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Sociology Exam Two Study Guide
Clicker questions for chapters 4, 5, 6:
● Status(s): Girlfriend and Student=Cannot do both roles 100%
Martha is experiencing?
Answer: B) role conflict
● Status(s): Student: has reading assignment and needs to study for an exam= cannot do both
Larry is experiencing?
Answer: A) role strain
● How often do you feel stressed out?
Class response: Frequently
● Is smoking marijuana in a city park in Fort Collins a deviant act? Class response: Yes
*The point to this clicker question is to illustrate how a symbolic interactionist differs from other perspectives. This point of view makes one ask: do other people think this act is deviant?
● Has anyone ever used humor to put you down?
Class answer: Yes
*The point behind this clicker question is to show that humor has a double edge sword and can be used in a positive or negative way
● Have you ever worked at fast food?
Class answer: No=80% Yes=20%
*the point was to get the idea of a “group” introduced by creating a group that works in fast food places We also discuss several other topics like What is opsonization?
● Which of the following best describes you regarding number of close friends?
Class Answer: 55%=right amount, 42%= want more, 3%=want less ● I would rather work for a ______ company?
want to work for myself: 9%
Dont care on the size: 22%
● What is it meant by Mcdonaldization of society?
Class answer: Nonfastfood organizations mimic the organizational principles of McDonald's
McDonalds organized their restaurant to be cheap and efficient
If you do it this way you make more money and people get more stuff
lacks in quality
● Large megachurch often have several thousand members. this illustrates which principle of McDonaldization:
D)control through automation
*Think of class sizes. A professor can give a lecture to one person or they could it to 200 people in the same amount of time
● safe sex practices should first be introduced in school to students in: Class answers: Junior HIgh (70%)
● Do you believe there is too much emphasis on sex on TV and in movies? Class answer: Yes (66%)
Then why do we have so much sex? If you want to learn more check out What is griffith?
● How do you feel about a man and a woman having sexual relations before marriage?
Class Answer: Wrong16% Not wrong75%
National studies are similar to our answers
● How do you feel about extramarital sex?
Class answer: Wrong 78% Not wrong13%
National Studies are similar but higher than us
Chapter four vinaigrette summary: The text is proposing the question if the personal choice about using social media is really our choice. They use age as an example: 86% of the people who are ages between 1829 use social media while only 34% of the people above the age of 60 use social media. They also say that the amount of people using social media has gone up roughly 55% in the last decade.
Chapter five vinaigrette summary: The text is examining if social class affects the types of people and organizations you are involved in. There was a survey asking people if they are upper class, uppermiddle class, middlelower class, working class, or lower class and if they are involved with any professional organizations. There is a correlation between upper class being associated with more professional organizations. Also, 0% of the people surveyed claimed they were lower class. The big message to get out of this was our memberships in groups are not just our choice but follows the structure of our society. Don't forget about the age old question of What is pahoehoe?
Chapter six vinaigrette summary: Does our society affect our opinions/ issues with sexuality? The example used is people's reactions to same sex relations which was really negative in 1990 and in 2012 a majority of the population was in favor of same sex marriage. The key point to take away is allow we think our attitudes as personal opinions, they also follow social trends.
Chapter four: Don't forget about the age old question of What is risk-taking gentry?
Social status and role Role conflict/role strain:
Social Status: a social position that a person occupies
*Who am I?
Role conflict: Occurs when incompatible role demands are placed on a person by two or more statuses held at the same time
*Example: Statuses Father and Husband
*The conflict is that he has to split up his time between his child and wife Role Strain: Occurs when incompatible demands are built into a single status that a person occupies Don't forget about the age old question of What are teratogens?
*This is always within one status
*18 credits=study hard
Achieved and ascribed statuses Status set/role set:
Ascribed: You don't have a choice/control over this
*Example: Being male/ female
Achieved: You have a choice/ control
Role: Behavior expected of someone who holds a particular status *Example: An employee at Wendy's (status) is supposed to arrive at work on time, be clean, be polite to customers (role)
Master status Construction of reality—ethnomethodology—breaking the rules: Master Status: The major ones that stick out
*Example: Person Lebron James
*Major Statuses: Basketball player
*This can be good or bad
Ethnomethodology: The study of the way people make sense of their everyday surrounding.
*AnaÏs Nin: “We don’t see things as they are, we see them as we are.” *examples: man vs. woman, Black vs. white
People define reality and create rules
*We create these “rules” by testing what is accepted in one’s society
*example: personal space, staring at someone in an elevator
Dramaturgical analysis—front stage/backstage: If you want to learn more check out What is the relationship between hemoglobin saturation and blood po2 in the oxygenhb
Dramaturgical analysis: The study of social interaction in terms of theoretical performances.
* Think of yourself as a performer; now think about how you would act backstage and onstage? How do they compare?
*”Backstage”: this resembles going to bathroom or not many people get to see this.
So this means that you are not truly yourself until you are alone
*”Frontstage”: This resembles going to class What everyone sees So this means you put up a front when you are around people to alter how you want to be perceived.
Other concepts/issues—personal space, the social stare, impression management, civil inattention, function of humor, touching,.:
Class Activity: Have people approach each other
● Male approach male
● Female approach male: Furthest apart
● Male approach female
● Female approach female: Closest apart
* This was suppose to show us that we draw invisible lines that define your personal space
*He connects this to how a social interactivist is interested in cross culture *He connects this to “personal space” aspect of dramaturgical analysis Social Construction of language: certain words have different connotations *example: Unemployed vs. in between jobs; girl vs. women
*These words are describing the same thing, but the way they are said creates different feelings
*is the product of reality construction
*provides a way to express an opinion without being serious (relieves tension) *often is a sign of real conflicts
When would you help someone? when there is less people→more people will help you
Impression management: We practice how we want to be seen in public *we want to impress people
Civil inattention: Nonverbal communication, facial expressions, eye contact, and touching.
