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Test 2 Study Guide

by: Kayla Robinson

Test 2 Study Guide BIOL 4201

Kayla Robinson
GPA 3.92

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About this Document

Here is my study guide for test 2!
Dr. Goven
Study Guide
immunology, Study Guide, Test 2
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayla Robinson on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 4201 at University of North Texas taught by Dr. Goven in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see Immunology in Biology at University of North Texas.


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Date Created: 03/06/16
Test 2 Study Guide Functions of Antibodies  Neutralize toxins o Bacterial, venom o Ab binds to active site on Ag  Agglutination (Aggregation) o Ab binds to two Ag’s o Clumps them together (like eating popcorn) o Phagocytic cell can attack two cells at once  Opsonization o Prepare to eat (like mustard on a hot dog) o Puts an Ab “handle” on Ag  Viral neutralization o Cover binding site with Ab o Like bacterial neutralization, but multiple Ab covering binding sites  Antibody Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity (ADCC) o Ab is an identifier for phagocytic cells to lyse Complement  Necessary to lyse cells – Ab cannot lyse cells on their own  Found in serum  Heat labile (denatured at 56C for ½ hr)  Constant concentration—wait for Ab as the magic bullet  9 proteins, work in cascade form o C1, C4, C2, C3, C5, C6, C7, C8, C9 o Glycoproteins, enzymes cleave them to make products o Source: liver, monocytes, macrophages o Function: lyse target cells, mediate inflammation, enhance phagocytosis, recruit cells for proliferation in bone marrow 2 Pathways of Complement Classical: must have Ab activation, 3 phases Alternate: no Ab necessary Classical 1. Recognition- Ab-Ag complex, two IgG or one IgM bind C’1 esterase 2. Enzyme Activation- conformational change in C’1 esterase a. Splits C4 i. C4a denatures in the fluid ii. C4b binds to the membrane (but only 10%) b. C1 esterase also splits C2 after C4b binds i. C2a binds ii. C2b denatures c. C3 convertase splits C3 i. C3a enters fluid, is biologically important ii. C3b binds iii. Causes immune adherence 1. Ag with C3b attaches to rbc, travels to spleen, meet splenic macrophage, iv. Causes opsonization 1. Ag with C3b is phagocytized by phagocytic cell v. Wouldn’t notice immunodeficiency at this point 3. Attach Phase a. C5 convertase splits C5 i. C5a same fxn as C3a ii. C5b binds anywhere on the membrane b. C6, C7 attach—chemotactic function c. C8, C9 attach—cause leaky membrane, incomplete tube d. C5b-C9 attach—causes lysis of cell, fully functional tube i. When there are too many tubes on the cell, it becomes leaky and unstable, and becomes lysed ii. Tube is hydrophilic on the ends, hydrophobic within the membrane  Anaphylatoxic Activity o C3a and C5a directly affect vasculature without mast cells o Increase vascular permeability o Release of histamine  Chemotactic Activity o Bring white blood cells to site of infection using concentration gradient in tissue Alternate  Different beginning  Factor B + C3b = C3bB + Factor D = C3bBb (unstable enzyme) + C3 = C3a and C3b  Need to stabilize C3bBb with properdin (P): compound that lyses cells without Ab  PC3bBb is a stable enzyme, acts on large amounts of C3 o C3a same as classical o C3b binds to PC3bBb and produces PC3b Bb 2  PC3b 2b cleaves C5 – then it’s the same as the classical pathway If you lack Properdin, you will have more frequent infections. Ag will have a free run during the lag phage while waiting for the production of Ab and the classical pathway. Genetic Control of Immune Response  Gene editing: gene rearrangement and excision  Somatic point mutations: improves diversity of Ab binding sites  Plasma cells can switch isotypes: B – PC – IgM then switch to IgG Infection Example  Primary Response o 0-7 days: lag phase o Clonal selection, clonal expansion, cell differentiation, protein synthesis, export of Ab o IgM produced first, then large amounts of IgG Reinfection  Secondary Response (Anamnestic) o Shorter lag phase: 2.5 days because of memory cells o More powerful