Study Guide- Test 2
Study Guide- Test 2 PSYCH 3240
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lucy Stevens on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 3240 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Claudio Cantalupo in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see PSYCH 3240 in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
Study Guide- Exam 2 Test: Thursday, March 10, 2016 Chapter 5- Drugs and Addiction *Drug- any chemical substance that can change the body and the physiology of the body 1. Psychoactive Drugs: have psychological effects a. Agonist: drug that mimics or helps the effect of a neurotransmitter b. Antagonist: reduces or blocks the effects of a NT *Drug (abused) Terminology- 1. Addiction: Must show 3 criteria to be considered “addicted” a. Preoccupation with obtaining drug (person or individual devotes lots of time and effort to getting access to the drug) b. Compulsive use of drug c. High tendency to relapse after quitting 2. Withdrawal: any negative reaction (physiological and physiological) experienced by an individual when he/she tries to quit or cant get access to the drug for sometime a. Symptoms often show the opposite effects of drug (EX: withdrawal from elation-producing drug…depression) 3. Tolerance: behavior phenomenon where increasing amounts of the drug are needed to produce the same results a. Mostly due to reduction in the number and or the sensitivity of receptors to the drug *Drug Types- 1. Opiates: derived from a plant called Opium Poppy a. Opium b. Morphine c. Heroine d. Codeine *Opiates have a variety of effects: a. Analgesic (pain relieving) b. Hypnotic (sleep inducing) *Side Effect (addictive) a. Heroine: *Opiates bind to opiate receptors: knew about the drug and its effects before they knew about the receptors in the body *Act as agonists of endogenous opiates—endorphins (pain relief) 2. Depressants- reduce activity of CNS a. Ethanol (“Alcohol”) i. Complex Action: 1. High Doses- sedative and hypnotic (calming) 2. Low Doses- stimulate ii. Addictive iii. Withdrawal involves tremors, anxiety, mood and sleep disturbances (delirium tremens in worst cases- hallucinations, seizures, death) iv. Acts as antagonist of glutamate (most prevalent NT) v. Acts as agonist of GABA by binding to GABA A receptors 1. Facilitates opening of Chlorine channels causing hyperpolarization of postsynaptic membranes b. Barbiturates: derivate of barbituric acid i. Complex Action 1. High Doses: sedative and hypnotic 2. Low Doses: inhibits cortical centers that inhibit behavior (Ex: talkativeness) 3. Act as antagonist of glutamate 4. Act as agonist of GABA by binding to GABA A a. In high doses can open Chlorine- channels even without GABA, which is potentially very dangerous causing coma or death c. Benzodiazepins i. Similar to Barbiturates but safer 1. Cannot open Chlorine channels on their own ii. Produce anxiolytic (anxiety-reducing), sedative, anti- seizure, and muscle-relaxing effects iii. Addictive 3. Stimulants: increase activity of the CNS a. Cocaine i. Produces euphoria, increased alertness, relief from fatigue ii. Acts as an agonist of dopamine and serotonin by blocking their reuptake iii. Addictive; withdrawal symptoms include depression and anxiety b. Amphetamines i. Synthetic drugs (methamphetamine: speed, crank, crystal) ii. Produce euphoria, increase in confidence, alertness, and concentration iii. Acts as an agonist of dopamine and norepinephrine by increasing their release in the synaptic clef iv. In high doses can cause hallucinations, delusions and other psychotic-like symptoms c. Nicotine i. Primary psychoactive and addictive agent in tobacco ii. Complex action- 1. Short puffs: stimulating effect 2. Long puffs: depressant effect iii. Acts as agonist of acetylcholine (activates muscles, increases alertness) iv. Addictive, withdrawal symptoms include nervousness, anxiety, drowsiness, lightheadedness, headaches d. Caffeine i. Produces arousal, alertness and decreased sleepiness ii. Acts as agonist of dopamine and acetylcholine by increasing their release in the synaptic cleft iii. Withdrawal symptoms include headaches, fatigue, anxiety, shakiness, craving 4. Psychedelics: Cause perceptual distortions of objects, time, self, often accompanied by euphoria a. LSD i. Similar to serotonin- binds to serotonin receptors b. Ecstasy (MDMA) i. Causes release of dopamine and serotonin- kills serotonin neurons in monkeys c. Angel Dust (PCP) i. Produces schizophrenia like symptoms in humans ii. Inhibits glutamate receptors iii. Increases activity of dopamine pathways 5. Marijuana a. Dried and crushed leaves and flowers of Indian