Motor Skill Development Midterm
Motor Skill Development Midterm PHED 21200
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lena Sargenti on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PHED 21200 at Ithaca College taught by Dr. Hongwei Guan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Motor Skill Development in Physical Education at Ithaca College.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
Motor Skill Midterm 10/13/15 Highlighted green= previous quiz questions Motor Skill & Motor Behavior/Quiz 1 Motor behavior is a global term that usually includes three sub-disciplines: motor learning, motor control, and motor development. We measure learning by observing performance. Motor Performance: an observable attempt to execute a motor task. Motor Learning: relatively permanent change in motor behavior that is a function of experience and learning Motor Control: focuses on the characteristics and functions of neuromuscular mechanisms that provide humans with the capacities to perform specific physical actions i.e. movements Motor Development: studies the changes within an organism due especially to growth and maturation Maturation differs from growth in that maturation is functional and growth is structural Motor Skill: an action or task that: has a purpose, is performed voluntarily, and is a body or limb movement. Motor skills are an indicator of quality of performance, and show certain characteristics of the person’s performance A motor skills can be described as an action or task, it has the following characteristics except: skills are inherited Clark and Whitall distinguish four historical periods of motor development. In order they are: precursor period, maturational period, normative/descriptive period, process oriented period. Motor skill development is both a process and a product Motor development does not always imply improvement, it could also mean regression. Motor Skill Classification Systems: Precision of movement, defining the beginning and end points, stability of environment, and function of the movement. Precision of Movement: Gross motor skills: involve large muscles (walking, jumping, throwing) Fine motor skills: control of small muscles (writing, drawing, sewing) Beginning and End Point Discrete: clear starting and ending point (flipping a light switch, pushing a button, swiping left on Tinder) Serial: when discrete skills occur in a series (putting toothpaste on a tooth brush, changes gears in a standard car, maybe tying your shoes?) Continuous: arbitrary beginning and end points and repetitive in nature (swimming, dribbling, running) Stability of Environment Closed: environment is stable and predictable (a gymnasium) Open: environment is ever changing and unpredictable (golf course, the ocean) Function of Movement Stability: balance in state and dynamic situations (sitting, standing, balancing, walking in a straight line) Locomotor: transport the body from one point to another (crawling, walking) Manipulative: impart force to an object or receive force from an object (striking, kicking a ball, volleying, writing, knitting) These are all individually one dimensional. If you combine two systems, it becomes two dimensional Ex. A Discrete and Fine motor skill: pressing a key on the keyboard. A discrete gross motor skill: a punch or a kick. Swimming: gross, locomotor, open or closed environment depending on where the swimming is taking place. Playing piano: fine, manipulative, closed. Motor skills do not develop miraculously from one day to the next. They must be taught and practiced. Evaluation of Motor Skill Performance Analysis of motor skill: stats, speed, distance, reaction time, accuracy (results of movement). Form and strength (process). Performance Outcome: error, time, score Describing the movement: kinematic data. Displacement, Velocity, acceleration Recording kinematic data: direct (accelerometer, potentiometer) Imaging: video and high speed filming Measuring activity of the muscle and central nervous system: electromyography, brain activity Introduction to Motor Development/Quiz 2 TIE model: task, individual, environment Importance of motor skill development: human development is multifaceted, can diagnose problems, intervene, remediate, can establish appropriate developmental activities for all groups Domains: Cognitive, Affective, Motor, Physical (or CAMP, that’s how I remember it). Useful for categorizing the study of human and motor development. Domains are not discrete, they interact with one another. Elements of Developmental Change: Qualitative Not “just more of something” Sequential Certain motor patterns precede others Cumulativ Behaviors are additive e Directional Development has an ultimate goal Multifactor No single factor directs change ial Individual Rate of change varies for all people Research designs Cross Comparison of 2 or more persons or groups at point or time sectional Longitudinal A study of one person or group over a long period of time Sequential- Integrates cross sectional and longitudinal and time-lag designs cohort Three research designs have been introduced in class, they are cross sectional, longitudinal, and mixed/sequential cohort designs. Skill vs. Fitness Fitness: physical fitness, a positive state of wellbeing