Midterm Study Guide
Midterm Study Guide PSC 2337
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Date Created: 03/06/16
Date of Exam: March 10, 2016 Midterm Study Guide: Chapter 1 & Chapter 2: ● Kin Selectio practice of giving jobs to those of same family (nepotism) ○ Favor blood relatives over rest of people ● Altruism: exchanging resources with unrelated individuals from same or different species ○ No central authority ■ Favor blood relatives over rest of people ● There are 2 drives that start transition to modern state: 1. Military Competition 2. Social Mobilization (due to Industrialization) a. Most important drive ● Political Decay can occur because: ○ Institutional Rigipolitical instituailing to adao change ■ Due to human nature of not wanting to change ○ RepatrimonializatioElites control the state makless accountable to the rest of the population ● 3 elements needed for political institutions: 1. The State: a. A state has completecontrol over a certain area/territory b. Two type of states: i. Patrimonial Stateleaders are thought to own leadership and the bureaucracy is led by their relatives ii. Modern State: bureaucracy is not direct relatives o3rd party is there to overlook who works in government 2. Rule of Law:orms/rules thaall citizens have to fincluding rulers a. Origins in religiecause religious authorities created rules that even the most powerful rules had to follow b. Rule of Law first emerged in West Euro due to the Roman Catholic Church dominating over the different countries’ rulers meaning that those rulers had to follow the rules that the church created c. Substantial: fundamentalhow much can the law bind the ruler d. Procedural: enforcinule of law e. Rule by law: ruler makes the rules and can change them when they want f. Reflect values of majority of citizens 3. Democratic Accountabilitthe ability of governmentrespond to the needs to ALL its citizens a. Parliaments emerged out of feudal institut and are a central mechanism of accountability i. Usually they represented the elites of society he king had to talk to before he could give tax the people ii. First emerged in the West in the 16th cenafter the idea of an absolute monarchy was created to raise money for war b. Glorious Revolution: i. In the endthe idea of “no taxation without representation” emerged c. John Locke’s Second Treatistarted the idea that the government should rule wi “consent of the governed.” i. Both John Locke and the Glorious Revolutinspired both British and American institutions ● Most important things to look aeconomic growth, social mobilization and legitimacy ○ Economic Development: defined as tincrease of output over time” ○ Social Mobilization: different parts of society being able to express opinion due to new social groups appearing ■ Gemeinschaft: personal interactions (community) ■ Gesellschafindirect, impersonal interactions (society) ■ When people move to urban areas due to industrialization they began to spend more time with colleagues thus could more easily begin a group ○ Legitimacy: popular belief thanstitutions in place are fair ■ Byproduct of economic development and society ● Modernization Theorydevelopment happens in a domino effelinear) ○ Vieweconomic development, rationalization, integration and democrats tion a many aspects of modernizing society ● Huntington’s Argument: ○ Many developing nations are not able to develop the institutions to avoid political dand achieve full stability ○ Stability is more important that being democraticif a country is stable then it shouldn’t matter what type of government they have ○ The most important thing to avoid decay ipolitical partnd a using elections ● Problems with Huntington’s theory: ○ Has little evidence ■ There is not hard evidence that precolonial Africa was stable ○ During the 50s and 60there was a lot of instability and violence that can’t be explained by modernization ■ Instead caused by the fact that many countries had not previous experience of running government so didn’t know how to do it ○ Economic growth does not lead to instalack of political institutions does ■ States with low quality institutions are usually poorer thus lack the resources to develop better ones Chapter 3: ● Government’s our basic functions 1. Regulating Externalitiregulating results or extra things that come with systems in place a. This also includes regulatnformation asymmetry by making things companies more transparent and setting up clear rules 2. Providing Public GoodsGoods that have to be shared by all a. Most basic of government functions 3. Social Regulatio:orms that society follows 4. Redistributing Between Elites and Pubone for self interest because governments don’t want instabilot about democracy a. Needs to minimizefreeriders (people not doing work because they are given everything ● Dimensions for measuring quality of government: ○ Scopes of state functihow big government is? ■ Public spending part of GDP ■ Economists use taxes and government spending to measure this ○ Strength of state instituhow effective is government ■ Procedural Approach: a. Max Weber b. Strict organization of institutions c. Meritbased bureaucracy d. Measures: impartiality, perceived