hemp plant b. Major psychoactive ingredient: THC i. Particularly concentrated in the dried resin of the plant-hashish c. THC acts as agonist of NT anandamide and 2-AG by binding to their receptors (cannabinoid receptors)- widely distributed in CNS d. Anandamide and 2-AG may play important role in the regulation of mood, memory, appetite, and pain perception e. Withdrawal symptoms are associated with stopping use (ex. irritability, anxiety, stomach cramps) Addiction 1. Preoccupation with obtaining drug 2. Compulsive use of drug 3. High tendency to relapse after quitting Withdrawal Avoidance Hypothesis of Drug Addiction a) Caused by the desire to avoid withdrawal symptoms Different areas of the brain seem to be involved in withdrawal and addiction. Withdrawal: PeriVentricular/PeriAqueductal *Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) -Important for the establishment of an addiction *Medial Forebrain Bundle *Nucleas Accumbens MesolimboCortical Dopamine System (MDS): Main areas of the brain for reward and addiction *Drugs come in and highjack our hardwire system and just mess us up. 1. MesolimboCortical Dopamine System a. Nucleus Accumbens (NAcc): rich in dopamine receptors b. Nearly all abused drugs increase dopamine levels in NAcc c. Reducing dopamine level in NAcc decreases rewarding effects of drugs *Increase in dopamine in NAcc may be the neural basis for rewarding effect of drugs *May be part of a general reward system. *Electrical stimulation of the Medial Forebrain Bundle is rewarding in rats -Increases dopamine level in NAcc *Involved in rewarding effects for behaviors of basic importance (Ex: sex, feeding) -Increases dopamine level in NAcc (both humans and non) *Apparent paradox: lower number of dopamine receptors in drug users a) Possible innate trait b) Reward deficiency syndrome c) Vulnerability to drug use d) Dopamine activity in MDS cannot account for all addictions a. Benzodiazepines affect Glutamate and GABA levels b. Many continue to use drugs even when the effects are no longer pleasurable e) Possible important role in learning a. Just seeing drug paraphernalia can evoke craving in drug addicts b. Dopamine levels in MDS may act as “teaching signals” emphasizing importance of relevant stimuli Ending Dependence on Drugs Overcoming withdrawal symptoms Fighting against relapse Pharmacological Treatments for Dependence Agonist treatments o Replace addicting drug with another that has a similar effect Antagonist Treatments o Involve drugs that block effects of addicting drug GABA Aeceptor blocker limits effect of alcohol Aversive Treatments o Cause negative reaction when person takes the addictive drug Antidrug Vaccines o Finding ways to stimulate the persons own immune system to react to the drug molecule or systems that respond to the drug molecule before it can have its normal effect. o Stimulate immune system to produce antibodies that break down the drug Pharmacological treatments for drug addiction still somewhat controversial. Chapter 6 Motivation and Regulation of Internal States Motivation (Old Definition): set of factors that initiate, sustain and direct behavior. Motivation (New Definition): Inability to explain behavior solely in terms of external stimuli. Theoretical Approaches to Motivation Instinct: complex behavior o Automatic and Unlearned o Occurs in all members of the same species in virtually the same fashion o Instincts are much more complex than reflexes (like sneezing or moving hand away from something hot) o Simplest theory of motivation is instinct Drive Theory (leading theory) o The body actively maintains physiological systems in condition of balance…HOMEOSTASIS o Departure from Homeostasis…Aroused Condition o Drive: Motivates the organism to engage appropriate behavior (Ex: eating, drinking, seeking warmth) ON TEST: Does reflex=instinct?? NO!! Reflexes are too simple. Incentive Theory o Individuals are motivated by external stimuli, not just internal needs Money, grades= incentives Arousal Theory o Individuals are motivated to maintain a preferred level of arousal Different people have different “optimal” levels of arousal Drive Theory (Revised) o Drives=conditions of the issues o Drives=states of the brain Better accounts for sexual behavior, even eating behavior Simple Homeostatic Drives Many physiological systems maintain a given condition within a narrow range (ex: body temperature, energy reserves) Basic notion of drive theory is basically true. o Control systems- operate on negative feedback loop o Feedback= process whereby some proportion the output of a system is passed (fed back) to the input which influences the output o The