BIO 1500 Exam 2 Note Reference Bundle
BIO 1500 Exam 2 Note Reference Bundle BIO1500
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nausheen Zaman on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO1500 at Wayne State University taught by Dr. William Bradford in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 87 views. For similar materials see Basic Life Diversity in Biology at Wayne State University.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
● Stems ○ Contains three types of plant tissues ○ Goes through growth by means of cell divisions in apical and lateral meristems ○ Shoot apical meristem → stem tissueprimordia (most primitive structure of an organ/tissue) → leaves, shoots, flowers ● Cork ● Leaves ○ Can be arranged in following ways: ■ Alternat the leaves alternate sides as you go up the stem ■ Opposite two leaves on the same level on the opposite sides of each other ■ Whorled arranged in a circular manner (like a flower) ■ Spira as the stem grows, leaves grow in a radial direction ○ Phyllotaxy patterns of leaf arrangement ■ The way leaves are arranged optimizes sun exposure to leaves ○ Node attachment point of a leaf to its stem ○ Internode area between two nodes (inter = between) ○ Blade flattened part of leaf (blade of a sword = flat metal part) ○ Petiole leaf stalk ○ Axil angle between petiole and stem ○ Auxillary bud product of primary shoot apical meristem produced in each axil (a baby apical meristem!) ○ Terminal bud extends shoot system during growing season ● Eudicots more organized with tissues arranged into rings ○ Pith internal ground tissue ○ Cortex external ground tissue ○ Development ofvascular cambium (connecting rings of vascular bundles) between primary xylem and phloem ● Monocots less organized, with less rings and more scattered in the middle ○ No vascular cambium = no secondary growth ● Vascular tissue arrangement = ability for secondary growth ○ Tree stump rings = annual growth of vascular cambium (thickness = cell size = growth conditions that year) ○ ● Modified Leaves ○ Floral leaves/bracts surround true flowers and look like showy petals ○ Spines reduce water loss and deter predators ○ Reproductive leaves baby plant capable of growing into fullsized plants independently ○ Window leaves allow underground photosynthesis ○ Shade leaves produced in shade with larger surface area and less mesophyll than sunlit leaves ■ Have lower photosynthetic rates because of this ○ ***SEE SLIDE 34 ON FB 15 LECTURE SLIDES FOR EXAMPLES*** ● Insectivorous plants ○ Trap insects + digest them for needed nutrients ○ Pitcher plants = cone shaped leaves that capture rainwater to drown insects ○ Sundews = secrete sticky stuff produced from glands ○ Venus flytrap = hinged leaves that swing shut when two trichomes inside leaves are touched Chapter 37: Transport in Plants ● Transport Mechanisms ○ Water enters roots → moves up to xylem because of water cohesion → water exits through stomata in form of water vapor (transpiration) ○ Pushing comes from water entering roots and the pressure that results ○ Most force is pulling that is created by transpiration ■ Occurs due to cohesion and adhesion ○ Water diffuses through plasma membranes (osmosis enhanced by aquaporins) ○ Other substances depend on protein transporters (facilitated/active transport) ○ Unequal solute concentrations drive osmosis ● Water potential regulates movement of water through a plant ○ Water potentia predicts direction of water movement (usually higher → lower concentration)/ the measure of relative tendency of water to move from one area to another ■ Measured in MPa (megapascals) ■ 2 Components ● Physical plant/cell walls, gravity (usually not considered) as turgor pressure increases, pressure potential increases ● Concentration of solute in each solution ○ Osmosis the process where solvent molecules diffuse through a permeable membrane from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration (equalizes concentrations on each side of the membrane) ■ If a single plant cell placed in water → Concentrations of solutes > solution → water moves into cell (osmosis) → cell expands + becomes turgid ■ If single plant cell placed in hiconcentration sucrose → water leaves cell → cells shrink via plasmolysis ○ Solute potential pressure that must be applied to a solution to prevent backflow of water through semipermeable membrane ■ Pure water = solute potential (0) ■ Solute concentration increase, solute potential decreases ■ Solution with higher solute concentration = more negative solute potential ○ ***SEE SLIDE 14 in FEB 17 LECTURE SLIDES*** ● Water Potential Formula ● Water Potential Problem ○ ***SEE SLIDES 2023 FOR TIPS TO SOLVE WATER POTENTIAL PROBLEMS*** ● Transport Routes in Cells ○ Most of absorbed water comes through root hairs → water/minerals move across cell layers until they reach vascular tissues → dissolved ions and water enter xylem + move throughout the plant ■ Surface area increases in presence of mycorrhizal fungi ○ 3 transport routes exist ■ Apoplast route movement through cell walls/in between cell spaces ● Avoids membrane transport ■ Symplast route use of plasmodesmata to transport products through cells ■ Transmembrane route membrane transport between cells + across vacuole membranes in cells ● Greatest control of transport ○ Molecule reach endodermis → further passage blocked by Casparian strips → molecules use cell membranes and protoplasts of endoderm cells to reach xylem → ● Xylem Transport ○ Continuous ionic accumulation in roots = root pressure (esp true at night when transpiration in leaves is little to none) ■ This alone does not explain xylem transport ○ Transpiration is main force ○ Move water up the plant through xylem in absence of transpiration ■ Think of a straw in a drink; water is sucked into a plant just like a drink is sucked through a straw ○ High root pressure = guttation (production of dew) ■ Causes water loss in leaves ○ ONLY occurs when soils water potential > roots water potential ■ Positive water potential in soil gradient → negative water potential in roots, stems, leaves, etc. ○ Water has strong cohesive and adhesive properties that are shown here ■ Tensile water column strength + diameter = inverse relationship ■ Tracheids/Vessels are narrower, therefore they have strong cohesive water forces ○ Cavitation when an air bubble breaks the tensile water column strength → gasfilled bubble blocks tracheid/vessel → damages the cells ■ Damage minimized by anatomical changes (i.e. alternative pathways, smaller cell wall pits) ● Rate of Transpiration ○ 90% of water taken up through the root is eventually lost into the atmosphere ○ Closing stomata is a shortterm solution ■ Must be open in order to allow CO2 entry for photosynthetic processes ○ Stomata held open by combo of thickened inner walls and turgor pressure ■ Mostly caused by guard cells around stomata ■ Only epidermal cells with chloroplasts, thicker inner walls that bulge out when turgid ■ Water enters osmotically → uptake of potassium, chloride, malate → active proton transport out the cell → cell walls become turgid → thick inner walls bulge → stomata opens → sucrose actively pumped out of guard cells → loss of turgor occurs → guard cells + stomata close ○ Increase with temperature and wind velocity (molecules evaporate quicker) ○ Stomatal function pathways ■ ABA (abscisic acid) signals stomata to close during a time of drought by opening potassium, chloride and malate channels → water loss in guard cells occur and close stomata ● This is the same acid that initiates dormancy in seeds! ■ Close when CO2 concentrations are high, contact with blue lightwaves (promotes potassium uptake by guard cells), temps exceeding 3034 degrees C and water is not avaliable ■ CAM is also a pathway that reduces transpiration ● Water Stress Response ○ Dormancy, leaf loss, covering leaves with cuticles/trichomes, reduced number/different location of stomata ■ All these adaptations limit water losses in plants ● Flooding Adaptations ○ Flooding leads to ■ depletion of oxygen ■ interference with mineral and carb transport ○ Leads to abnormal growth ○ Oxygen deprivation is the most significant problem as that decreases cellular respiration → kills off cells → kills the plant :( ○ Larger lenticels (more oxygen uptake) ○ Adventitious roots ○ Arenchyma loose parenchyma with large air space in between cells ■ collects oxygen and transports it to submerged parts of plant ■ Water lilies, mangroves ○ Pneumatophores long, spongy airfilled roots with large lenticels that rise above the mud ■ Common in plants that live in salty water Chapter 38: Plant Nutrition and Soils ● Soil ○ Some mix of water and air is most optimal for the plant (air/water pockets present in the soil) ○ Relationship between root hairs and soil particles ■ Majority of protons are pumped out with ATP in root hair ■ Typically need to absorb more ions into the root hair → water potential decreases → water is absorbed from the soil → hydrogenion pump is used to transport ions ■ Clay and root hairs ● Protons can be used to maintain ion balance ● Various ions in soil used for various proton pumps ● This allows the water potential to decrease in root hair cells and absorb more water into the soil ● Soil Loss ○ Really bad to lose topsoil ■ All roots, minerals, decaying matter present here ■ Loss of topsoil → loss of vegetation → erosion occurs more readily ■ Dust Bowl during the 1930s ○ Techniques used in agriculture ■ Intercropping