level of corruption ■ Capacity Approach: a. How capable is government oreating policies and execute them b. How capable is it to “penetrate” society ■ Output Approach: a. Look at whatervices the government actually provides b. Useful for developing countriesopy the institutions of developed countries but aren’t able to have same outcomes (isomorphic mimicry) ■ Bureaucratic Approach: a. Looks at thdegree of autonomy a government hasn actions like hiring staff b. High or low levels of autonomy can lead to lots of power in the government Chapter 4: ● Rise ofHouse of Hohenzollern: ○ The “Great Elector” createstanding army ○ Had 3 strong kingsFrederick William “the Great Elector” (16401688); King Frederick WIlliam (17131740) and Frederick II (17401786) ■ Frederick II made Germany an “army with a nation” ○ These kings had enough power torce elites to pay taxes di to them ■ Other places like Britain did not see this with elites limiting Kings by not paying them taxes ○ Rise of thJunker class: transformed from moving bandits to stationary bandits ■ First they would go around taking crops or destroying them when they were not paid ■ Later became settle in one place and got farmers to pay them taxes ○ End of the SwedishPolish Waey point in creating a standing army because army remained even after the war ended ■ To ensure that they would survive by being protected from neighbors ○ Cultural Dimension: ■ The desire for a moral and uncorrupt government came fcalvinism ● Calvinism also ledew set of institutions that were tied to religion but controlled by the government ■ Dutch and Huguenot coreligionists imported to work in government leading tmore autonomy ■ This all paved the way for a strong bureaucracy ● Patrimonial to Modern Bureaucracy: ○ Transition to a modern bureaucracy begun wBattle of JenaAuerstadt in 1806 ■ France under Napoleon beat Prussia ■ Napoleon had used a model of modern state which Prussia realized was super powerful and effective due to this battle ○ French also brought Napoleonic Code with rule of law principles ○ Started thSteinHardenberg Reforms ■ Democratic principles with autocratic governliberal autocracy) a. Idea of BildungKing’s improvements had to be for the best of everyone becausee had to think of what what best for his citizens not just himself ■ Positions bureaucracy became open to anyone with talent ■ EDUCATION REQUIREMENT: this was result of a university reform which created special universities in charged of educating future government workers ● What does Rechtsstaatean? ○ Particular rule of law ■ Closer to rule by law with everyone treated equally except for the central executive ■ Model of absolutist dictatorship ○ Kings were no longer ruling in the name of God ■ Widespread in Europe ■ Kings were trying to mathemselves right one to rule but need a basis of legitimacy (usually used rule of law) ■ Comes from philosophy that kings need to look at common interest; the people were no longer their property but ikings had to act according to the citizens ○ Important factor in Germany’s economic growting beginning to regulate state and property rights thus increasing incentives for businesses to grow ● Absolutist Coalitduring Bismarck: ○ Had power tolock out new agents ○ Coalitiobetween conservative and uppermiddle class against rising agents ■ Constitution of empire to protect bureaucracy ○ Parliament had NO influence over bureaucrat actions ● State within a state: ○ Germany’s army is completeeparated from rest ○ Had complete control over foreign peading to WWI as a preventive war (“suicide because of fear of death”) ■ Started a twofront war even though it was told not to ○ Another example of their power wasazi army being able to penetrate the bureaucracy Chapter 5: ● Rent: difference between cost of production and price you pay for it ○ Started because scarcity ○ Artificial scarcity: ■ Ex: licensing, having to get a license adds rent to those things because they become rare ■ Leads distortion in the way that resources are allocatedhis arker, t leads to rent which become a way for corruption tget bribe for license) ○ Rents are needed because they are associated with things like patent and copyright ■ All government regulatory functions generate rents ● Patronage and clientelism is part of human neen since ancient times ○ Remains a dominant force in Autocracies ○ Clientelism is done in a biggewith many intermediates ○ Clientelism can go throbenefiting the whole society to just benefiting the elites ○ Primary seen in democracies because large number of votes are needed to win elections ○ Programmatic votinvoting for whatbest for ALL of society ■ In reality, people think of themselves when voting ■ Due to thipoliticians will give things to people for votes ○ This hurts government becauseowers the quality of government and gives more power to the elite ■ DECREASES DEMOCRATIC ACCOUNTABILITY ○ Patrons need to be ableensure people that they are going to come through with their promises ● Prebendalism:using your power to make sure things that are done benefit you ○ This is when politicians begin to use their power to do what they want without feeling like they are accountable to the public ○ Cold War helped prebendalisecause the USA and Soviets would give resources to those that were on their ioliticians in those countries no longer needed public Chapter 6: ● 19th century Greece: ○ Loyal to family, distrust of strangers ■ Neighbors are not friends, they are potential rivals ○ Business aremall and familyowned ■ No social unions rise to challenge because don’t trust ○ URBANIZATION BEFORE INDUSTRIALIZATION ■ Move to city as communities and all lived like they did in rural area with small busines“Cities of Peasant and Urban Villagers”) ■ In other countries, industrialization occurred first leading to work being base for new neighborhoods ■ No social unions rise to challenge because don’t trust ■ Became worse because offoreign occupation ● Before Independence:1821 ○ No single unified government or ideology ○ Humanitarian interventioreigners helped them build a government so they would no longer be part of the Ottoman Empire ■ Wanted to build state governed by foreign king but it did not work so they leGreece have universal male suffrage in 1864 ■ Bureaucracy came after democracy ○ Modernization without developmeities were seen as commercial sources not sources of employment ■ Lack of market economy made it hard to start ne the government decided to fix job shortage by providing jobs in government ○ Lost opportunity of reform afterrefugees came back after Turks left; brought back foreign ideas of industriaut didn’t lead to reform in government ● What stopped Greece from undergoing reform for less corrupt? ○ NO VIBRANT ECONOMIC GROWTH so no big social mobilization ○ Middleclass was NOT part of coalnot anti clientelism) ○ Culture factor: religin Prussia, the Great Elector was Calvinism so very focused on efficiency, in USA it is protestant so corruption seem as immoral, national identity and social capitaovernment > family ■ National identity leads to trust in government, Greece started with low social capital and low national identity because of foreign control ■ In USA, national identity is huge because they were fighting for it when created, government protect people Chapter 10: ● Why the US needed a modern state in the late century? ○ Progressive Coalitiusiness, middleclass, professionals, urban social reformers ■ Wilson and Eaton brought them together ■ People against elite representing all of society ■ Urban business and manufacture because need better regulation ■ Lawyers, journalists, academics. doctors feel that government should run government ○ Economic explanationue to industrial and economic development that change society wilarger middleclass demanding more ○ Ideational explanatiiddleclass start to educate others that then join more people to call for change ● 1883 Pendleton Act: ○ Imposed Civil Service Exto enter bureaucracy ○ Based on the British Civil Service system ■ Britain = NorthcoteTrevelyan ○ Revived thCivil Service Commissiond created a meritbased service ■ Still reform was way SLOWER in USA than in Britain ■ Commission was there but not powerful, needed a strong president to help it grow ■ Commission was effective wheTheodore Roosevelt was head6 years) ○ Ended practice of appointees handing back part of their salaries to the party ● Implications for developing countries: ○ Reform isrofoundly political process NOT technical one ■ Won’t happen same in all places because different politics ■ Problem in giving aid and steps to “fix” problem ○ Political coalition favoringneeds to come from those outside of existing system ○ Ideas are critin shaping how individuals see their interests ○ Reform takes a LONG timeespecially for those that saw democracy before state ○ Public sector unions are doubleedge secause unions of employees can end up protecting government from reform Chapter 13: ● First common route: ■ Military competitiAncient China, Japan, Russia a. Engaged in prolonged struggles with neighbors b. Efficient government organizationational survival c. Started recruiting basederitocracy d. New taxes withevenue raising capacity e. New bureaucratic organization management f. Breaking elite relatioecruiting nonelite for army ○ Second common route: ■ Peaceful political refriven by social/economic change ● Created independent groups to call for change ■ Socioeconomic modernization: ● Expanding division of laboore middleclass and destructs familybased relations (helps build relation with strangers through work) ● Helps rise of middleclass as coalition ● Industrialization and urbanizatreates a more diverse group of people and creates a strong capitalize society that provide jobs and need more regulation of industry. ● Economic has to be efficient so the government has to be efficient as well ● Graphs: ○ Prussia: ● In reality rule by law which became rule of law ○ Not meant to control king but control those under to make sure properly right ○ Rule of law made people be able to build business ○ Government has more power than business and can build capital so can choose where development would occur ● Social mobilization is rising middle class ● Early state building makes a state hard to democratize ○ USA: ● Rule of law came from common law from Britain (democracy with suffrage) ● Democracy