*Examples: Is it okay to look at someone?
Primary and secondary groups/relationships—characteristics of each?
Two types of groups/relationships
usually long duration
usually short duration but it is variable
broad relationship that involves many activities
narrow relationship; a lot of convos are off limits
The person makes the relationship worthwhile
we tend to not care that much about the person/ we are using them
Goal is to not end
means to an end
Examples: Boyfriend; family
Examples: store clerk; government
The trend away from primary to secondary relationships consequences Temporary Society (bennis and slater):
1. Individuation: We have to be more separated from our groups
*We like big classes, cities,etc.
2. Concomitant feelings of alienation: because we like “big” we tend to have a longing feeling
*Example: Facebook we try to substitute primary relationships
3. Interchangeability: Don't let personal preferences mess you up; be able to find a job wherever and you can still be just as effective
*Tradition: My groups wear green so I’ll wear green
*personal: My groups like green but I like blue
*other: My groups like greens, i like blue, but i’ll fit in if I wear red
*Key: BE FLEXIBLE
5. Intensification of marital relationships
*The community isn’t there if you need help
*the only small group you have are family
*This makes the family carry more pressure that is non existent in a small community
*KEY: EMOTIONAL SUPPORT
Max Weber’s characteristics of bureaucracies
Bureaucracy: Rational model designed to perform complex tasks efficiently *Max Weber’s six elements to promote organizational efficiency
1. Specialization of duties: person has one job and they get
really good at it
2. Hierarchy of offices: bosses to keep specialist in check
3. Rules and regulations: everything is fair
4. Technical competence
6. Formal written communications
*these ideas are the reasons for our standard of living increasing, but the problem is it makes
things less personal so that's why there are clubs
Potential problems with bureaucracy (Hint: Refer to power point slide on this topic) Problems with Bureaucracy:
Bureaucratic Alienation: too much specificity can cause problems Bureaucratic Inefficiency & Ritualism: relies too much on the rules *Example: hospital makes every patient fill out same sheet
With new computer technology, privacy has declined (p. 160)
The consequences of moving to the efficient society with its time pressures/stress The consequences are we are not relaxing and getting to enjoy what we have. We are all running a race that we will never finish, which puts stress on our society. The build up of this pressure could lead our society to crack. Video: Carl Honore, In Praise of Slowness
Author who did a TED Talk about how our generation is extremely efficient and does everything as fast as they can. His idea is that we need to slow down as a society and it will in return give us better results then we have now. Denmark is
his big example; the country is very stable and happier because they have regulations on the amount of homework children receive.
Concepts: Parkinson’s Law, Peter Principle
Peter Principles: In a hierarchy, individuals tend to rise to their level of incompetence.
*This means there will be a day where you cannot keep getting promoted because you are not doing that well at what you are doing because you have been promoted too much
Parkinson’s law: Work expands to fill the time available for its completion.
The submission to vericite *162 submissions within the last 24 hours The McDonaldization of society
McDonaldization of society:
1. efficiency get the most done as fast as possible
2. Predictability you know what you are getting
3. uniformitystandard plan/ leaving nothing to chance
4. control through automation humans are the most unreliable factor *Downsides: you have to throw a lot of food away
Dehumanizing because of uniformity
DO people need to be treated as parts or wholes?
*Despite the downfalls of this model it has become universal*
Major difference between a typical U.S. and a Japanese organization The japanese model:
● New employees—same salary, same
● Lifetime security (Lifetime employment)
You do your job right and you will never be fired
The idea that if you are dedicated to us we are dedicated to you In U.S. we do not follow this= many good people get laid off
● Broadbased training in all phases of their operation
● Collective decision making (quality circles)
if people have a say in their work they do a much better job
Companies give back to their workers (safeway's health center)
Companies partake in team building exercises
● Holistic involvement in the lives of employees
Why is sexuality on interest to sociologists?
*Do we make our own choices regarding how we feel about sexuality OR does society shape our opinions on issues involving sexuality? *
Human sexuality is an important component of every society
How people express their sexuality:
*Varies from society to society
*Varies within a society over time
How we express our sexuality is learned.
*The desire may be biological but can be expressed in many ways How have these forces shaped our values and behavior regarding our sexuality? Our values & subsequent behavior are shaped by our exposure to various forces within the social environment:family, school, peers, & mass media. *Example: internet, TV, etc.
Purposes of sexual activity; consequences of each purpose?
Reasons for sex:
● Procreation: childbearing
● Relational: experience, human, primary relationship
● Recreational: feeling, object, secondary relationship
*DO people think of a person as human during sex or body parts?
Major issues surrounding sexuality today
It's okay to have fun, it's a leisure activity, sex is now just another activity and is less strictly bound by the puritans constraints. But, people turned in into work and you had to wear certain things and it became planned
Problems: prostitution, sexism, sexual violence, sexual counterculture, STI’s, teen pregnancy, and sex education, abortion
Possible constraints on the sexual revolution of the 60’s Sociological perspectives on sexuality
The Sexual revolution:
1960’s: fostered a new openness toward sex
*Birth Control: the pill
gives females more power and control over their bodies
*Attitudes toward sex changed dramatically
*Double standard challenge (look at figure 6.1 in text)
*Extramarital sex: 75% of men and 90% of women remain faithful during the marriages
*Men and women are almost equal in the percent reporting engaging in premarital sex
*Premarital sex is broadly accepted among America's young
how can sexual activity be used to further our society?
What are the things that are helping/ hurting the society?
wants to watch people?
wants to find correlations
how does these actions directly affect the society?
How does this work?
prostitution: how do I know this person isn't a cop