nervous system has an input and output side Negative Feedback Loop: feedback stabilizes the system at a given set point. Temperature Regulation o Heterothermic animals (reptiles)- externally regulated body temperatures o Homeothermic (endothermic) Animals (Mammals)- adjust body temperature internally Anterior Commissure: connects the left and right side of the brain. A few nuclei on the ventral posterior side of the hypothalamus known as the mammillary bodies. Called this because Preoptic Area: contains warm and cold sensitive cells that induce the heat-reducing or heat-conserving processes. Thirst o Osmotic Thirst: water content decreases inside the cell Eating salty food: higher concentration of NaCl in blood than inside the cell o Hypovolemic Thirst: blood volume decreases due to loss of extracellular water These two processes are regulated by separate processes! Osmotic Thirst: OVLT. Where you find the most important receptors for osmotic thirst Neurons start changing their signaling as soon as they start loosing too much water. Median PreOptic Nucelus: when neurons here become active, that is when you start feeling thirsty. Hypovolemic Thirst: some receptors are not found in the brain at all, but in the heart. Baroreceptos: cells located in the heart and are sensitive to blood pressure. Send signals through an axon up to the nucleus of the medulla. Nucleus of the Solitary Tract (Medulla): become activated and cause thirst Renin: hormone that stimulates the secretion of another hormone called angiotensin II. Sub Fornical Organ: when cells are activated here, they tell the hypothalamus and then you being feeling thirsty Hunger o More complex drive than temperature regulation and thirst Set point can undergo dynamic and prolonged shifts (ex: obesity) Involves the need for variety of different and specific kinds of nutrients Dietary section: must distinguish between nutritious and non-nutritious (or toxic) foods…role of taste Taste o 5 primary tastes- sweet, sour, salty, bitter, umami o More complex taste sensations are combinations of 5 primaries o Nucleus of the Solitary Tract (Medulla): sense travels here after hitting the taste buds on the tongue and then heads to the insula th o Insula (Cerebral Hemisphere): sometimes known as the 5 lobe of the brain. Neurons here become active and you become consciously aware of the tastes. Major hubs for large scale brain networks. o Contributes to dietary selection in three additional ways Sensory-Specific Satiety: the more of a specific food a person eats, the less appealing a food becomes Encourages a varied diet balanced diet Controlled by the Nucleus of Solitary Tract (NST) in the medulla. Learned Taste Aversions: the avoidance of foods associated with illness or poor nutrition Learned Taste Preferences: preferences for flavor of foods that contain important nutrients (e.g. Vitamin B) Animals learn to prefer the flavor of a food enriched with thiaminepresumably makes them feel better The Digestive Process o Begins with saliva in the mouth by enzymes o HCL and pepsin break it down in the stomach If food irritates the stomach, regurgitation occurs If no irritation occurs, toxins reach the area postrema of brain-induces projectile vomiting o Most digestion occurs in the small intestine (especially the duodenum) Carbohydratesglucose Proteinsamino acids All are transferred to the liver via the hepatic portal vein FatsFatty acids and glycerol o Large intestine reabsorbs water from the food before it is excreted from the body. The Two Phases of the Feeding Cycle o Absorptive Phase: Glucose increases Parasympathetic activation Pancreas secretes insulin Glucose enters body cells; glucose stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen; fat stored in adipose cells as triglycerides o Fasting Phase: Glucose decreases Sympathetic activation Pancreas secretes glucagon Glycogen transformed to glucose (for brain); stored fat released as fatty acids (for body) and glycerol (for brain, after conversion to glucose) Two Major Signals for Hunger 1. Glycoprivic Hunger: deficit in glucose 2. Lipoprivic Hunger: deficit in fatty acids o Low Glucose and fatty acids signaled via vagus nerve to the Nucleus of the Solitary Tract (NST) and the Area Postrema (both in the medulla) o Information is then relayed to Arcuate Nucleus (AN)ParaVentricular Nucelus (PVN) and Lateral Hypothalamus (LH): when neurons here become active we become hungryIncrease in the release of neuropeptide Y in LH and PVN. Powerful stimulate for eating and reduces metabolism (and even sexual motivation) Another powerful stimulant for eating: Grelin (produced by the stomach and gets it