influenced by regular physical activity, genetic makeup and nutritional adequacy Skill: has to be taught and practiced. Early childhood motor skill development will impact health related physical fitness several years later. Physical activity levels were either amplified or attenuated by motor skill proficiency. Preschool motor development predicts high school health related physical fitness The Health Related Physical Fitness Components: muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, body composition, and cardiorespiratory endurance Motor skill development is not totally depended on age of the child Cephalocaudal means head towards the feet Gallahue’s motor skill development phases are reflexive, rudimentary, fundamental, and specialized Cognitive and Motor Development/ Quiz 3 Jean Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development Sensorimotor 0 – 2 years Preoperational 2 – 7 years Concrete 7 – 11 years Operational Formal Early to mid- Operational adolescence (11 to 12) Piaget’s theory of cognitive development: has four major stages, was largely based on observations of his children, and categorizes similar behaviors into stages. According to Piaget, stages of cognitive development: follow the same sequence regardless of the level attained Adaptation: -cognitive development occurs through this process -adjusting to the demands of the environment Two facets: Assimilation: apply current action based on previous experience. You can relate. Accommodation: adjustment based on previous experience. You cannot relate so you adjust. According to Piaget, the process by which children attempt to interpret new experiences based on their present interpretation of the world is: assimilation Infancy: Sensorimotor Stage Exercise of reflexes Birth to 1 month Primary circular reactions 1-4 Secondary circular reactions 4-8 Secondary schemata 8-12 Tertiary circular reactions 12-18 Invention of new means through mental 18-24 combinations Exercise of reflexes: reflexes such as sucking Primary circular reactions: voluntary movement, such as clapping hands Secondary circular reactions: similar to primary in that the action is voluntary and repetitive, but involves an object (shaking a rattle) Secondary schemata: New behaviors are facilitated by increasing movement capabilities such as crawling and creeping which allow exploration of environment Tertiary circular reactions: around 1 year to 1.5 years, use of active experimentation to learn, child realizes that discovery of an object and use of the object are separate entities, first level of visualizing an object beyond its immediate use Inventions of new means through mental combinations: 1.5 years to 2 years, child recognizes objects and others as independent from himself, child is beginning to understand properties of object Summary: increasing awareness of the difference between the self and others, recognition that objects continue to exist even though they are no longer in view, production of the mental images that allow the contemplation of the past, present, and future. Object permanence: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ue8y-JVhjS0 Childhood- Preoperational Stage (2-7 years) -Verbal communication starts -Language develops -Linked to motor abilities -Children are unable to think logically First sub stage: Preconceptual sub stage (2-4 years) -use symbols to represent someone or something -Play pretend -Egocentrism Second sub stage: Intuitive stage (4-7 years) -reduced egocentrism -Improvement in the use of symbols -Incapable of conservation: ability to realize that certain properties of substance remain unchanged when the appearance is rearranged https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GLj0IZFLKvg -Child cannot consider multiple aspects of a problem The most important characteristic of the preoperational stage of development is: language development According to Piaget, the most serious “deficiency” of preoperational thought is: egocentrism A child’s ability to recognize that an object has not ceased to exist simply because it has disappeared is known as: object permanence Later childhood- Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 years) -Follows conservation -Enhanced ability to decenter attention from one variable in a problem solving situation -Reversibility: able to mentally modify, organize, or even reverse thought process. Formal Operational Stage (11-12 years) -Consider ideas that are not based on observable objects or experience -Abstract ideas are possible The major accomplishment of the formal operational stage is: the ability to consider ideas not based on reality Not part of Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Adulthood- Post formal operations -Answers become more relative and less absolute -Thrive on detecting paradoxes and inconsistencies in ideas and attempt to reconcile them -Advanced thinking exists in a minority of people who are also highly educated and live in a culture that encourages new ideas and free thinking Adulthood theories: Total Intellectual decline: gradual, consistent, pervasive decline in overall intellectual ability throughout adult years Partial intellectual decline: widely accepted theory, intellectual decline occurs in some areas and not