planting more the one type of crops in the same field ● Corn and soybeans (they supplement each other) ● Soybeans → legumes → fix nitrogen → puts nitrogen back into soil → corn uses nitrogen → alternates between rows → corn/soybean roots interlock to prevent erosion ■ Conservation tillage Minimal/notill farming methods ● Inhibits erosion ○ Fertilizer runoff prevention ■ Too much fertilizer → runs off into water → eutrification (algal blooms in water) → algae decomposes when it dies → requires oxygen to decompose → lowers oxygen in the collective water ecosystem → results in no oxygen area ■ Sitespecific farming machinery samples soil in different areas → gives different level to nutrients to different areas accordingly via GPS system ■ Integrated nutrient management using natural organic methods + farming ● Releases nutrients more slowly/effectively into the soil ● Acidic Soils ○ Most plants grow best in neutral pH ○ High acidity problems ■ Breaks down things quicker ■ Too much of certain minerals/compounds → not good for plant! ■ Kills of beneficial organisms for plants ○ Lime (limestone!) is one of the things used to lower acidity in plants ○ Aluminum, manganese → too much is toxic! ● Saline Soils ○ More ions → lower water potential in soil → less water flows into roots ○ Occurs in arid regions (lots of fertilizer/chemicals and little percipitation to wash it out) ● Plant Nutrients ○ Macro/micronutrients essential to plant growth ○ 9 Macronutrients ■ Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Potassium, Calcium, Phosphorus, Sulfur ■ Magnesium one of main ions in chlorophyll (holds structure together) ○ 7 Micronutrients ■ Used as cofactors ■ Chlorine, Iron, Manganese, Zinc, Boron, Copper, Molybdenum ○ Mineral deficient plants ■ Chlorine, Copper, Zinc(?) loses green coloration → chlorosis (losing chlorophyll plants) ■ Determined by figuring out different solutions that trigger abnormal growth in a plant ■ Positive controls checking the experimental system is functioning ■ Negative controls effects are the cause of the treatments that are being done ○ Hydroponic plants plants growing in water containing nutrients ■ Too much water = less oxygen ■ The water solutions are aerated (oxygen is put into the water) ○ Major source for nutrition = PHOTOSYNTHESIS!! ● Special Nutritional Strategies ○ Nitrates ■ Especially in carnivorous plants, legumes (peas, beans, peanuts) ■ Capable of having symbiotic (two living thing that are interacting) relations with rhizobium bacteria to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere ● Mutualistic relationship ■ Plant gives oxygen and nutrients to bacteria for it to survive ■ Extracellular signalling ■ Flavonoids produced → signal rhizobia → rhizobia makes nod factors → nod factors signals root hair to curl around rhizobia → rhizobia makes infection thread → takes control of cell division in cortex → changes shape and called bacteroids → produces ‘plant hemoglobin’ (leghemoglobin) → Bacteroids produces nitrogenase → turns into a nodule to make a mutualistic relationship ■ Plant needs nitrogen, bacteria is capable of producing nitrogen, nitrogenase capable of fixing nitrogen for plant to use, plant provides material for bacteria to produce ‘hemoglobin’ in plant + carbs and nutrients for bacteria to continue life cycles ■ There are different types of rhizobium ■ Bacteria can be beneficial to plant by attacking bad bacteria in soil around the roots ○ Mycorrhizal fungi ■ Pick up certain micronutrients and phosphates for ATP ■ Large surface area ■ Lives through nutrients given from the plant ■ Most likely aided early plants to colonize land ○ Carnivorous plants ■ Grow in areas with acidic soils that lack nitrogen ■ Traps/digest small animals + insects to extract nitrogen ■ Modified leaves to attract and lure potential prey + digested with enzymes secreted from specialized glands ■ Pitcher plant, Venus flytrap, Sundews, Waterwheels ● Usually is triggered by movement, only happens a few times (considered a growth response) ○ Parasitic plants ■ At least 3,000 types ■ Mostly nonphotosynthetic ■ Dodder, Indian pipe ■ Usually have structures that tap into the host plant and suck out all the host plant’s resources Chapter 39: Plant Defense Responses ● Physical Defenses ○ Abiotic factors (factors that aren’t living) and biotic factors (factors that are living ie bacteria, fungi) ○ Plant enemies can affect the plant’s survival (if a plant is injured, then it’s more susceptible to being infected) ■ Tap into plant nutrients → use plant to selfreplicate → kills plant cells → necrosis ■ Threat is reduced when these predators also have predators that prey on them! ■ Invasive species are a big problem to plant, especially to crops ● Emerald ash borer ● Lack natural predators, therefore they easily multiply and grow to cover larger areas ○ Dermal tissue = first line defense in plans ■ Epidermal cells secrete wax to protect plant from water loss/attack ● Above ground = cutin (waxy substance heavy in polymerized fatty acids) ● Suberin (impermeable waxy substance found in corky tissues of plants) ○ Mainly found in plants of a subterranean origin ■ Silica, trichomes, bark and thorns offer additional protection ○ External defenses can be penetrated ■ Think of them as human wounds; if they are open, they are more likely to be infected ■ Parasitic nematodes eat through plant cell walls with their sharp mouth parts ■ Bacteria on the surface of a leaf can increase likelihood of frost damage ■ Fungi can penetrate through plants ● germinating fungal spore lands on surface → form adhesion pad → fungus infects stomata → enters leaf through infected stomata → hyphae penetrate plant cell → develop haustorium → siphons nutrients out of plant’s cells and eventually kills the plant ○ Fungi and bacteria can be beneficial to plants (ie. mycorrhizal fungi, nitrogenfixing bacteria/rhizobium) ■ Plant growthpromoting rhizobim (PGPR) ● Lives around roots of plants and kills off bad bacteria living around the plant soil ● Chemical Defenses ○ Plant has chemical defenses to deter things from eating/infecting it ○ Many medicines were derived from many chemicals present in plants ○ Toxins ■ If concentrated enough could possibly kill an organism ■ At most it can make it sick ○ Defensins ■ Small, cysteinerich peptides with antimicrobial properties ■ Chemicals made by the plant can inhibit production of proteases ● Some defensins do this ● This can affect digestion (can make organisms sick) ■ There is a chance of innate immunity, it’s just a part of a plant ○ Secondary metabolites ■ Compounds that are made by basic metabolic pathways but are created to make other metabolites ● Alkaloids nicotine, caffeine, morphine, wild tobacco (nicotine has dropped in commercially grown tobacco more likely to be affected by tobacco hornworms) ● Tannins binds to proteins and inhibit their production ○ Proteinases ○ Peppermint oil repels some animals ■ By eating a varied diet it offsets the bad effects secondary metabolites have ○ Two main ways plants protect themselves from toxins ■ Sequester (contain) a toxin within a membranous structure in a cell ● Same thing is done in animal cells (lysosomes, peroxisomes) ■ Make it in a form that isn’t toxic until eaten ● Cyanogenic glycosides turn into cyanide when it comes in contact with digestive juices → blocks electron transport in mitos and affects the basic functions on cells ● You can’t build tolerance to cyanide or any kind of toxins ● Cassava roots contain these ○ Allelopathic plants secretes chemicals that repels any other plants from growing anywhere around it ■ Means ‘against other things’ literally ■ Less competition of nutrients and sunlight ■ Can go to the point of blockout plants of their own kind! ■ Black walnut trees ○ Ricin alkaloid produced by castor bean plant ■ 6x more lethal than cyanide, 2x more lethal than cobra venom ■ Potent enough to kill a small child with a single seed ■ Inhibits translation in cells ■ Stored in the plant as a dormant toxin until it enters the body → bond is cleaved → releases ricin A and B → A destroys the rRNA and denatures the protein (1 inactivates 1500 ribosomes a minute) ○ Many secondary metabolites are beneficial to human health (5075% of medicines) ■ Herbal supplements and consuming the plants are totally different from taking actual medicines ■ Concentration is also important! ■ Phytoestrogens in soy plants (plantsynthesized sex hormones) ● Can disrupt sexual functions in animals and humans (fetal/newborn health questions) ● Lowers prostate cancer risks in Asian males ● May limit menopausal symptoms ■ Taxol (Pacific yew trees Pacific northwest) ● Fight breast cancer (also used to fight other cancers) Brocha1 mutation cancers especially ■ Quinine (Cinchona trees) ● Effective against malaria ● Blocks DNA replication → buildup of toxic hemes → poisons the parasite(lasmodium) ● Plasmodium has a quick life cycle → they have adapted to new treatment → quinine has come back as a potential treatment ● Animals that Protect Plants ○ Acacia trees + ants ■ Ants protect the tree ■ Tree provides food, ants destroy other plant matter and organisms on the tree ○ Parasitoid wasps and trees ■ Chewing on leaves release a chemical → attracts parasitoid wasps → lays eggs in caterpillar skin → larvae chew their way through the caterpillar skin → use caterpillar carcass as food ● Systemic Response to Invaders ○ Static plant responses have energetic downside ■ Maintained in the presence/absence of