into the blood supply where it will reach the regions in the hypothalamus and will activate the AN; this then activates the PVN and the LH which causes you to feel hungry) Signals that End Eating o Stretch receptors in the stomach-signal via vagus nerve to medulla (NST and Area Postrema)decrease of neuropeptide Y in PVN and LH. Then you start to feel less hungry o Cholecystokinin (CCK)- peptide hormone released when food passes through the duodenumvagus nervemedulladecrease of neuropeptide Y in PVN and LH o Peptide YY 3-36PYY) intestine-secreted hormonereaches Arcuate Nucleus through bloodstream- slower action than CCK o High levels of nutrients in blood-detected by livervagus nervemedulla (NST and area postrema)decrease of neuropeptide Y in PVN and LH Long Term Regulation of Body Fat o Leptin (hormone secreted by fat cells) Amount of leptin in blood is proportional to % of body fat Increased leptin in blooddecrease in neuropeptide Y in PVN and LH Decreased leptin in bloodincrease in neuropeptide Y in PVN and LH Leptin levels is about 4 times higher in obese than non- obese people may have fewer active leptin receptors in PVN and LH Chapter 7 -Biology of Sex Is sex a physiological drive (like hunger and thirst)?? o Main difference: sex is not essential for survival of the individual o Similarities: Arousal and satiation Role of hormones Involvement of specific brain areas Phases of Sex Cycle 1. Excitement 2. Plateau 3. Orgasm 4. Resolution Refractory Phase (more specific to males) -Somewhat related to sensory-specific satiety Sensory-Specific Satiety: the more of a specific food a person eats, the less appealing the food becomes -Encourages a varied diet Coolidge Effect (Male Specific): quicker return to sexual arousal for a male when a new female is introduced -Observed in many species -“Cheap sperms, expensive eggs” theory Roles of Hormones on Sexual Activity Sex Hormones Androgen: male characteristics and functions o Testosterone= major sex hormone in males Estrogen: female characteristics and functions Testosterone and Sexual Activity Evidence from castration (removal of the gonads) studies Sexual behavior decreases; clearly shows that hormones are very important variables for triggering sexual behavior Testosterone appears necessary for male sexual behaviors, but amount required is minimal Females initiate sex more at mid-cycle when both estrogen and testosterone levels are elevated o Testosterone may be more important than estrogen for this in women Testosterone increases as a result of sexual activity in both males and females. o Cause-effect relationship by the way testosterone and sexual activity is still unclear Brain Structures and Sex Network of brain structures are involved in sexual activity Medial PrOptic Area (MPOA) of Hypothalamus o Stimulation of MPOA in rats increased copulation o Sexual Dimorphic Nucleus of MPOA Larger in male rats Depends on prenatal exposure to testosterone Medial Amygdala: active during copulation in both males and females; stimulation causes dopamine release in MPOA VentroMedial Nucleus (VMN) of Hypothalamus: active during copulation in females; destruction reduces responsiveness to males Neurotransmitters and Sex Dopamine and Serotonin increases MPOA in rats. Norepinephrine increases in men and women during sex. Dopamine increases in the Nucleus Accumbens o In male rats it increases also with new female (Coolidge Effect) Sensory Stimuli and Sex Interplay of internal (hormone) conditions and external stimuli. o Tactual; Auditory; Visual o Olfactory (smell) Pheromones= airborne chemicals released by an animal that may have a physiological or behavioral effect on another animal of the same species. What about people?? VomeroNasal Organ (VNO): we do have in human noses as well. It is microscopic. Very large in animals like cats and dogs. Pheromones are detected by the VNO VNO sends signals to MPOA and VentroMedial nucleus to hypothalamus. McClintock study on menstrual synchrony Found that women living together had menstrual cycles at the same time. Menstrual synchrony in human females due to pheromones. Humans have a VNO too Microscopic in size Generates electrical potentials to suspend pheromones Experiment: Men rate photographs and voice recordings of women higher when sniffling inhalers containing suspected pheromones from the women. Men rate t-shirts of more attractive women highest on sexiness- smell itself not pleasant Men using after-shave containing suspected male pheromone report more sexual activity than controls. Pheromonal influence on sexual behavior of humans is still controversial.
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