others, cultural impact. Biological changes: slower neural activity, less efficient circulatory system, brain size decreases Social Norms: -Change your behavior based on social settings Self-worth development: Early childhood Doesn’t understand self-worth or difference between cognitive and physical skills Mid-late childhood Physical appearance and social acceptance are most important Adolescence Friendships, romance, job competence. Have support from friends and teachers College age Global self-worth becomes function of perceived self-worth Adulthood Further distinction among elements of self-worth attained during previous stage continues Social Influence – childhood: Play: -activity that is always pleasurable and that the participant always cherishes -motivation to play is intrinsic -unproductive, spontaneous, and voluntary -involves active participation -crucial part of learning the rules of society Social Influence – adolescence: -Family’s influence diminishes -Peer groups are important socially -movement ability helps to determine peer group -social acceptability by peer group -Team play: benefits: work toward group goals, learn division of labor, learn that intellectual demands are greater, assumes greater social responsibility, talented players are rewarded, less-talented are blamed for failure, learn about failure Gender Role Identification -begins in early childhood -conflict experienced by girls who participate in activity for boys who do not Negative social forces on physical activity for adults: -leaving school/going to work -permanent relationship (marriage) -having a family (children) -gender -age Retirement can have a positive or negative affect Additional concerns which are critical for the aged Motor Skill Basic model: input black box output The Perceptual-Motor Process Sensory input: visual, auditory, tactile, kinesthetic sensory receptors Sensory integration: organizing incoming data with stored data Motor interpretation: making internal motor decisions based on both present and past data Movement activation: executing the movement Feedback: knowledge of results and knowledge of performance Children’s visual Perception Visual activity: Static (pick our detail in stationary objects) Dynamic (pick out detail in moving objects) Balance: Stability: a state of equilibrium maintained between opposing forces. Integral part of almost every movement task Postural control: ability to maintain equilibrium in a gravitational field by keeping the enter of body mass (or center of gravity) over base of support. Three systems contribute to postural control: visual, vestibular, proprioceptive Two types of balance: static and dynamic Fine Motor Development Categorizing manipulation: Simple synergies (flexion or extension of digits) Reciprocal synergies (thumb extension, finger flexion. Ex: Twisting a cap) Sequential patterns: combination of simple and reciprocal: tie a shoelace Development of Prehension Halverson chronicled the process of prehension (4-13 months) Object visually located, approached, grasped, the child disposes of the object by releasing it 3 basic method of reaching an object: sweeping, indirect, direct Writing There is a sequential development of movement technique for manipulation of writing or drawing implements. The development is universal. 1 stage Supinate 2nd stage Pronate 3 stage Dynamic Tripod Stages of Drawing and writing 1 stage Scribbling stage nd 2 stage Combine stage 3 stage Aggregate stage 4 stage Pictorial stage What affects development? Home environment, teaching, practice Proximodistal is the development of movement ability from the points close to the center of the body or midline to the distal or extreme points. Reaching and grasping behavior does exactly that. Midterm Summary: Motor behavior: learning, control, development. Measure learning through performance/multiple formats of assessments Motor skill development history Terms: maturation, growth, development, proximodistal, cephalocaudal, differentiation (the progression from gross, immature movement to precise, well- controlled, intentional movement), integration (related, similar change that occurs as an individual’s movement ability gradually progresses) etc. (they are bolded terms in the textbook). Major concepts: Process vs product, it’s both. Process in nature but is product of many affecting factors. TIE model, four domains, information processing model (read article). Motor skill definition Motor skill classification systems: be able to list and define/give example Gallahue’s phases: reflexive, rudimentary, fundamental, specialized Domains: cognitive (Piaget), affective (social influences, parents caregivers and peers, job and family), physical (health and physical fitness), motor Piaget’s stages and substages and key characteristics Gender issues/gender role conflict Information processing model: stimulus/perception, decision making, output: motor behavior, feedback: knowledge of results and knowledge of performance Perception: visual, auditory, touch, smell, read an article: spatial awareness, temporal, body and directional awareness, sense body position Fine motor skills: perception, development of holding writing implement, stages of drawing.
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