negative on state building because it all became about votes ○ Greece/ South Italy: ● State has to lead ALL economic growth because no jobs because no industrialization ● No rule of law mentioned by Fukuyama ● Started with people beginning to form democracy Chapter 15: ● Economists: ○ Jeffrey Sacheography determines development ■ Access to transpolike waterwaysWILL SUCCEED ■ Tropical disease impaecreased productivity because of diseases like malaria a. Reason for differences between regions b. Climate makes mosquitos more likely so impacts population because spread diseases ○ Jared Diamond:omparison between Europe and New World ■ Mobility and Technology Transeasier to spread technology in flat Europe than mountainous Americas ■ Wrong because geography factor didn’t come into play before industrial revolution a. Earlier civilizations were centered around tropical regions b. Exceptions like Singapore ○ Douglas Northomparing North and South America ■ Begin to look at institutions ■ Institutions nforce property rights and rule of law ■ Common law + parliament vs mercantilist + absolutist a. British system allows people to worry less about property and focus on farming b. Other systems give less incentives ○ Engerman and SokoloffNorth/South America compared again ■ Climate and geography causeifferent colonial institutions (factor endowment) a. Barbados was also British colony but is different structure due to climate and geography ■ Extractive institutugarcane, gold and silver (easy to sent out and focused on only getting that one good) ■ Egalitarian institutamily farm institut(SETTLE) a. Not sending away products but actually settling b. Need property rights to be able to produce ○ Acemoglu, Robinson, Johnson:Not factor mortalityearly settler mortality ■ Safe to settlesettles demanding rights (more specifically property) ■ Unsafe to settle extractive institutions and absolutist political institutions ■ Those that settle needed factors that made it easier to live long term ■ Easier to settle South Africa but weren’t able to create longterm successful economy for ALL (only for colonizers not locals) END UP FAIL ○ Question of reversal of fortune: ■ Not always true, exceptions ■ Reversal occurs because of colonization a. Disrupts entire community and order of society b. Colonizationauses society to become extractive institutions because products are taken out ○ What is missing? ■ Nonmaterial factolike ideas, ideology and culture a. They are sometimes attached to geography factors ■ What is possibility of human agency taking control of geogots of examples show that similar geography leads to different development a. Big example is Haiti and Dominican Republic b. All factors coexist, can’t generalize because there will be exceptions (ex: Costa Rica no being banana republic) Chapter 34: ● Decisionmaking in democracy: ○ The more people involved in making decisions, the more cost ○ George Tsebeli’s “veto playerhomever can black process ○ Plurality system (winnertakeseasy to not have about half population with you (only got largest percentage not over 50%reduces time to make decision (more effective) ○ Still difference between countBritain more concentrated than USA ● How many veto players in USA? ○ President ○ House ○ Senate ○ Constitution ○ Federalism and Decentralized ○ In other places bureaucracy rested to make legislation not in USA ending in lots of changes, Obama Care is example ● Problems: ○ Opportunity for lobbyist and interest group ○ Gridlock and politicized administration ○ Congress denomination of legislative ○ Lack of legislative coherence ● The Westminster system (Democratic dictatorship): ○ Less veto playersPrime Minister is a little more authoritative with less elections ○ Veto pointperiodic election and free media ○ Singleall powerful chamber, no independent Prime Minister, no written Constitution with no judicial review, no federalism, plurality system ● Key Differences: ○ reform in USA is slower ○ USA had bigger clientelistic system based on party (highly embedded in society) and British elites have more control (make reform happen fast) ○ Britain = patronbased, USA = clientelismbased ● Is more democracy betterNo because too much power to groups. ○ Centralize power more on a few groups instead ○ Expansion of democracy and transparenleads to more special groups getting their say because money and more efficient than individual Kang: ● Developmental Statestates focused on developing economy based on meritocracy and independent from politics (bureaucracy) ● Chaebol:Korean familyowned conglomerate of organized firms that cover many sectors of economy ● Pre1987 Korea:started with Park Chunghee regime (19611979) ○ DPR Party Chunghee had lots of power under party ○ Start to need lots of money for campaso get money from large Chaebol companies (patronage because individuals do transactions) ○ Politicians would demand political funds because had ue to American aid, foreign/bank loans and licenses ○ Moral hazard is that politicians have little choices of where to get money and HAVE to give them money ○ At this time only way to get money is from state controlled banks ○ Mutual Hostage:government control over capital