o Higher levels of IgG produced Immunogenetics  Dreyer/Bennet 1965  Two genes, one polypeptide chain  Choose a variable and a constant gene, cut out others Immunobiology Experiments  T cell, B cell, macrophage and cytokine cooperation  Good/Waksman experiment proves you need T, B, macrophage o thymoma in cancer patient, undergoes thymectomy (ThyX) o Patient develops hypogammaglobulinemia o Use symgeneic mice (genetically identical)  Add reconstituted thymoctyes—good Ab response  Claman: proves what cells make Ab o 1. X-ray mice—kills lymphocytes but not macrophages o 2. Add Thymocytes o 3. Add Ag o Ab Response: negative. Proves that T cells don’t make Ab  X-rayed mouse with added thymoctyes and Ag: no Ab response  X-rayed mouse with added bone marrow cells and Ag: medium Ab response  X-rayed mouse with added thymoctyes AND bone marrow cells and Ag: good Ab response Macrophages  Process Ag, ingest and digest Ag into its antigenic determinants  Present Ag to lymphocytes  Experiment: Can separate macrophages from lymphocytes because MP adhere to sides of test tube  T and B cells produce Ab response  T and B and macrophages produce a protective Ab response Major Histocompatibililty Complex- Antigen Bridge Nonspecific molecules that bind Ag Class I: surface glycoprotein, on all nucleated cells, fxn. Describe self, present ENDOGENOUS Ag Ex. Ag bridge between T cytotoxic lymphocyte and Tumor Cell  T cell has TCR receptor region that binds to Tumor Associated Antigen on Tumor Cell  T cell has CD8 marker that binds to CD8 receptor on Tumor Cell Class II: surface glycoprotein, on Ag presenting cells only, fxn. Describe self, present EXOGENOUS Ag, promiscuous – will bind anything, no specificity Ex. Ag bridge between T helper cell and Macrophage  T helper cell has TCR that binds to processed Ag on Macrophage (Antigen Presenting Cell)  T helper cell has CD4 marker that binds to CD4 receptor on Macrophage T and B Cell Cooperation Carrier Effect: Hapten-carrier  Experiment: Hapten is Dinitrophenol (DNP), Carrier is Bovine Gamma Globulin (BGG)  EA is a different carrier: Egg Albumin Using four mice: Addition of Ag Add DNP-BGG Add DNP-BGG Add DNP-BGG Add DNP-BGG Antibody Primary Primary Primary Primary response to DNP 2ndExposure Add DNP-BGG Add BGG Add DNP-EA Add EA Antibody Secondary None Primary None response to DNP nd nd Contains 2 nd Contains 2 B cells, and 2 T cells, but only cells 1 T cells  B cells recognize the hapten, T cells recognize the carrier.  A different carrier means only a primary response by T cells. Overcoming the Carrier Effect  Need T and B cells to be in equal concentration to overcome the carrier effect in the body Using two mice: Add the antigen Add DNP-BGG Add EA Produce a single cell Add anti-CD4 and anti- Add antimouse IgD to suspension CD8 to mark T cells, add mark B cells, add C’ to C’ to lyse T cells, and lyse B cells, and remove remove macrophages by macrophages by adherence adherence B cells remain T cells remain X-ray a new mouse Add B cells with DNP-BGG Add T cells with EA (will retain memory memory macrophages) Add DNP-EA and measure Ab response is secondary: the new mouse has Antibody response memory to DNP from the B cells and memory to EA from the T cells Cytokines  Small and soluble  Found in body fluids  Secreted by white blood cells (lymphocytes, monocytes)  Affect gene expression by causing cell to produce proteins o Ex. Plasma cell producing Antibody  Activate cells to proliferate and differentiate  Send specific signals  Concentration depends on number of T cells Types of signaling  Autocrine: self  Paracrine: Neighboring o High concentration not necessary  Endocrine: distant o Needs carrier protein o Ex. Cytokine to bone marrow to promote lymphocyte production Cytokine Function:  Pleiotropic: some have multiple effects  Synergistic: some effects need two cytokines at once  Redundant: multiple cytokine types do the same thing  Antagonistic: different cytokines can turn off others T Delayed Hypersensitivity Type  Similar to the function of a T helper cell with a CD4 marker  Ex. Tuberculosis test: purified protein derivative of TB inserted under the skin


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