threat ○ Energy would be conserved if plant response was inducible (defenses only done when needed) ● Wound Responses ○ Wounded leaves produce 18amino acid peptide (systemin) ■ Released locally → universale response ○ Systemin moves through plant by phloem ○ Cells with systemin receptors produce jasmonic acid ■ Interacts with any cell that has a systemin receptor ■ There is a cytoplasmic reaction that sets off this chain reaction ○ Jasmonic acid turns on defense protein genes, including proteinase inhibitors ■ Domino effect ○ Plants also have pathogenspecific responses (book pg 798800) Chapter 40: Sensory Systems in Plants ● Responses to Light ○ Proteins are available that are capable of receiving light → varying responses ○ Phototropisms directional growth in response to light ○ Photomorphogenesis nondirectional, light triggered development (usually occurs in the darkness) ■ Both compensate for the inability to move ● Chemical Process ○ Phytochrome has two variations (Pr and Pfr) → Pr = red light (660 nm), Pfr = farred light (730 nm) → Pr bioinactive, activates Pfr → Pfr response occurs when there is germination, shoot elongation, etc. response → has ubiquitin binding site → with ATP ubiquitin binds to Pfr → goes through proteasome → comes out as degraded Pr (reused in the beginning of the cycle) and ubiquitin ■ Pr = bioinactive, becomes Pfr with available red photons ■ Pfr = bioactive, becomes Pr with available farred photons ○ Consists of two parts ■ Chromophore (light receptive) ■ Apoprotein (facilitates lightresponse gene expression) ○ Involved in many signalling pathways that lead to gene expression ■ Pr found in cytoplasm → converted to Pfr → enters the nucleus → binds to other proteins → forms a transcription complex → expression of lightregulated genes ○ Also works in proteinkinase signaling pathways ■ When Pr → Pfr ● Proteinkinase domain uses auto/phosphorylation of another protein → initiates chain reaction → ultimately leads to expression of lightregulated genes ■ Pfr regulated by degradation ● Tagged by ubiquitin for transport to proteasome ● Tagging and recycling process of Pfr is regulated to maintain the amount of phytochrome the cell needs at a time Chapter 40: Sensory Systems in Plants ● Circadian clocks/rhythms ○ First observed in sensitive plants (leaves that reacted to touch) ■ Was observed that this happened a lot at night, even if there was no light, they still close during the nighttime ○ Continuing absence of external inputs (will continue responding in a 24hr cycle) ○ Will gradually become affected when put into darkness for a while (trains itself back into a cycle) ○ Temperature increases → protein activity increases ■ Clock notices and compensates for activity differences in plants ○ This is also true in animals ● Phototropism ○ Plants gravitating towards a light source ○ This happens when auxins concentrate towards the darker side of the plant ■ Makes the plant look like it is leaning towards the light source ○ This is more of a shoot mechanism elongates on the upper side ● Gravitropism ○ Plants that grow towards a center of gravity ○ When a plant is knocked over, it can reorient itself to grow towards the ground towards the center of gravity ○ Shoots have negative gravitropism, roots do not ○ Gravity is by the plant cell’s perception (remember columella cells?) → changed from a electrical to a chemical signal in a plant → tells the cells to grow up/down ● Shoots ○ Endodermal layer cells called the endodermis have amyloplasts ■ These cells have starches and move in response to gravity ■ Tells the cells in circumference to respond in whatever direction is necessary ○ Presents negative gravitropism (grows AGAINST gravity) ○ Roots exhibit positive gravitropism (grows TOWARDS gravity) ○ Mutations occur when there is a loss of functional endodermis that lack amyloplasts ● Thigmomorphogenesis ○ Plant responses to mechanical stimuli (touthigmotropism ○ Plants grow independent from the direction of initialhigmonastic responses ○ Good example of this are Venus flytraps (snap shut in response to touch) ○ Thigmonasty is reversible over time (venus flytraps reopen after 30 mins) ○ Tendrils (modified stems) curls around plants due to a response in its outer cells that allow the outer cells of the plant to elongate and the inner cells don’t ■ Coiling happens within ten minutes ● Turgidity ○ If cells become turgid, causes movements within a plant ○ Pulvinus leavesMimosa pudica) ■ When there is touch, electric signals causes the water concentration to change in the leaf and the leaf closes up ■ The water is transferred back later and the leave relaxes again ○ This also happens with sunflowers ■ Young sunflowers turn towards the sun to maximize the amount of sunlight