madehreat to cut off credit doing so would hurt public sector as much as Chaebol ● Post1987 Korea:transformed from autocracy to democracy ○ Increased demand for political payoffs for elections shifted advantages the business ○ Based on personal connections ○ Similar to USA but higher level ○ Lack of rule of law in 1990s Ross (’99 and ’08): ● Dutch diseasecombination of two elements ○ Having resources andgovernment getting money from them so not accountable to the people ■ Government can easily make money because resource provides all so government doesn’t have to do much so bad bureaucracy, discourages manufacturing. ○ Sell poor raw resource and buy expensive manufactured product ■ Become hugely dependent on one source so if price falls then economy falls ○ Combination of influx of foreign currency and increase demand of nontradable goods ■ Influx of foreign currency will raise real exchange rate so easier to import a. Will be generated by oil b. Cheaper to import than product c. Vicious cycle because don’t create things, only import and only focuses on one good, NO MANUFACTURING SECTOR ■ Wealth increases wilncrease demand for nontradable goods drawing labor from manufacturing sector a. Work in retail and services ○ Results ione resource crowding out other tradable goods and decreases manufacturing for nontradable ● Resource Curse and Women’s rights: ○ In Middle Eastwomen are underrepresented in labor and government ○ General explanatio lames Islam ○ Ross’s explanation says thil production affects gender rights because women are unable to join work force ○ Growth encourages women to participate thus have more equality ○ Gender inequality is seen in nations dependent on oil and mineral extraction ● Effect of female labor participation: ○ Higher education, health and income (selfconfidence) ○ Higher social ability and political participation ○ Effect of lowwage exportoriented industries a. Subset of social mobilization discussed by Fukuyama when you go to work you make new relations b. Textile industry provides jobs that are easier and oriented for women ● Oil Production’s Impact on Female Work: ○ Factors influencing women’s decision to work ■ Prevailing female wage ■ Unearned female wage and reservation wage ■ Calculation is money earned is worth it ■ Don’t need to earn money if government gives it to them ● Case Studies:Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia ○ ALL french colonies and have majority muslim population ○ After WWII, small amount of women groups ○ Algeria has highest oil rent and lowest women participation ○ Moroccos women’s rightwomen’s organizatiosince 1970s increasingly focused on labor rights; after 1992 reform, family relations and increasingly running for office since 2000s ○ Tunisiaemale held parliament seats rose f.7% in 1995 to 22.8% in 2000 Acemoglu and Robinson (’12): ● Indonesia:pice and genocide ○ Social structurpre16th century Moluccan Archipelago: ■ Divided in3 big kingdoms with supreme leader, center islands were a bunch of city states ■ LOCAL > NATIONAL ■ “Country of thousand islands” ■ Hard to have one centralized government to rule all islands. ■ Similar to Europe around this time ○ First Europeans in Indonesia eortuguesewanted to monopolize spice trade but failed because local markets were in and Portuguese didn’t have enough military power to force them. ○ Dutch arrived in 17th cenhey succeeded by going to northern, more centralized islands and many deals with ruler (masign exclusive agreements) ■ Forced others to NOT grow clove ■ Cut down any trees that grew clove ○ To get Banda’ace and nutmeg they killed the people who grew it and created Dutch Trading Companylike nation with military) ■ Genocide, adopting new slave system and imposed it ■ No central ruler in Banda ■ Slaves came from India ○ Impact: ■ Rise of price of these spices because supply decreased ■ Encouraged neighboring stato destroy ALL resources ■ REVERSED local commercial expansion ■ Deurbanizedand decreased population ■ Increased autocratic power of those rulers that made deals with Dutch ● Africaalltoousual institution (slavery was SUPER popular in history) ○ Slavery existed in Africa before Europe just not as harsh ○ Part of hierarchy, slaves were like family ○ Soar of slavery in Africa in 17th century: ■ Rise of international demand because Africa was the only susince European slavery ended and Latin America unable to supply ○ Who were the slaves: ■ Earlier came from Congo area because Dutch territory was under them ■ Lots of prisoners of war ○ Africa’s political institutions during this time: ■ Less centralizedmallscaled states and tribal systems ■ No structure of hierarchical political authority ○ Slave trade’s impact on political institutions: ■ Slave States: a. Europe gave guns for slaves which encouraged violence and conflict to make it easier to get slaves b. Absolutist states appearorganized around getting slaves ■ Destroyed order and legitimacn SubSaharan Africa ■ Elites and religion played part too a. Local religious leaders would bring in supporters and give them to slavery ■ Demographic fall ○ Postslave Tradetrade ended NOT SLAVERY ■ New international trend against slave trade ■ Slavery went fromexternal to internal a. Slaves didn’t go away just stayed in Africa and used to supply huge demand for “legitimate commerce” ■ Kidnapping begun, o contract given to people so still slaves ■ DELAYED INDUSTRIALIZATION a. Didn’t occur until after WWII and Cold War b. Slavebased extractive economy ● Dual Economy: ○ Arthur Lewisodern sector and traditional sector ○ People and resources more from traditional to modern ○ Ex: Natal 2 sides divided by Great Kei River (East = Modern; West = Traditional) ● South Africa: ○ Preapartheid: ■ Less affected by slave trade ■ Dutch settled a. Easier for Europeans to settle because less disease and there was mining ■ Boer Wars: British takeover in 19th century ○ Diamond and gold appear: ■ Impact on agriculture product(new agricultural development Ciskei and Transkei) ■ Increase of ownership of land and decrease of tribe influence ■ New farmer class appeared ■ European farmers were unhappy because they had new competition ○ Apartheid: ■ Native Land Act of 1913: a. Separate Europeanowned land and homeland b. Separation of social classes, labor force and education c. European job reservation system, property rights and voting rights ■ Impact: a. Huge inequality b. No motivation for majority of population making the economy fall in 1970s c. Extractive institution d. Impower tribe chiefs because got more control Huntington (‘90): ● What’s the 3rd wave? ○ 19741990: at least 30 nations are democratization ■ Rapid especially when USSR fell ■ No clear lineage trajectory to get democracy, there are lots set back ■ Huntington wants to see why some success while others don’t ○ 1st Wave: ■ 1820s1926: 29 democracies ■ After 1926 world saw rise of fascistart in Italy, spreads to Germany 1st reversal wave19261940s: 12 democracias) ■ Huntington has BASIC definition election and suffrage only ○ 2nd Wave: ■ Post WWII 1962: 36 democracies due to end of colonization and allied victory ■ 60s75s:2nd reversal, most due to coup because democracies not working(30 democracies) ● 5 major factors: 1. Decreased legitimacy of autocracies:increase of democratic values a. Need people to want to bring down regime 2. Economic growth of 60s: according to him, it is BIGGEST FACTOR a. Political transition zone: countrieiddleincome range b. Poverty is biggest challenge to democracy c. Who is next? China and South Asia; Algeria and Syria i. Syria’s transition was too violent and based on external d. Oil exporting countries are the biggest exceptions because have wealth, others need to have growth i. Easy to give people everything so no reason to change e. Resource curse are stuck in bottomincome because no secondary economy, no development or social change 3. Shift of doctrine and activities of Catholic Church a. 70s80s Catholic Wave: trend to push away from authoritarian to side with the people i. Most Catholic Countries democratize ii. Started with Spain and Portugal iii. Affected Latin America, Philippines, Eastern Europe b. Exception in 90s:countries that never saw democracy in Africahows that NOT all about Catholic 4. Changes in policies of external a. Cold War players: SA and USSR give incentive to democratize b. The EC’s effectto join EC countries had to democratize, Turkey, Spain and Portugal i. Will become EU ii. Big incentive for Spain and Portugal c. Withdrawal of Soviet Power: biggest factor for Eastern Europe that allowed them to move toward EC d. USA: i. During Cold War, increase dictatorships that were not communist a. Prior to 70s, dictator was a better ally ii. 70s80s: start to focus more on economy because it was growing in the world a. Make people think that democracy will help expand economy so USA begun to care about democracy iii. 90s: Huntington pointed out countries that USA should focus on (Mexico) 5. SNOWBALLING: d omino effect a. 1990 democratization in Eastern Europe b. This led to a huge impact on Arab world i. Autocrats saw what occurred to dictators in Eastern Europe so changed policies c. Is external environment enough? o because can’t produce what is necessary for country to become democracy, to succeed needs TO COME FROM WITHIN d. Who else was promoting for democracy? International organization had effect on democratization, needed to change to get aid i. Still to super effective because needs to be domestic political process to make base ii. Raise question on changes in aid to not help dictator but put conditions of democracy and accountability ● Personal dictatorship, military regime, 1party systardest to for democratization is 1party system because it is entrange in ALL levels of socilocal and national) also if party good at keeping country running well then no one will call for change ● Political leadership matters? ○ Economic development makes it possible but olitical development makes it real ■ In places like USA, economic downfall leads to more elections because legitimacy is in system, in any other get legitimacy from economy so if it falls then government system will fall too ○ Political elites need to think that d emocracy is best way to run country ■ If okay with how things are under autocracy the no change
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