bond length= stronger bond

o Double bonds are shorter/stronger than single bonds, etc.

∙ Formal charge= valence - (lines+dots); must equal the overall charge of the  compound

Chapter 6: Concepts to know: 

∙ Electronegativity= the ability of an atom to draw in electrons o Increases from left to right/bottom to top

o exceptions→d-block elements

∙ Types of bonds that can form:

o 1) pure covalent bond=neutral atom; equally shared electrons; usually  same element (ex. O2)

o 2) polar covalent bond= partially charged atom; unequally shared  electrons (M δ +X δ -)

o 3) ionic bond= oppositely charger ions; held together by electrostatic  attraction(M+X-)

∙ How to know what type of bond  

o Look at the difference it atoms electronegativity

o If the atoms electronegativity differs by:

 Less than 0.5→nonpolar

 0.5-2.0→polar covalent

 greater than 2.0→ionic

∙ Dipole moment= the measure of the polarity of a bond; also indicates direction  of electron shift

o Dipole moment = Q x r

 Q= charge

 R= radius (distance)

 Dipole moment always positive; expressed in debye units (D)

 1D= 3.336x10-30 cxm

∙ charge of separation→ represented by δ (+ or -)

∙ Exceptions to the Octet Rule:

o Group 3A can have less than 8 valence  

o Coordinate covalent bond→1 atom donate both electrons

o Lewis base→donates electron

o Lewis acid→accepts electron

o Free radical= molecule with odd number of electrons

o Period 3 and beyond can have more than 8 valence

 Practice Problems: 

1. Arrange MgO, CaO, and SrO by increasing lattice energy

a. Answer= SrO<CaO<MgO

2. Write the empirical formula

a. C6H12O6→CH2O

b. N2O→N2O

3. Name the compound or write the formula

a. CuSO4= copper(I) sulfate

b. NH4NO3= ammonium nitrate

c. KClO3= potassium chlorate

d. CuCl= copper(I) chloride

e. Mn2S3= manganese (III) sulfide

f. FeCl2= iron (II) chloride

g. Nickel(II) sulfate= NiSO3

h. HIO= hypoiodous acid

i. HBrO4= perbromic acid

j. Lithium hydrogen phosphate= Li2HPO4

k. HBr= hydrobromic acid

4. Practice drawing lewis structures

5. Practice working with the Dipole moment equation

6. Don’t foget to memorize the elements and their symbols

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