and in turn have more effective photosynthesis ● Seed Dormancy ○ Results in a response to unfavorable conditions ○ Seed needs to be somehow damaged to be broken out of its dormancy (fire, water, manually, etc.) ○ Abscission (loss of leaves) ■ Happens a lot in cooler climates ■ Allows a plant to lose parts of itself that are of a disadvantage to the plant during the winter ■ When leaves are young → changes in temp and water, forms abscission layers → protective layer (protects stem), ○ Orchids and their petals ■ They die off after the plant is pollinated ● Response to Chilling ○ The lipid bilayer needs to be fluid in order for the seed to be chilled effectively ○ As temp decreases → the metabolic processes in the seed decreases ○ When a lipid bilayer has a monounsaturated/saturated mix in the bilayer… ■ Easily more fluid than ○ When the cell is exposed to ice ■ The cell and solute concentration is out of whack → ice attracts the solutes outside away from the cell → the cell shrinks as a result of less solutes inside the cell and more solutes outside the cells ■ Some cells have a mechanism (antifreeze proteins) that fights to decrease the amount of solute loss both inside and outside the cell ● Thermal Response ○ Due to response of heatshock proteins ■ As temp increases → denaturation of proteins increases ■ heatshock proteins helps the denatured proteins fold in the correct way again ○ Acquired thermotolerance plants gradually adapt to certain temperatures, allowing the temperatures to increase in the plant and continue the cycle Chapter 32: Fungi ● Basic fungi points ○ Very diverse (uni/multicellular) ○ Can be both sexual and asexual ○ 90% of soil biomass is fungus (most of it you can’t see!) ● Defining fungi ○ Mycologists people who study fungi ■ Believe there are as many as 1.5 million species ○ Plants that decompose materials ○ Heterotrophs extract, absorb and digest nutrients from it’s surroundings ○ Animals have more in common with fungi than with plants ● Blastidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Neocallimastigomycota → used to be thought of as one large group but has been divided recently to different groups ● General Fungi Biology ○ Hyphae long, slender filaments that are characteristic of multicellular fungi, monokaryotic (one haploid nucleus) ■ Some are continuous with two nuclei (dikaryotic 2 haploid nuclei) ○ Septa cells that are in between hyphae cells that transport materials throughout the fungi ○ Mycelium mass of connected hyphae, constantly growing outwards from hyphae tips ○ Fungal cell walls have chitin hard shelllike material made of polysaccharides ■ exoskeletons for arthropods insects and crustaceans ○ Heterokaryotic nuclei are two different haploid individual (sexual reproduction) ○ Homokaryotic nuclei are genetically identical to one another (asexual reproduction) ● Fungi have ‘closed mitosis’ ○ Split in between two different nuclei ○ Split with spindle pole bodies ● Reproduction ○ Typically fungi with asexual reproduction do so when the environment is suitable ○ Fungal sexual reproduction occurs when environment is harsh and they need to vary their genetic makeup in order to have higher chance of survival ○ Fruiting bodies mushrooms, shelves, etc ○ Do not have male and female, have + and cells ○ Spores are most common means of reproduction ■ Can form from sexual/asexual reproduction processes ■ Most dispersed by wind, some can even travel by water vapor ● Fungi are HETEROTROPHS ○ Do not photosynthesize ○ Large surface area/volume ratio ○ Can break down cellulose and lignin (basically wood) ○ Some are carnivorous (fungal parasites) ■ Some fungi trap nematodes ● Zombie Fungus! (video) ○ Attacks ants ○ Controls ants to go to environments that are optimal for the fungus → latches onto a leaf of a plant → fungus eventually grows out of the dead ant ● Chytridiomycota ○ Usually parasitic ○ Consist of a pod with zoospores inside that attack the host ○ Chytrid and Frogs (video) ■ Also called BD ■ Disrupts the amphibian’s skin functions and eventually kills the frog ■ Chytrids live in water ■ Research is being done in order to stop BD from affecting frogs ● Blastocladiomycetes ○ Haplodiplontic life cycle ○ Have more sexual reproduction ● Zygomycota ○ Bread mold ● KNOW WHEN THE MONO/DIKARYOTIC STAGES BEGIN AND END! ● Glomeromycota ○ Have a mutualistic relationship between plants ○ Cannot survive without host plants ● Basidiomycota ○ Mushrooms, shelf fungi, puffballs, etc. ○ Majority of life cycle is dikaryotic (n + n) ■ Shown by presence of basidiocarps ● Ascomycota ○ Similar to basidiocarps ○ Yeast ■ Unicellular ■ Utilize fermentation (breaks down glucose into ethanol and carbon dioxide)
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